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|Ab urbe condita||2094|
|Balinese saka calendar||1262–1263|
|English Regnal year||14 Edw. 3 – 15 Edw. 3|
|Chinese calendar||庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)|
4037 or 3977
— to —
辛巳年 (Metal Snake)
4038 or 3978
|- Vikram Samvat||1397–1398|
|- Shaka Samvat||1262–1263|
|- Kali Yuga||4441–4442|
|Japanese calendar||Ryakuō 4|
|Minguo calendar||571 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1883–1884|
1467 or 1086 or 314
— to —
1468 or 1087 or 315
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1341.|
- January 1 – An earthquake with a magnitude of 6.0 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe) affects Crimea.
- January 18 – The Queen's College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England, is founded.
- April 8 – Petrarch is crowned poet laureate in Rome, the first man since antiquity to be given this honor.
- September – October: The Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347 (between John VI Kantakouzenos and the regency for the infant John V Palaiologos) breaks out.
- The Breton War of Succession begins, over the control of the Duchy of Brittany.
- Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, expels her husband John Henry of Bohemia, to whom she had been married as a child. She subsequently marries Louis of Bavaria without having been divorced, which results in the excommunication of the couple.
- Tbilisi becomes a capital of European Christian Cathedra, after the city of Smirna. George V (the Brilliant) returns Jerusalem and the Grave of Christ from the Muslims.
- Saluzzo is sacked by Manfred V of Saluzzo.
- Casimir III of Poland builds a masonry castle in Lublin, and encircles the city with defensive walls.
- Chinese poet Zhang Xian writes the Iron Cannon Affair, about the destructive use of gunpowder and the cannon.
- The sultan of Delhi chooses Ibn Battuta, to lead a diplomatic mission to Yuan Dynasty China.
- The great flood in the river Periyar in modern-day southern India leads to the river changing its course, the closing of Muziris, the opening up of Cochin (Kochi) harbour, submersion of some islands, and birth of some new islands.
- June 5 – Edmund of Langley, son of King Edward III of England (d. 1402)
- September 1 – Frederick III the Simple, King of Sicily (d. 1377)
- November 10 – Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, English statesman (d. 1408)
- date unknown
- January 22 – Louis I, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1279)
- March 2 or October 3 – Martha of Denmark, queen consort of Sweden (b. 1277)
- April 30 – John III, Duke of Brittany (b. 1286)
- June – Al-Nasir Muhammad, Sultan of Egypt (b. 1295)
- June 19 – Juliana Falconieri, Italian saint (b. 1270)
- June 15 – Andronikos III Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1297)
- August 9 – Eleanor of Anjou, queen consort of Sicily (b. 1289)
- August 28 – King Levon IV of Armenia (murdered) (b. 1309)
- December – Gediminas, Duke of Lithuania
- December 4 – Janisław I, Archbishop of Gniezno
- date unknown
- probable – Richard Folville, English outlaw and parson (resisting arrest)