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|Ab urbe condita||2190|
|Balinese saka calendar||1358–1359|
|English Regnal year||15 Hen. 6 – 16 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||丙辰年 (Fire Dragon)|
4133 or 4073
— to —
丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
4134 or 4074
|- Vikram Samvat||1493–1494|
|- Shaka Samvat||1358–1359|
|- Kali Yuga||4537–4538|
|Japanese calendar||Eikyō 9|
|Minguo calendar||475 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1979–1980|
1563 or 1182 or 410
— to —
1564 or 1183 or 411
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1437.|
- February 20–21 – James I of Scotland is fatally stabbed at Perth in a failed coup by his uncle and former ally, Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl.
- March 11–25 – The nova Nova Scorpii AD 1437 was observed from Seoul, Korea. 
- March 25 – In a ceremony in Holyrood Abbey, James II of Scotland is crowned at the age of six by Pope Eugene IV. For security of the crown, the capital of Scotland is moved to Edinburgh, from Dunfermline.
- April 23 – Malmö in Denmark (now Sweden) receives its current coat of arms.
- June – A peasant army gathers at Bobâlna during the Transylvanian peasant revolt. The revolt will be crushed by January of next year.
- September 20–October 19 – A Portuguese attempt to conquer Tangier fails, and Prince Ferdinand is taken hostage.
- December 9 – Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, dies.
- March 7 – Anna of Saxony, Electress of Brandenburg (d. 1512)
- April 30 – János Thurzó, Hungarian businessman (d. 1508)
- July 22 – John Scrope, 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton, English Baron (d. 1498)
- October 4 – John IV, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1463)
- date unknown – Isaac Abravanel, Jewish statesman (d. 1508)
- probable – Elizabeth Woodville, Queen consort of King Edward IV of England (d. 1492)
- January 3 – Catherine of Valois, queen of Henry V of England (b. 1401)
- January 22 – Niccolò de' Niccoli, Italian Renaissance humanist (b. 1364)
- February 21 – King James I of Scotland (b. 1394) (murdered)
- March 26 – Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, Scottish nobleman and regicide (executed)
- June 10 – Joan of Navarre, Queen of England (b. 1370)
- November 20 – Thomas Langley, cardinal bishop of Durham and lord chancellor of England (b. 1363)
- December 9 – Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1368)
- date unknown – John II Stanley of the Isle of Man
- Shara, M. M.; Iłkiewicz, K.; Mikołajewska, J.; Pagnotta, A.; Bode, M. F.; Crause, L. A.; Drozd, K.; Faherty, J.; Fuentes-Morales, I.; Grindlay, J. E.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Pretorius, M. L.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Stephenson, F. R.; Tappert, C.; Zurek, D. (2017). "Proper-motion age dating of the progeny of Nova Scorpii AD 1437". Nature. 548 (7669): 558–560. arXiv:1704.00086. Bibcode:2017Natur.548..558S. doi:10.1038/nature23644.
- "Solving a 600-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery". August 30, 2017.
- "Catherine Of Valois | French princess". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 22, 2018.