The 1360s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1360, and ended on December 31, 1369.
- October 24 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War. Under its terms, Edward III gives up his claim to the French throne, and releases King John II of France, in return for French land, including Calais and Gascony.
- King Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark reconquers Scania, which has been in Swedish possession since 1332.
- Shah Shuja regains rule of the Muzaffarid tribe in Persia, after the death of his brother, Shah Mahmud.
- Nawruz Beg overthrows his brother Qulpa, as Khan of the Blue Horde.
- Muhammed VI overthrows his brother-in-law, Ismail II, as King of Granada (in present-day Spain); he is in turn overthrown this same year by the former king, Muhammed V.
- Dmitri Konstantinovich is installed as ruler of Vladimir (now in eastern Russia), by the Khan of the White Horde.
- March 17 – An-Nasir Hasan, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, is killed by one of his own mamluks, Yalbugha al-Umari, who, with the senior Mamluk emirs, has al-Mansur Muhammad installed as the new sultan.
- April 13 – The University of Pavia is founded, on the Italian Peninsula.
- July 27 – Battle of Visby: King Valdemar IV of Denmark conquers the city of Visby by defeating his peasant army. This allows Lübeck to become the new leading city of the Hanseatic League.
- October 10 – Edward, the Black Prince marries Joan of Kent.
- In the Marinid Empire in modern-day Morocco, Abu Salim Ibrahim is overthrown by Abu Umar, who is in turn overthrown by Abu Zayyan.
- The Blue Horde descends into anarchy. Between 1361 and 1378, over 20 khans succeed each other in different parts of the Blue Horde's territory.
- Chinese rebels capture the Goryeo capital.
- The earliest known musical keyboard instrument is built, with the layout of black and white keys that has since become standard.
- January 1 – The Grand Duchy of Lithuania switches New Year to January 1, before any other country does.
- January 16 – The "Grote Mandrenke" storm tide strikes the Netherlands, England, Germany and Denmark, destroying the Danish settlement of Rungholt in the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Humber estuary port of Ravenser Odd in England. The East Frisian island of Buise is broken into two by North Sea floods.
- February 15 – King Haakon VI of Norway, son of Magnus IV of Sweden, proclaims himself king of Sweden in opposition to his father. However, later during the year, father and son are reconciled, and rule Sweden together.
- April – Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada, returns to the throne after the murder of the usurper Muhammed VI.
- April 6 – Battle of Brignais: The Free Companies defeat a French army.
- April 6 – A fire destroys much of St Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin.
- April 17 – Kaunas Castle falls to the Teutonic Order, after a month-long siege.
- June – Under the terms of the will of Sir John de Wingfield (died 1361), the church of St. Andrew and a college of priests are founded in Wingfield, Suffolk, England.
- June 22 – An alliance is formed between England and Castile.
- September 28 – Pope Urban V succeeds Pope Innocent VI, as the 200th pope.
- October 13 – The Chancellor of England, for the first time, opens Parliament with a speech in English. Under Edward III of England, the Pleading in English Act makes English rather than Law French the official language in law courts.
- November – Lionel of Antwerp, son of King Edward III of England, is created Duke of Clarence.
- December 21 – Constantine IV succeeds his cousin, Constantine III, as King of Armenia.
- Autumn 1362 or 1363 – Battle of Blue Waters: Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas defeats the Tatars, and takes over Kiev.
- Louis I of Hungary defeats and captures Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria, and conquers northern Bulgaria, extending his control over the Balkans.
- The Ottomans capture Philippopolis and Adrianopole (the modern-day city of Edirne) from the Byzantine Empire, reducing its territory to the city of Constantinople, part of the Peloponessus, and some islands.
- Murad I succeeds his father Orhan, as sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- Valdemar IV of Denmark defeats the Hanseatic League, in the naval Battle of Helsingborg.
- Shahabuddin succeeds his brother, Alauddin Ali Sher, as Sultan of Kashmir.
- The Öræfajökull volcano erupts in Iceland, resulting in the destruction of the district of Litlahérað by flood and tephra fall.
- The English Hospice of the Most Holy Trinity and St Thomas is founded in Rome. It goes on to become the English College, a centre for training English priests in Rome.
- Purported date of the inscription of the Kensington Runestone, at Solem, Minnesota.
- April 9 – Haakon VI of Norway marries Margaret I of Denmark.
- August – The Revolt of Saint Titus, against the rule of the Republic of Venice in the Kingdom of Candia (island of Crete), begins.
- August 30–October 4 – Battle of Lake Poyang: The Dahan rebel forces of Chen Youliang are defeated by the Red Turban Rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang, during the final decade of Yuan Dynasty control over China. Zhu's naval forces of 200,000 are pitted against Chen's naval forces of 650,000 troops, in what is not only the largest naval battle of the medieval age, but also one of the largest naval battles in history.
- Byzantine–Ottoman wars
- Dmitry Donskoy, Prince of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, dethrones Dmitry of Suzdal to become Grand Prince of Vladimir.
- Philip the Bold becomes duke of Burgundy.
- Al-Afdal al-Abbas succeeds Al-Mujahid Ali as Rasulid Sultan of Yemen.
- The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is completed in Cairo, Egypt.
- February 15 – Joint kings Magnus Eriksson and Haakon Magnusson of Sweden are both deposed by noblemen, who instead elect Magnus's nephew Albrekt of Mecklenburg the new king of Sweden.
- February 20 – David II of Scotland marries Margaret Drummond.
- April 8 – Charles V becomes King of France.
- May 12 – The Jagiellonian University is founded in Kraków.
- July 28 – Battle of Cascina: Forces of the Republic of Florence, led by Galeotto Malatesta, defeat those of Pisa.
- 6 August – Ignatius Saba I becomes the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Tur Abdin.
- September 10 – Philip of Anjou becomes Titular Emperor of Constantinople and Prince of Taranto.
- September 29 – Battle of Auray: The Breton War of Succession ends, with the victory of the House of Montfort over Charles of Blois.
- Vladislav I (also known as Vlaicu-Vodă) becomes voivode of Wallachia.
- Bogdana Monastery is built in Moldavia.
- Rana Kshetra Singh succeeds Rana Hamir Singh, as ruler of Mewar (part of modern-day western India).
- Anavema Reddy succeeds Anavota Reddy, as ruler of the Reddy Dynasty in Andhra Pradesh (part of modern-day southern India).
- The Kingdom of Ava is established by Thado Minbya in modern-day northern Burma. Some chronicles and sources however date the event in 1365.
- March 3 – Battle of Gataskogen: Albert of Mecklenburg defeats and captures Magnus Eriksson, obtaining the throne of Sweden.
- March 12 – The University of Vienna is founded.
- June 2 – The Hungarian occupation of Vidin begins with the capture of the city by Louis I of Hungary's forces and the imprisonment of Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria.
- October – Alexandrian Crusade: The city of Alexandria in Egypt is sacked by an allied force of Peter I of Cyprus and the knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
- November 30 – The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese eulogy chronicling the journey of the Majapahit king, Hayam Wuruk, through his kingdom, is completed by Mpu Prapanca.
- Adrianopole (modern-day Edirne) becomes the capital city of the Ottoman Sultanate.
- In modern-day southern India, Bahmani Sultan Mohammed Shah I invades the Vijayanagara Empire.
- The Sukhothai Kingdom in northern Thailand becomes a tributary state of the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
- March 13 – Henry II deposes his half-brother, Pedro of Castile, to become King of Castile.
- October 12 – Frederick III of Sicily forbids decorations on synagogues.
- October 26 – Comet 55P/Tempel–Tuttle passes 0.0229 AU (3,430,000 km; 2,130,000 mi) from Earth.
- Thomas Fraser obtains lands in Aberdeenshire, upon which he starts the building of a towerhouse, that will later be known as Muchalls Castle.
- Muhammed V builds the Granada Hospital in Granada (in present-day Spain).
- War continues between the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire and the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate in present-day southern India. Tens of thousands of civilians are massacred by each side.
- Dmitri Donskoi, ruler of Moscow and Vladimir, makes peace with Dmitri Konstantinovich, former ruler of Vladimir.
- Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz I of Morocco succeeds assassinated Abu Zayyan, as Sultan of the Marinid Empire in Morocco.
- The Den Hoorn brewery is founded at Leuven in the Low Countries. In 1708 this would be renamed the Brouwerij Artois, and later releases a beer named Stella Artois.
- The Statutes of Kilkenny are passed in Ireland.
- Zhu Yuanzhang, leader of the Red Turban Rebellion that will overthrow the Yuan Dynasty, and establish the Ming Dynasty two years later, begins building the walls for a new capital city at Nanjing.
- January 18 – Ferdinand I becomes King of Portugal after the death of his father, Peter I.
- April 3 – Battle of Nájera: Pedro of Castile is restored as King of Castile (in modern-day Spain) after defeating his half-brother, Henry II. Pedro is aided in the battle by the English under Edward, the Black Prince, and Henry by the French.
- April 24 – Otto I, "the Evil", becomes Duke of the independent city of Göttingen (in modern-day Germany) on the death of his father, Ernst I.
- October 16 – Pope Urban V makes the first attempt to move the Papacy back to Rome from Avignon. This move is reversed in 1370, when he is forced to return to Avignon, and shortly afterwards dies.
- Winter – Construction of a stone Moscow Kremlin Wall around the city is begun to resist invasion by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- End – Petru I succeeds his grandfather Bogdan I as voivode (ruler) of Moldavia.
- Undated – The first university in Pécs, Hungary, is founded by King Louis I.
- January 23 – The Hongwu Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhang) establishes the Ming Dynasty in China, after the disintegration of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. He immediately orders every county magistrate to set up four granaries, and halts government taxation on books.
- March 29 – Emperor Chōkei accedes to the throne of Japan.
- The Revolt of Saint Titus against rule of the Republic of Venice in the Kingdom of Candia (island of Crete) ends in failure.
- Durrës, the second-largest city in modern-day Albania (at this time known as Dyrrhachium), is captured from the Angevins by Karl Thopia, a powerful feudal prince and warlord.
- Lațcu, son of Bogdan I, deposes his nephew Petru I, and becomes voivode of Moldavia.
- Timur ascends the throne of Samarkand (in modern-day Uzbekistan).
- Maha Thammaracha II becomes ruler of the Sukhothai Kingdom (in modern-day northern Thailand) after the death of Maha Thammaracha I.
- Work begins on the surviving Great Wall of China.
- Mikhail Aleksandrovich becomes the sole ruler of Tver (in modern-day western Russia), after the death of co-ruler and rival Vasiliy Mikhailovich of Kashin.
- Moscow attacks Tver, which counter-attacks with the aid of Lithuania and the Blue Horde.
- The King of Norway sends the last Royal Ship from Norway, to the Greenland Eastern Settlement. This event is part of both the Norse colonization of the Americas, and of the History of Greenland.
- A peace treaty is signed between Norway and the Hanseatic League.
- The Bibliothèque nationale de France (National Library of France) is founded as the Royal Library at the Louvre Palace in Paris, by Charles V of France.
- Petrarch concludes writing the sequence of Italian sonnets and other poems known as Il Canzoniere.
- February – Vladislav I of Wallachia liberates Vidin from the Hungarians, resulting in the restoration of Ivan Sratsimir on the throne of Bulgaria, in the autumn.
- March 14 – Battle of Montiel: Pedro of Castile loses to an alliance between the French and his half-brother, Henry II.
- May – King Charles V of France renounces the Treaty of Brétigny, and war is declared between France and England.
- September – Hundred Years' War: The French burn Portsmouth, England; the English raid Picardy and Normandy.
- November 30 – Hundred Years' War: Charles V of France recaptures most of Aquitaine from the English.
- December – Financed by Charles V of France, Welshman Owain Lawgoch launches an invasion fleet against the English, in an attempt to claim the throne of Wales. A storm causes Owain to abandon the invasion.
- The Ottoman Empire invades Bulgaria.
- Venice repels a Hungarian invasion.
- The Thai Ayutthaya Kingdom conquers Cambodia for a second time.
- Charles V of France orders Hugues Aubriot to construct the fortress of the Bastille in Paris.
- Timur names the city of Samarkand as the capital of his empire.
- Košice becomes the first town in Europe to be granted its own coat of arms.
- The Hongwu Emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty issues a decree ordering every country magistrate in the empire to open a Confucian school of learning.
- The official production of Jingdezhen porcelain in Ming dynasty China is on record.
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- January 8 – Ulrich von Jungingen, German Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (d. 1410)
- March 31 – Philippa of Lancaster, queen consort of Portugal (d. 1415)
- May 2 – Chu Ti, Yongle Emperor of China (d. 1424)
- June 24 – Nuno Álvares Pereira, Portuguese general (d. 1431)
- August 10 – Francesco Zabarella, Italian jurist (d. 1417)
- date unknown
- Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy (d. 1391)
- Bayezid I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire (d. 1403)
- Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Italian banker, founder of the Medici dynasty of Florence (d. 1429)
- Yi Jong Mu, Korean general (d. 1425)
- Andrei Rublev, Russian painter (d. 1430)
- Stanislaw of Skarbimierz, Polish religious writer (d. 1431)
- February 26 – Wenceslaus, King of the Romans, King of Bohemia (d. 1419)
- date unknown
- January 16 – Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland (d. 1392)
- date unknown – Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany (d. 1425)
- Empress Xu (Ming dynasty) of China (d. 1407)
- probable – Wang Fu, Chinese painter (d. 1416)
- July 2 – Maria, Queen of Sicily (d. 1401)
- December 13 – Jean Gerson, chancellor of the University of Paris (d. 1429)
- date unknown
- probable – Zeami Motokiyo, Japanese actor and playwright (d. 1443)
- November 30 – John FitzAlan, 2nd Baron Arundel, English soldier (d. 1390)
- December 16 – Emperor Manuel III of Trebizond (d. 1417)
- date unknown
- January 27 – Edward of Angoulême, French-born royal prince of England (d. 1370)
- July 25 – U of Goryeo, Korean king (d. 1389)
- date unknown – Abd al-Karīm al-Jīlī, Baghdadi Sufi author (d. 1424)
- approximate date – Violant of Bar, queen regent of Aragon (d. 1431)
- May 11 – Anne of Bohemia, queen of Richard II of England (d. 1394)
- August 28 – Jean Le Maingre, marshal of France (d. 1421)
- date unknown
- January 6 – King Richard II of England (d. 1400)
- March 22 or 1368 – Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, English politician (d. 1399)
- June 13 – King Taejong of Joseon, Korean king (d. 1422)
- date unknown – Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, English politician (d. 1415)
- probable – Mary of Enghien, queen consort of Naples (d. 1446)
- February 14 – Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1437)
- December 3 – King Charles VI of France (d. 1422)
- May 28th – Muzio Sforza, Italian condottiero (d. 1424)
- date unknown – William de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros, Lord Treasurer of England (d. 1414)
- probable – King Constantine I of Georgia (d. c. 1412)
- approximate – Jan Hus, Czech priest and philosopher (d. 1415)
- approximate – Margareta, Swedish Sami missionary (d. 1425)
- February 26 – Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, English military leader (b. 1328)
- September 16 – William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (b. 1319)
- September 29 – Joanna I of Auvergne, queen consort of France (b. 1326)
- November 4 – Elizabeth de Clare, English noblewoman (b. 1295)
- December 26 – Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent
- date unknown
- January 7 – Gerlach I of Nassau-Wiesbaden
- March 17 – An-Nasir Hasan, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt (b. 1334/35)
- March 23 – Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster, English soldier and diplomat
- May 21 – Orhan Ghazi, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1274)
- June 9 – Philippe de Vitry, French composer (b. 1291)
- June 15 – Johannes Tauler, German mystic theologian
- June 17 – Ingeborg of Norway, princess consort and regent of Sweden (b. 1301)
- September 18 – Louis V, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1315)
- October 4 – John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray, English baron (b. 1310)
- October 8 – John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp, Warden of the Cinque Ports
- November 21 – Philip I, Duke of Burgundy (plague) (b. 1346)
- date unknown
- March – Orhan, Ottoman sultan (b. 1281)
- April 6 – James I, Count of La Marche, French soldier (b. 1319)
- April 10 – Maud, Countess of Leicester (b. 1339)
- May 26 – Louis of Taranto (b. 1320)
- July 11 – Anna von Schweidnitz, empress of Charles IV (b. 1339) (childbirth)
- July 22 – Louis of Durazzo, Italian soldier (poisoned) (b. 1324)
- September 7 – Joan of The Tower, Queen consort of king David II of Scotland (b. 1321)
- September 12 – Pope Innocent VI (b. 1282 or 1295)
- December 10 – Frederick III, Duke of Austria, second son of Duke Albert II of Austria (b. 1347)
- December 21 – Constantine III, King of Armenia (b. 1313)
- date unknown – Emperor John of Trebizond
- January 13 – Meinhard III, Count of Tyrol
- March 3 – Simone Boccanegra, first doge of Genoa (approximate date)
- c. April – Blanche of Namur, queen consort of Sweden (b. 1320)
- July 29 – John Bardolf, 3rd Baron Bardolf (b. 1314)
- August 23 – Chen Youliang, founder of the Dahan regime (b. 1320)
- October 7 – Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Ormonde (b. 1304)
- date unknown
- probable – Ranulf Higdon, English chronicler (b. c. 1299)
- April 8 – King John II of France (b. 1319)
- June 19 – Elisenda of Montcada, queen consort and regent of Aragon (b. 1292)
- June 30 – Arnošt of Pardubice, Archbishop of Prague (b. 1297)
- August 5 – Emperor Kōgon of Japan (b. 1313)
- September 10 – Robert of Taranto
- September 29 – Charles I, Duke of Brittany (b. 1319)
- date unknown
- March 8 – Queen Noguk of Korea
- May 17 – Louis VI the Roman, Duke of Bavaria and Elector of Brandenburg (b. 1328)
- July 27 – Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (b. 1339)
- December 8 – Nicholas II, Duke of Opava (b. 1288)
- date unknown – Zhu Derun, Chinese painter and poet (b. 1294)
- January 25 – Henry Suso, German mystic (b. c. 1295)
- April 26 – Simon Islip, Archbishop of Canterbury
- May 20 – Maria of Calabria, Empress of Constantinople (b. 1329)
- Summer – Ming Yuzhen, founder of the rebel empire of Daxia (b. 1331)
- October 14 – Ibn Nubata, Arab poet (b. 1287)
- October 18 – Petrus Torkilsson, Archbishop of Uppsala
- January 9 – Giulia della Rena, Italian saint (b. 1319)
- January 18 – King Peter I of Portugal (b. 1320)
- April 13 – John Tiptoft, 2nd Baron Tibetot (b. 1313)
- August 23 – Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz, Spanish cardinal (b. 1310)
- September 25 – Jakushitsu Genkō, Japanese poet (b. 1290)
- December 28 – Ashikaga Yoshiakira, Japanese shōgun (b. 1330)
- date unknown
- March 29 – Emperor Go-Murakami of Japan (b. 1328)
- August 25 – Andrea Orcagna, Italian painter, sculptor and architect
- September 12 – Blanche of Lancaster, English duchess, spouse of John of Gaunt (b. 1345)
- October 7 – Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, son of Edward III of England (b. 1338)
- undated – Maha Thammaracha I, Thai ruler of the Sukhothai Kingdom and Buddhist philosopher (b. c.1300)
- probable – Ibn Battuta, Arabian traveler
- January 17 – King Peter I of Cyprus (murdered) (b. 1328)
- March 23 – King Peter of Castile (b. 1334) (murdered after the battle of Montiel)
- August 15 – Philippa of Hainault, queen of Edward III of England (b. 1311) (dropsy)
- October 3 – Margaret, Countess of Tyrol (b. 1318)
- November 13 – Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick
- date unknown
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