Year 1356 (MCCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
|Ab urbe condita||2109|
|Balinese saka calendar||1277–1278|
|English Regnal year||29 Edw. 3 – 30 Edw. 3|
|Chinese calendar||乙未年 (Wood Goat)|
4052 or 3992
— to —
丙申年 (Fire Monkey)
4053 or 3993
|- Vikram Samvat||1412–1413|
|- Shaka Samvat||1277–1278|
|- Kali Yuga||4456–4457|
|Japanese calendar||Bunna 5 / Enbun 1|
|Minguo calendar||556 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1898–1899|
1482 or 1101 or 329
— to —
1483 or 1102 or 330
- January 20 – Edward Balliol surrenders his title as King of Scotland, to Edward III of England.
- ca. February – Burnt Candlemas: Edward III of England burns down every town and village in Lothian, Scotland.
- September 19 – Hundred Years' War – Battle of Poitiers: The English, commanded by Edward, the Black Prince, defeat the French, capturing King John II of France.
- October 17 – Erik XII proclaims himself king of Sweden, in opposition to his father, King Magnus IV. Thus begins a civil war in Sweden between father and son, which will last until Erik's death in 1359.
- October 18 (St Luke's Day) – The Basel earthquake affects northern Switzerland, with a maximum MSK intensity of IX–X (Destructive–Devastating), leaving around 1,000 dead.
- December 25 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, promulgates the Golden Bull, a constitution for his empire.
- The Hanseatic League, a trading alliance between many cities in northern Europe, first meets.
- Ghazan II replaces Anushirwan as ruler of the Ilkhanate in Persia.
- Zhu Yuanzhang, one of the leaders in the Red Turban Rebellion, captures the city of Nanjing from the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty in China; from then on it becomes his base of power, and the capital of a new dynasty he will establish in 1368, the Ming dynasty.
- The city of Lwów is granted Magdeburg rights by Casimir III of Poland.
- The majority of the Great Pyramid of Giza's limestone casing stones are removed by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan, to build fortresses and mosques in the nearby city of Cairo, leaving the first of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in the step-stone condition in which it remains into modern times.
- The Castelvecchio Bridge in Verona is probably completed this year; its main span of 48.7 m (160 ft) is the world's longest arch at this time.
- July 29 – Martin of Aragon (d. 1410)
- date unknown
- Ingegerd Knutsdotter, Swedish abbess (d. 1412)
- Robert IV of Artois, Count of Eu (d. 1387)
- June 23 – Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut (b. 1311)
- September 19 (killed at the Battle of Poitiers):
- Peter I, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1311)
- Walter VI, Count of Brienne, Constable of France (b. 1304)
- date unknown
- Harihara I, founder of the Vijayanagara Empire
- Zheng Yunduan, Chinese poet (b. c. 1327)