The 1360s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1360, and ended on December 31, 1369.
- October 24 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War. Under its terms, Edward III gives up his claim to the French throne, and releases King John II of France, in return for French land, including Calais and Gascony.
- King Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark reconquers Scania, which has been in Swedish possession since 1332.
- Shah Shuja regains rule of the Muzaffarid tribe in Persia, after the death of his brother, Shah Mahmud.
- Nawruz Beg overthrows his brother Qulpa, as Khan of the Blue Horde.
- Muhammed VI overthrows his brother-in-law, Ismail II, as King of Granada (in present-day Spain); he is in turn overthrown this same year by the former king, Muhammed V.
- Dmitri Konstantinovich is installed as ruler of Vladimir (now in eastern Russia), by the Khan of the White Horde.
- March 17 – An-Nasir Hasan, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, is killed by one of his own mamluks, Yalbugha al-Umari, who, with the senior Mamluk emirs, has al-Mansur Muhammad installed as the new sultan.
- April 13 – The University of Pavia is founded, on the Italian Peninsula.
- July 27 – Battle of Visby: King Valdemar IV of Denmark defeats a peasant army.
- October 10 – Edward, the Black Prince marries Joan of Kent.
- In the Marinid Empire in modern-day Morocco, Abu Salim Ibrahim is overthrown by Abu Umar, who is in turn overthrown by Abu Zayyan.
- The Blue Horde descends into anarchy. Between 1361 and 1378, over 20 khans succeed each other in different parts of the Blue Horde's territory.
- Chinese rebels capture the Goryeo capital.
- Earliest known musical keyboard instrument built with the layout of black and white keys that has since become standard.
- January 1 – The Grand Duchy of Lithuania switches New Year to January 1 before any other country does.
- January 16 – The "Grote Mandrenke" storm tide strikes the Netherlands, England, Germany and Denmark, destroying the Danish settlement of Rungholt in the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Humber estuary port of Ravenser Odd in England. The East Frisian island of Buise is broken into two by North Sea floods.
- February 15 – King Haakon VI of Norway, son of Magnus IV of Sweden, proclaims himself king of Sweden in opposition to his father. However, later during the year, father and son are reconciled, and rule Sweden together.
- April – Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada, returns to the throne after the murder of the usurper Muhammed VI.
- April 6 – Battle of Brignais: The Free Companies defeat a French army.
- April 6 – A fire destroys much of St Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin.
- April 17 – Kaunas Castle falls to the Teutonic Order, after a month-long siege.
- June – Under the terms of the will of Sir John de Wingfield (died 1361), the church of St. Andrew and a college of priests are founded in Wingfield, Suffolk, England.
- June 22 – An alliance is formed between England and Castile.
- September 28 – Pope Urban V succeeds Pope Innocent VI, as the 200th pope.
- October 13 – The Chancellor of England, for the first time, opens Parliament with a speech in English. Under Edward III of England, the Pleading in English Act makes English rather than Law French the official language in law courts.
- November – Lionel of Antwerp, son of King Edward III of England, is created Duke of Clarence.
- December 21 – Constantine IV succeeds his cousin, Constantine III, as King of Armenia.
- Autumn 1362 or 1363 – Battle of Blue Waters: Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas defeats the Tatars, and takes over Kiev.
- Louis I of Hungary defeats and captures Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria, and conquers northern Bulgaria, extending his control over the Balkans.
- The Ottomans capture Philippopolis and Adrianopole (the modern-day city of Edirne) from the Byzantine Empire, reducing its territory to the city of Constantinople, part of the Peloponessus, and some islands.
- Valdemar IV of Denmark defeats the Hanseatic League, in the naval Battle of Helsingborg.
- Shahabuddin succeeds his brother, Alauddin Ali Sher, as Sultan of Kashmir.
- The Öræfajökull volcano erupts in Iceland, resulting in the destruction of the district of Litlahérað by flood and tephra fall.
- The English Hospice of the Most Holy Trinity and St Thomas is founded in Rome. It goes on to become the English College, a centre for training English priests in Rome.
- Purported date of the inscription of the Kensington Runestone, at Solem, Minnesota.
- April 9 – Haakon VI of Norway marries Margaret I of Denmark.
- August 30–October 4 – Battle of Lake Poyang: The Dahan rebel forces of Chen Youliang are defeated by the Red Turban Rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang, during the final decade of Yuan Dynasty control over China. Zhu's naval forces of 200,000 are pitted against Chen's naval forces of 650,000 troops, in what is not only the largest naval battle of the medieval age, but also one of the largest naval battles in history.
- Magnus IV, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg.
- Philip the Bold becomes duke of Burgundy.
- The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is completed in Cairo, Egypt.
- Al-Afdal al-Abbas succeeds Al-Mujahid Ali, as Rasulid Sultan of Yemen.
- The Byzantine Empire wins a naval battle over the Ottoman Empire near Megara, Greece.
- Bosnian nobles revolt against the occupying Serbs.
- An uprising occurs against the Venetian rulers in Crete.
- Dmitri Donskoi, ruler of Moscow, dethrones Dmitri Konstantinovich as ruler of Vladimir.
- February 15 – Joint kings Magnus Eriksson and Haakon Magnusson of Sweden are both deposed by noblemen, who instead elect Magnus's nephew Albrekt of Mecklenburg the new king of Sweden.
- April 8 – Charles V becomes King of France.
- May 12 – The Jagiellonian University is founded in Kraków.
- July 28 – Battle of Cascina: Forces of the Republic of Florence, led by Galeotto Malatesta, defeat those of Pisa.
- September 10 – Philip of Anjou becomes Titular Emperor of Constantinople and Prince of Taranto.
- September 29 – Battle of Auray: The Breton War of Succession ends, with the victory of the House of Montfort over Charles of Blois.
- Vladislav I (also known as Vlaicu-Vodă) becomes voivode of Wallachia.
- Bogdana Monastery is built in Moldavia.
- Rana Kshetra Singh succeeds Rana Hamir Singh, as ruler of Mewar (part of modern-day western India).
- Anavema Reddy succeeds Anavota Reddy, as ruler of the Reddy Dynasty in Andhra Pradesh (part of modern-day southern India).
- The Ava Dynasty establishes rule in modern-day northern Burma.
- March 3 – Battle of Gataskogen: Albert of Mecklenburg defeats and captures Magnus Eriksson, obtaining the throne of Sweden.
- March 12 – The University of Vienna is founded.
- June 2 – The Hungarian occupation of Vidin begins, with the capture of the city by Louis I of Hungary's forces, and the imprisonment of Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria.
- October – Alexandrian Crusade: The city of Alexandria in Egypt is sacked by an allied force of Peter I of Cyprus, and the knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
- November 30 – The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem chronicling the journey of the Majapahit king, Hayam Wuruk, through his kingdom, is completed by Mpu Prapanca.
- Adrianopole (now Edirne) becomes the capital city of the Ottoman Empire.
- A revolt against the Venetian rulers in Crete fails.
- In present-day southern India, Bahmani Sultan Mohammed Shah I invades the Vijayanagara Empire.
- The Sukhothai Kingdom in northern Thailand becomes a tributary state of the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
- Thomas Fraser obtains lands in Aberdeenshire, upon which he starts the building of a towerhouse, that will later be known as Muchalls Castle.
- Henry II deposes his half-brother, Pedro of Castile, to become King of Castile.
- Muhammed V builds the Granada Hospital in Granada (in present-day Spain).
- War continues between the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire and the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate in present-day southern India. Tens of thousands of civilians are massacred by each side.
- Dmitri Donskoi, ruler of Moscow and Vladimir, makes peace with Dmitri Konstantinovich, former ruler of Vladimir.
- Abu Faris Abdul Aziz succeeds assassinated Abu Zayyan, as Sultan of the Marinid Empire in Morocco.
- The Den Hoorn brewery is founded at Leuven in the Low Countries. In 1708 this would be renamed the Brouwerij Artois, and later released a beer named Stella Artois.
- The Statutes of Kilkenny are passed in Ireland.
- Zhu Yuanzhang, leader of the Red Turban Rebellion that will overthrow the Yuan Dynasty, and establish the Ming Dynasty two years later, begins building the walls for a new capital city at Nanjing.
- January 18 – Ferdinand I becomes King of Portugal, after the death of his father, Peter I.
- April 3 – Battle of Nájera: Pedro of Castile is restored as King of Castile (now in Spain) after defeating his half-brother, Henry II. Pedro is aided in the battle by the English under Edward, the Black Prince, and Henry by the French.
- October 16 – Pope Urban V makes the first attempt to move the Papacy back to Rome from Avignon. This move is reversed in 1370, when he is forced to return to Avignon, and shortly afterwards dies.
- Charles V creates the first royal library in France.
- Otto I, "the Evil", becomes Duke of the independent city of Göttingen (now in Germany) after the death of his father, Ernst I.
- A stone Kremlin Wall is built around Moscow, to resist invasion by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- A university is founded in Pécs Hungary (not to be confused with the present University of Pécs, which was founded in 1921).
- Petru I succeeds his grandfather Bogdan I, as ruler of Moldavia.
- January 23 – The Hongwu Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhang) establishes the Ming Dynasty in China, after the disintegration of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. He immediately orders every county magistrate to set up four granaries, and halts government taxation on books.
- March 29 – Emperor Chōkei accedes to the throne of Japan.
- Durrës, the second-largest city in present-day Albania (and then known as Dyrrhachium), is captured from the Angevins by Karl Thopia, a powerful feudal prince and warlord.
- Lațcu, son of Bogdan I, deposes his nephew Petru I, and becomes voivode of Moldavia.
- Timur ascends the throne of Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan).
- Work begins on the current Great Wall of China.
- Mikhail Aleksandrovich becomes the sole ruler of Tver (now in western Russia), after the death of co-ruler and rival Vasiliy Mikhailovich of Kashin.
- Moscow attacks Tver, which counter-attacks with the aid of Lithuania and the Blue Horde.
- The King of Norway sends the last Royal Ship from Norway, to the Greenland Eastern Settlement. This event is part of both the Norse colonization of the Americas, and of the History of Greenland.
- A peace treaty is signed between Norway and the Hanseatic League.
- The Bibliothèque nationale de France (National Library of France) is founded as the Royal Library at the Louvre Palace in Paris, by Charles V of France.
- Petrarch concludes writing the sequence of Italian sonnets and other poems known as Il Canzoniere.
- February – Vladislav I of Wallachia liberates Vidin from the Hungarians, resulting in the restoration of Ivan Sratsimir on the throne of Bulgaria, in the autumn.
- March 14 – Battle of Montiel: Pedro of Castile loses to an alliance between the French and his half-brother, Henry II.
- May – King Charles V of France renounces the Treaty of Brétigny, and war is declared between France and England. The French recapture most of Aquitaine.
- December – Financed by Charles V of France, Welshman Owain Lawgoch launches an invasion fleet against the English, in an attempt to claim the throne of Wales. A storm causes Owain to abandon the invasion.
- Venice repels a Hungarian invasion.
- Hugues Aubriot founds the Bastille in Paris.
- Tamerlane names the city of Samarkand as the capital of his empire.
- Košice becomes the first town in Europe to be granted its own coat of arms.
- The Turks invade Bulgaria.
- The Thai Kingdom of Ayutthaya conquers Cambodia for a second time.
- Duong Nhat Le succeeds Tran Hao as King of Vietnam.
- The Hongwu Emperor of the Chinese Ming Dynasty issues a decree, ordering every country magistrate in the empire to open a Confucian school of learning.
- The official production of Jingdezhen porcelain in Ming dynasty China is on record.
- "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p27
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 106–108. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "The slang words that defined the First World War". Daily Telegraph. 13 Oct 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Statute of Pleading". Language and Law.org. 1362. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- "Philip II | duke of Burgundy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "Charles V | king of France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 August 2018.