List of rulers of Toungoo
This is a list of rulers of Taungoo, the predecessor principality of the Taungoo Dynasty of what is now Myanmar. The principality of Taungoo, at the edge of the realm of Upper Burma-based kingdoms, was a rebellion-prone vassal state. The region was ruled by hereditary viceroys as well as appointed governors, depending on the power of the high king at Pinya, and later Inwa (Ava). Many of the rulers of Taungoo were assassinated while in office, and a few others died in action, showing the frontier nature of the region. The high kings at Ava at times had only nominal control or no control in many stretches. After 1612, the office of viceroy at Taungoo became a mere appointed governorship as the Restored Taungoo kings abolished then existing hereditary viceroyships throughout the entire Irrawaddy valley.
The first recorded administration of the Taungoo region came in 1191 when King Sithu II appointed Ananda Thuriya, a son-in-law of his, to be governor of Kanba Myint (ကမ်းပါးမြင့်), a settlement on the Swa stream, a tributary of the Paunglaung, about 40 km north of present-day Taungoo. The first governor was succeeded by his son, Min Hla Saw, who in turn was succeeded by his son, Thawun Letya. According to the chronicle Toungoo Yazawin, Thawun Gyi and Thawun Nge, the two sons of Thawun Letya founded a new settlement near the present-day city of Taungoo, about 40 km south of Kanba Myint, in 1279. It was named Taungoo (တောင်ငူ, "Hill's Spur") because of its location by the hills.
|Name||Term From||Term Until||Relationship to predecessor(s)|
|Ananda Thuriya||1191||c. late 1220s||Appointed|
|Min Hla Saw||c. late 1220s||1250s||Son|
|No office holder (1256–79)|
List of rulersEdit
|Name||Term From||Term Until||Relationship to predecessor(s)||Notes|
|Thawun Gyi||17 April 1279||c. 23 June 1317||Son of Thawun Letya||Vassal of Pagan (1279–87); assassinated|
|Thawun Nge||c. 23 June 1317||1324||Brother||Independent (1317–18); Vassal of Pinya (1318–24)|
|Saw Hnit||1324||1325||Son||Vassal of Pinya; assassinated|
|Kayin Ba||1325||c. May 1342||No relations; usurper||Vassal of Pinya|
|Letya Sekkya||c. May 1342||c. May 1344||Son-in-law||Vassal of Pinya; assassinated|
|Htauk Hlayga||c. May 1344||c. January 1347||Brother; usurper||Vassal of Pinya; assassinated|
|Theingaba||c. January 1347||29 March 1367||No relations; usurper||Independent/in rebellion (1358–67)|
|Pyanchi I||29 March 1367||c. November 1375||Son||Vassal of Ava; assassinated|
|Ma Sein||c. November 1375||c. January 1376||Usurper||Vassal of Hanthawaddy Pegu; assassinated|
|Pyanchi II||c. January 1376||1379||Son of Pyanchi I||Vassal of Ava; assassinated|
|Sokkate||1379||1383||Brother-in-law||Vassal of Ava; assassinated|
|Phaungga||1383||1397||Usurper||Vassal of Ava|
|Saw Oo I||1397||1399||Son||Removed from office|
|Min Nemi||1399||1408/09||No relations, appointed|
|Letya Zeya Thingyan||1408/09||1411/12||Appointed||Moved to become governor of Pyinzi|
|Thinkhaya III||1420||1435||Appointed||Independent/in rebellion (1426–35)|
|Uzana||1435||1436||Son-in-law; Appointed||Independent/in rebellion; Vassal of Hanthawaddy; Removed from office by Binnya Ran I|
|Saw Oo II||1436||1440||Son of Thinkhaya III||Independent/in rebellion; killed in action|
|Tarabya||1440||2 January 1446||Appointed||Vassal of Ava|
|Minkhaung I||2 January 1446||c. February 1452||Son||Vassal of Ava; assassinated|
|Minye Kyawhtin||c. February 1452||c. February 1459||Usurper; son of Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa||Independent/in rebellion (1452–59); assassinated|
|Thiri Zeya Thura||c. April 1459||1466||Appointed||Removed from office|
|Letya Zala Thingyan||1466||1470||Appointed||Independent/in revolt (1470); deposed|
|Sithu Kyawhtin||1470||1481||Appointed||Vassal of Ava; died in action|
|Min Sithu||1481||c. April 1485||Son||Vassal of Ava; assassinated|
|Mingyi Nyo||c. April 1485||24 November 1530||Nephew||Declared independence from Ava in 1510|
|Tabinshwehti||24 November 1530||1540||Son||Moved seat of government to Bago (Pegu) in 1539|
|Mingyi Swe||1540||March 1549[note 1]||Appointed; father of Bayinnaung|
|Minkhaung II||March 1549||11 January 1551||Appointed||Independent/in rebellion (1550–51)|
|Bayinnaung||11 January 1551||12 March 1552||Elder brother|
|Minkhaung II||6 June 1552||June 1584||Younger brother; re-appointed|
|Minye Thihathu II||June 1584||11 August 1609||Son||Independent/in rebellion (1597–1609)|
|Natshinnaung||11 August 1609||August 1612||Son; appointed 1610–12||Independent/in rebellion (1609–10)|
- (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 236): He died in year 910 ME after having participated in the 1548–1549 Siamese campaign. Since Tabinshwehti arrived back at Pegu on 1 March 1549 (3rd waxing of Late Tagu 910 ME) per (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 232), Mingyi Swe died during the remaining weeks of 910 ME, which ended on 29 March 1549.
- Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 10–13
- Lieberman 2003: 161–162
- Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 15
- (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 31): 5th waxing of Tabodwe 807 ME = 2 January 1446
- (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 257): Sunday, 3rd waxing of Tabodwe 912 ME = 11 January 1551.
- Thaw Kaung 2010: 107
- (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 269): 14th waxing Waso 914 ME = 6 June 1552
- (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 269): Waso 946 ME = 8 June 1584 to 6 July 1584
- (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 320): Wagaung 974 ME = 29 July 1612 to 27 August 1612
- Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7.
- Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1829–1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information (Myanmar).
- Sein Lwin Lay, Kahtika U (2006). Mintaya Shwe Hti and Bayinnaung: Ketumadi Taungoo Yazawin (in Burmese) (2nd printing ed.). Yangon: Yan Aung Sarpay.
- Thaw Kaung, U (2010). Aspects of Myanmar History and Culture. Yangon: Gangaw Myaing.