The 1440s decade ran from January 1, 1440, to December 31, 1449.
- February 21 – The Prussian Confederation is formed.
- April 9 – Christopher of Bavaria is elected King of Denmark.
- April – Murad II lays siege to Belgrade. The city is heavily damaged, but the defenders' use of artillery prevents the Turks from capturing the city.
- September 13 – Breton knight Gilles de Rais is taken into custody, upon an accusation brought against him by the Bishop of Nantes.
- September – The term of Regent of Sweden Karl Knutsson Bonde ends, as newly elected king of Denmark Christopher of Bavaria is also elected king of Sweden.
- October 22 – Gilles de Rais confesses, and is sentenced to death.
- Itzcóatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, dies and is succeeded by Moctezuma I (Moctezuma Ilhuicamina).
- Lorenzo Valla's De falso credita et ementita Constantini Donatione declamatio demonstrates that the Donation of Constantine is a forgery.
- Eton College is founded by Henry VI of England.
- Sir Richard Molyneux is appointed constable of Liverpool Castle, in England.
- The Ming Dynasty government of China begins a decade-long series of issuing harsh edicts towards those who illegally mine silver, the latter known as 'miner bandits' (kuangzei), a trend begun in 1438. The government wants to cap the amount of silver circulating into the market, as more grain taxes are converted into silver taxes. The government establishes community night watches known as 'watches and tithings' (baojia), who ensure that illegal mining activities are brought to a halt. However, these are desperate measures, as illegal silver mining continues to thrive as a dangerous but lucrative venture.
- Zhu Quan writes the Cha Pu ("Tea manual") in China.
- February – The Republic of Venice annexes the seigniory of Ravenna, ending the da Polenta Dynasty.
- February 12 – King's College, Cambridge, is founded by King Henry VI of England.
- March 1 – Battle of Samobor: The army of Ulrich II, Count of Celje, defeats the army of Stjepan Banić at Samobor, Croatia in union with Hungary.
- November 10 – Alfonso V of Aragon lays siege to Naples.
- November 20 – The Peace of Cremona (1441) ends the war between the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan.
- Ouagadougou becomes the capital of the Mossi Kingdoms.
- Two subjects of the Ethiopian Empire attend a Christian ecclesiastical council at Florence as part of negotiations concerning a possible union of Coptic Orthodoxy and the Latin Church. This is the earliest recorded contact of the Ethiopian branch of the Coptic Church with Europe.
- A revolt occurs in the Mayan nation of Mayapan; the Maya civilization splits into warring city-states.
- With the help of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, governor Hacı I Giray declares his province independent of the Golden Horde and establishes the Crimean Khanate.
- Nuno Tristão reaches the Ras Nouadhibou (Cabo Branco) on the western coast of Africa. This is probably the first voyage where a caravel is used for maritime exploration.
- The first slaved African black Israelites are brought to Europe at Lagos in Kingdom of Portugal.
- March 18–25 – Battle of Hermannstadt: John Hunyadi defeats an army of the Ottoman Empire 80,000 strong, led by Mesid Bey of Vidin, near Sibiu in Transylvania.
- June 2 – Alfonso of Aragon proclaims himself King of Naples.
- September – John Hunyadi defeats another army of the Ottoman Empire (70,000 strong), led by Hadım Şehabeddin, Beylerbey (or governor) of Rumelia, near the Ialomița River. Following this, he places Basarab II as ruler of Wallachia.
- The community of Rauma, Finland is granted its town rights.
- The municipality of Juva, Finland is founded.
- The national law of Kristofers landslag is introduced in Sweden.
- After being imprisoned (before September) by the Sultan, Vlad II Dracul is temporarily replaced, as ruler of Wallachia, by his son Mircea II.
- A fourth tower is added to Liverpool Castle in England.
- Jelena Balšić completes writing the Gorički zbornik manuscripts at her church of St. Mary, on the island of Beška in the Serbian Despotate.
- Portuguese sailors first arrive at the Senegal River
- July 22 – Battle of St. Jakob an der Sihl (Old Zürich War): The forces of the city of Zürich are defeated, but the Swiss Confederacy have insufficient strength to besiege and take the city.
- November 8 – Battle of Niš: John Hunyadi and the army of the Crusade of Varna defeat three armies of the Ottoman Empire, and capture the city of Niš in modern-day Serbia; Skanderbeg deserts the Ottoman camp and goes to Albania.
- November 28 – Skanderbeg and his forces, rebelling against the Ottoman Empire, liberate Krujë, in Middle Albania, and raise the Albanian flag.
- In Moldavia, the conflict between brothers and co-rulers Iliaș and Stephen II reignites, and Stephen captures Iliaș and blinds him, thus remaining sole ruler of the country.
- Portuguese explorer Nuno Tristão penetrates the Arguin Gulf, off the west coast of Africa.
- King Sejong the Great establishes Hangul, as the native alphabet of the Korean language.
- Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II.
- The Buddhist Zhihua Temple (智化寺) is built in Beijing, at the order of Wang Zhen, chief eunuch at the court of the Zhengtong Emperor of Ming Dynasty China.
- A powerful earthquake destroys the Timișoara Fortress in Kingdom of Hungary
- March 2 – The League of Lezhë, an alliance of Albanian principalities, is established in Lezhë; George Kastrioti Skanderbeg is proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance.
- May 22 – The Treaty of Tours, signed between England and France, secures a truce in the Hundred Years' War for five years.
- June 15 – Cosimo de' Medici founds the Laurentian Library in Florence.
- June 29 – Battle of Torvioll: Skanderbeg defeats an Ottoman army.
- August 6 – A Portuguese fleet of caravels, led by Lançarote de Freitas, lands 235 slaves at Algarve, Portugal.
- August 15 – The Peace of Szeged is signed between the Turkish Ottoman Empire and Hungary.
- August 26 – Old Zürich War – Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs: Charles VII of France, seeking to send away troublesome troops made idle by the truce with England, sends his son (the Dauphin Louis) with a large army into Switzerland, to support the claims of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. The massively outnumbered Swiss force is destroyed in this battle, but inflict such casualties on the French that they withdraw.
- August – After making peace with the Karamanids, Ottoman Sultan Murad II abdicates in favor of his son Mehmed II.
- November 10 – Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Władysław III of Poland and Hungary are defeated by the Turks, under Sultan Murad II. Władysław is killed, ending the Jagiellonian Union of Hungary and Poland.
- Constantine XI Palaiologos, as ruler of the Despotate of the Morea, invades the Duchy of Athens (at this time under Florentine control), and forces it to pay tribute and return Thebes to the Byzantine Empire.
- Forces of the Sultan of Egypt fail to take Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes.
- Portuguese explorers reach the mouth of the rivers Senegal and Gambia.
- The first European slave market for the sale of African slaves, the Mercado de Escravos, opens in Lagos, Portugal.
- A serious fire occurs at Old St Paul's Cathedral in London.
- The Iguvine Tablets are discovered at Gubbio, Italy.
- Stephen II of Moldavia takes as co-ruler his step brother Petru, also brother-in-law to John Hunyadi.
- October 10 – Battle of Mokra: The Albanian forces under Skanderbeg defeat the Ottoman forces (Pope Eugene IV raises a hymn of praise, that Christendom has been provided with a new defender, after he hears of the battle).
- The Portuguese set up their first trading post (Feitoria) in Africa, on the island of Arguin.
- Portuguese explorer Dinis Dias discovers the Cap-Vert, on the western coast of Africa.
- Battle of Gomit: Emperor Zara Yaqob of Ethiopia defeats and kills Sultan Arwe Badlay, of Adal.
- Vlad II Dracul, aided by a crusaders' fleet from Burgundy, attacks Giurgiu, and massacres the Ottoman garrison after their surrender.
- Stephen II remains sole ruler of Moldavia.
- September 27 – Battle of Otonetë: Skanderbeg defeats the Ottomans.
- Before October – Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate, in favor of his father Murad II, by the Janissaries.
- October 9 – The hangul alphabet is created in Korea, by King Sejong the Great of Joseon. The Hunmin Jeongeum, published during the year, is considered the start of this brand new scientific writing system. 
- October – Murad II invades Attica, forcing Constantine XI to return Thebes to the duchy of Athens, and remove the tribute imposed in 1444. Murad II imposes his own tribute.
- December 10 – After hesitating for several weeks, Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire, destroys the Hexamilion wall, in an assault that includes cannons. Murad and the Ottoman governor of Thessaly, Turakhan Beg, ravage the Peloponnese Peninsula at will, with the Sultan devastating the northern shore, while Glarentza and Turakhan raid in the interior. The Despotate of the Morea is turned into an Ottoman vassal state.
- Nuno Tristão is killed by natives in the coast of Senegal.
- Portuguese navigator Álvaro Fernandes reaches the mouth of the Casamance River in Senegal.
- The Precious Belt Bridge in China is fully reconstructed.
- In Italy, the siege of Cremona, by the condottieri troops of Francesco Piccinino and Luigi dal Verme, is raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì.
- The Blarney Stone is set into a tower of Blarney Castle in Blarney, County Cork in Ireland.
- March 6 – Pope Nicholas V succeeds Pope Eugene IV, to become the 208th pope.
- March 16 – A major fire destroys the centre of Valencia.
- July 15 – The Spanish Inquisition is revived.
- Roman II seizes the throne of Moldavia after killing his uncle, Stephen II, and will have his other uncle, Petru as co-ruler.
- The Siege of Soest occurs, in the course of the Soest Feud.
- According to Ryū's own sources, Iizasa Ienao founds Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū, the earliest historically verifiable Japanese koryū martial art, that is still extant in modern times.
- January 6 – Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, dies with no designated heir, leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. Brothers Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna and Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna are selected to serve as co-regents of Sweden.
- August 14 – Battle of Oronichea: Albania is victorious over Venice.
- June 20 – The Regency period of Sweden ends with the election of Karl Knutsson Bonde, as King Charles VIII of Sweden.
- June 28 – Charles VIII of Sweden is publicly hailed as king at Mora Stones, and is crowned in Uppsala Cathedral the following day.
- September 28 – Christian of Oldenburg, betrothed to Queen Dowager Dorothea of Brandenburg, becomes King Christian I of Denmark.
- October 4 – Peace between Albania and Venice is established.
- October 17 – Battle of Kosovo: Hungarian forces under John Hunyadi are defeated by the Turks, due to Ottoman superiority.
- December – Jonas, a Russian bishop, is installed by the Council of Russian Bishops in Moscow, as Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus; as this is without the consent of the Patriarch of Constantinople, it signifies the beginning of an effectively independent church structure in the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
- Queens' College, Cambridge is founded by Margaret of Anjou.
- The Vatican Library is founded by Pope Nicholas V.
- Vlad III the Impaler becomes reigning Prince of Wallachia for two months, before being deposed by Vladislav II of Wallachia.
- After a long episode of drought, flood, locust infestation, and famine in Ming Dynasty China since the year 1434, these natural afflictions finally wane, and agriculture and commerce return to a state of normality.
- Roman II flees to Poland, when an army sent by John Hunyadi, and led by Csupor de Monoszló, comes to put Petru on the throne of Moldavia. Petru dies suddenly, and Csupor takes on the throne for two months, as Ciubăr Vodă.
- January 6 – Constantine XI Palaiologos is crowned Byzantine Emperor at Mistra; he will be the last in a line of rulers that can be traced to the founding of Rome.
- February – Alexăndrel seizes the throne of Moldavia, with the support of the boyars.
- March 24 – Hundred Years' War: English capture Fougères in Brittany.
- April 7 – The last Antipope, Felix V, abdicates.
- April 19 – Pope Nicholas V is elected by the Council of Basel.
- April 25 – The Council of Basel dissolves itself.
- May – An English privateering fleet led by Robert Wennington challenges ships of the Hanseatic League.
- May 14 – Second Siege of Sfetigrad (1449): The Albanian garrison surrenders and the Ottomans seize the fortress.
- May 20 – Battle of Alfarrobeira: King Afonso V of Portugal defeats the forces of Peter, Duke of Coimbra.
- July – Hundred Years' War: French invade Normandy.
- August 13 – First Margrave War: Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg takes Lichtenau Fortress from Nuremberg.
- September 1 – Battle of Tumu Fortress: The Oirat Mongols defeat the Ming dynasty army, and capture the Zhengtong Emperor of China; the latter is officially deposed, while his brother ascends as the Jingtai Emperor the next year.
- October – Bogdan II of Moldavia enters the country with troops from John Hunyadi, and takes the throne after Alexăndrel flees.
- October 29 – The French recapture Rouen from the English.
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)
- January 22 – Ivan III of Russia (d. 1505)
- February 13 – Hartmann Schedel, German physician (d. 1514)
- date unknown – Clara Tott, German court singer (d. 1520)
- February 9 – Ali-Shir Nava'i, Central Asian poet, politician and writer (d. 1501)
- March 24 – Ernest, Elector of Saxony, German ruler of Saxony (d. 1486)
- June 25 – Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua (1478–1484) (d. 1484)
- June 27 – John III, Count of Nassau-Weilburg, German nobleman (d. 1480)
- July 23 – Danjong of Joseon, King of Joseon (d. 1457)
- November 11 – Charlotte of Savoy, French queen (d. 1483)
- April 13 – Henry IV of Neuhaus, High Treasurer of Bohemia (1485–1503), Burgrave of Prague Castle (1503–1507) (d. 1507)
- April 15 – John Paston, English noble (d. 1479)
- April 28 – King Edward IV of England, King of England from 4 March 1461 until 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 to 3 October 1480 (d. 1483)
- July 3 – Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado of Japan (d. 1500)
- July 15 – Boček IV of Poděbrady, Bohemian nobleman, eldest son of King George of Podebrady (d. 1496)
- September 8 – John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford (d. 1513)
- September 27 – John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk (d. 1492)
- date unknown
- January 27 – Albert III, Duke of Saxony (d. 1500)
- February 2 – Elisabeth of Bavaria, Electress of Saxony (d. 1484)
- February 12 – Giovanni II Bentivoglio, Italian noble (d. 1508)
- February 23 – Matthias Corvinus, of Hungary (d. 1490)
- May 17 – Edmund, Earl of Rutland, brother of Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England (d. 1460)
- May 29 – Victor, Duke of Münsterberg, Reichsgraf, Duke of Münsterberg and Opava, Count of Glatz (d. 1500)
- May 31 or 1441 – Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, English noble, mother of King Henry VII, grandmother of King Henry VIII of England (d. 1509)
- June 29 – Anthony Browne, English knight (d. 1506)
- September 9 – Muhammad Jaunpuri (d. 1505)
- November 10 – Adolf III of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein, Germany noble (d. 1511)
- December 1 – Magdalena of France, French princess and regent of Navarre (d. 1495)
- December 5 – Pope Julius II (d. 1513)
- January 24 – Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan (d. 1476)
- March 15 – Francesco Gonzaga, Catholic cardinal (d. 1483)
- April 22 – Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk (d. 1503)
- May 29 – Otto III, Duke of Pomerania-Stettin (1460–1464) (d. 1464)
- June 14 – Nilakantha Somayaji, Indian astronomer-mathematician (d. 1544)
- June 28 – Charlotte, Queen of Cyprus (d. 1487)
- October 18 – John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk (d. 1476)
- date unknown – Donato Bramante, Italian architect (d. 1514)
- March 16 – Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born priest (d. 1510)
- April 4 – Wiguleus Fröschl of Marzoll, Bishop of Passau (1500–1517) (d. 1517)
- October 25 – Fulk Bourchier, 10th Baron FitzWarin, English baron (d. 1479)
- October 31 – Hedwig, Abbess of Quedlinburg, Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg (d. 1511)
- December 11 – Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1496)
- date unknown – Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (d. 1497)
- probable – Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician
- approximate – Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (d. 1510)
- April 18 – Ippolita Maria Sforza, Italian noble (d. 1484)
- May 3
- August 14 – Andrey Bolshoy, Russian royal (d. 1493)
- December 26 – Charles de Valois, Duke de Berry, French noble (d. 1472)
- date unknown – Edmund de Ros, 10th Baron de Ros, English politician (d. 1508)
- February 1 – Eberhard II, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1504)
- February 4 – Lodovico Lazzarelli, Italian poet (d. 1500)
- June 27 – Jean IV de Rieux, Breton noble and Marshal (d. 1518)
- September 10 – Paolo da San Leocadio, Italian painter in Spain (d. 1520)
- October 30 – Lucas Watzenrode, Prince-Bishop of Warmia (d. 1512)
- December 3 – Bayezid II, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1512)
- December 9 – Chenghua Emperor of China (d. 1487)
- December 15 – Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1508)
- date unknown
- February 14 – Nannina de' Medici, Florentine member of the de' Medici family (d. 1493)
- March 20 – Marie of Savoy, Countess of Saint-Pol, Luxembourgian noble (d. 1475)
- July 14 – Philip, Elector Palatine (d. 1508)
- September 7 – Henry, Count of Württemberg-Montbéliard (1473–1482) (d. 1519)
- October 31 – Władysław II of Płock, Polish noble (d. 1462)
- November 4 – King Alphonso II of Naples (d. 1495)
- December 12 – John Talbot, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, English Earl (d. 1473)
- date unknown
- January 1 – Lorenzo de' Medici, Italian statesman (d. 1492)
- January 17 – Osanna of Mantua, Italian Dominican tertiary (d. 1505)
- February 7 – Adriana of Nassau-Dillenburg, consort of Count Philip I of Hanau-Münzenberg (d. 1477)
- April 27 – Asakura Ujikage, 8th head of the Asakura clan of Japan (d. 1486)
- August 10 – Bona of Savoy, Duchess of Savoy (d. 1503)
- September 20 – Philipp I, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg, German noble (d. 1500)
- October 21 – George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV of England and Richard III of England (d. 1478)
- November 11 – Catherine of Poděbrady, Hungarian Queen (d. 1464)
- November 14 – Sidonie of Poděbrady, Bohemian princess, duchess consort of Saxony (d. 1510)
- December 6 – Dorotea Gonzaga, Italian noble (d. 1467)
- date unknown
- Aldus Manutius, Italian printer
- Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus (d. 1513)
- Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan (d. 1481)
- Domenico Gagini, Italian sculptor (d. 1492)
- Domenico Ghirlandaio, Italian artist (d. 1494)
- Magnus Hundt, German physician and theologian (d. 1519)
- Margaret of Thuringia, Electress consort of Brandenburg (d. 1501)
- March 9 – Frances of Rome, Italian Benedictine nun and saint (b. 1384)
- March 20 – Sigismund Kęstutaitis, Grand Duke of Lithuania (b. 1365)
- April 2 – Giovanni Vitelleschi, Italian Roman Catholic bishop and soldier
- April 6 – Henry Wardlaw, Scottish church leader
- September 20 – Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg (b. 1371)
- September 30 – Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn, English soldier and politician
- October 12 – Ginevra d'Este (b. 1419)
- October 26 – Gilles de Rais, French soldier (b. 1404)
- November 13 – Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland
- date unknown –
- March 8 – Margaret of Burgundy, Duchess of Bavaria
- April 1 – Blanche I of Navarre, Queen of Navarre (1425–1441) and Regent of Sicily (1404–1405 and 1408–1415)
- June 14 – Corrado IV Trinci, former lord of Foligno
- July 9 – Jan van Eyck, Dutch painter
- July 12 – Kyōgoku Takakazu, Japanese noble and vassal of Ashikaga Yoshinori
- July 12 – Ashikaga Yoshinori, Japanese shōgun (b. 1394)
- September 25 – Akamatsu Mitsusuke, Japanese samurai
- October 24 – Adolf, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1434)
- October 27 – Margery Jourdemayne, Englishwoman executed for treasonable witchcraft
- November 18 – Roger Bolingbroke, English cleric, astronomer, astrologer, magister and alleged necromancer
- December 26 – Niccolò III d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara (b. 1383)
- August 29 – John VI, Duke of Brittany (b. 1389)
- September 25 – Robert de Morley, 6th Baron Morley, Lord of Morley Saint Botolph (b. 1418)
- October 18 – Infante João of Portugal (b. 1400)
- November 14 – Yolande of Aragon, politically active French noblewoman (b. 1384)
- December 18 – Pierre Cauchon, French Catholic bishop (b. 1371)
- December 19 – Elizabeth of Luxembourg (b. 1409)
- date unknown
- January 16 – Erasmo of Narni, Italian mercenary (b. 1370)
- January 28 – Robert le Maçon, Chancellor of France
- February – Guidantonio da Montefeltro, count of Urbino (b. 1377)
- March 24 – James Douglas, 7th Earl of Douglas (b. 1371)
- April 12 – Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury
- May 9 – Niccolò Albergati, Italian cardinal and diplomat (b. 1373)
- June 5 – Ferdinand the Holy Prince of Portugal (b. 1402)
- August 16 – Ashikaga Yoshikatsu, Japanese shōgun (b. 1434)
- September 18 – Lewis of Luxembourg, Archbishop of Rouen
- date unknown – Infante Diogo, Constable of Portugal
- Jelena Balšić, Serbian duchess (b. 1366)
- probable – Zeami Motokiyo, Japanese actor and playwright (b. 1363)
- January 8 – Wilhelm II, Count of Henneberg-Schleusingen (b. 1415)
- February 14 – Henriette, Countess of Montbéliard, regent of Württemberg (b. 1387)
- March 9 – Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist (b. 1374)
- April 26 – Robert Campin, Flemish painter (b. 1378)
- May 20 – Saint Bernardino of Siena, Italian Franciscan missionary (b. 1380)
- May 27 – John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, English military leader (b. 1404)
- October 15 – Niccolò Piccinino, Italian mercenary (b. 1386)
- November 10 – King Władysław III of Poland (in battle) (b. 1424)
- November 25 – Martin Gouge, French chancellor
- date unknown – Pier Paolo Vergerio the Elder, Italian humanist, statesman, and canon lawyer
- January 19 – Antonio Correr, Spanish cardinal (b. 1359)
- February 19 – Leonor of Aragon, queen of Portugal (b. 1402)
- April 7 – Louis VIII, Duke of Bavaria, German noble (b. 1403)
- May 15 – Johanna van Polanen, Dutch noblewoman (b. 1392)
- June 5 – Leonel Power, English composer
- July 15 – Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland
- August 2 – Oswald von Wolkenstein, Austrian composer (b. 1377)
- date unknown – Olug Moxammat of Kazan, Khan of Kazan
- April 15 – Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect (b. 1377)
- May 9 – Mary of Enghien, Queen of Naples (b. 1367)
- May 24 – Ambroise de Loré, Baron of Ivry (b. 1396)
- June 11 – Henry Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, English nobleman (b. 1425)
- December 28 – Antipope Clement VIII
- February 2 – Vittorino da Feltre, Italian humanist (b. 1378)
- date unknown – Nuno Tristão, Portuguese explorer
- February 23
- March 13 – Shahrukh Mirza, ruler of Persia and Transoxonia (b. 1377)
- April 11 – Henry Beaufort, Cardinal, Lord Chancellor of England (b. 1377)
- August 5 – John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter (b. 1395)
- August 13 – Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan (b. 1392)
- November 17 – Euphemia of Münsterberg, German sovereign (b. 1385)
- December – Vlad II Dracul, Prince of Wallachia, and his son Mircea II
- unknown – Stephen II of Moldavia
- January 6 – Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (b. 1418)
- June 18 – Elizabeth de Beauchamp, Baroness Bergavenny, English baroness (b. 1415)
- September 23 – Adolph I, Duke of Cleves (b. 1373)
- October – Carlo II Tocco, ruler of Epirus
- October 12 – Zhu Quan, Prince of Ning, Chinese military commander, historian and playwright (b. 1378)
- October 31 – John VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1390)
- date unknown
- January 4 – Cecilia of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (b. c.1405)
- January 21 – Giovanni Berardi, Archbishop of Taranto (b. 1380)
- February 2 – Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Islamic scholar (b. 1372)
- March – Dolce dell'Anguillara, Italian condottiero (b. 1401)
- May – Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles
- May 20 (at the Battle of Alfarrobeira)
- August 13 – Louis IV, Elector Palatine (b. 1424)
- October 27 – Ulugh Beg, Timurid ruler and astronomer (b. 1394)
- October 31 – Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brzeg-Legnica and Cieszyn, German princess (b. 1403)
- November 19 – Kunigunde of Sternberg, first spouse of the King George of Podebrady (b. 1425)
- December 24 – Walter Bower, Scottish chronicler (b. 1385)
- 'The colleges and halls: King's', in A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3, the City and University of Cambridge, ed. J P C Roach (London, 1959), pp. 376-408. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/cambs/vol3/pp376-408 [accessed 5 February 2021]
- Hazlitt, W. Carew (1900). The Venetian Republic: Its Rise, its Growth, and its Fall, 421–1797. Volume II, 1423–1797. London: Adam and Charles Black. pp. 79–80.
- Green, Toby. A fistful of shells : West Africa from the rise of the slave trade to the age of revolution. Chicago. ISBN 9780226644578. OCLC 1051687994.
- Thomas, Hugh (1999). The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440 - 1870. Simon and Schuster. pp. 22. ISBN 9780684835655.
- Wendy Sacket (1997). Chronology of European History, 15,000 B.C. to 1997: 15,000 B.C. to 1469. Salem Press. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-89356-419-3.
- Albanische Forschungen (in German). O. Harrassowitz. 1964. p. 110. ISBN 978-3-87828-106-1.
- "A.B.C. Isn't Simple as A.B.C. in Korea— Alphabet on 525th Birthday, Both Hailed and Assailed", The New York Times, October 10, 1971, p. 8
- Setton, Kenneth M. (1978), The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Volume II: The Fifteenth Century, DIANE Publishing, pp. 96–97, ISBN 0-87169-127-2
- J.E. Darras (1865). A General History of the Catholic Church: from the commencement of the Christian era until the present time ... O.Shea. p. 573.
- "ИОНА". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "College History | Queens' College". www.queens.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2020-02-04.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 123–125. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Leonard von Matt; Hans Kühner (1963). The Popes: Papal History in Picture and Word. Universe Books. p. 128.
- Sobecki, Sebastian I. (2008). The Sea and Medieval English Literature. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer. p. 155. ISBN 9781846155918.
- Castor, Helen (2004a). "Paston, Sir John (II) (1442–1479)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21512. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Penn, Thomas (2019). The Brothers York. Allen Lane. p. 8. ISBN 978-1846146909.
- Elizabeth Norton (15 September 2010). Margaret Beaufort: Mother of the Tudor Dynasty. Amberley Publishing Limited. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-4456-0734-4.
- Lives of the Popes: Illustrated Biographies of Every Pope from St Peter to the Present. Barnes & Noble Books. 1998. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-7607-0802-6.
- British Museum. Department of Prints and Drawings; Richard Fisher (1886). Introduction to a Catalogue of the Early Italian Prints in the British Museum. Chiswick Press. pp. 348–.
- Adolfo Venturi (1927). Botticelli. A. Zwemmer. p. 101.
- Yvonne Bleyerveld; Lamot (Mechelen, Belgium) (2005). Women of Distinction: Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria. Brepols Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 978-90-5826-342-1.
- Michel de Montaigne (1914). Selections from Montaigne. D.C. Heath & Company. p. 215.
- Edith Carpenter (1893). Lorenzo De' Medici. G.P. Putnam's sons. p. 11.
- "Axayácatl, "El de la máscara de agua" (1469-1481)" [Axayácatl,, "He with the Water Mask"]. Arqueologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 6, 2019.
- "Itzcóatl, "Serpiente de obsidiana" (1427–1440)" [Itzcóatl, "Obsidian Snake" (1427–1440)]. Arqueologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 6, 2019.
- Jan van Eyck; Peter Russell (6 August 2020). Delphi Complete Works of Jan van Eyck (Illustrated). Delphi Classics. p. 464. ISBN 978-1-913487-28-7.
- Jane Kelsall (2000). Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, 1391-1447. Fraternity of the Friends of Saint Albans Abbey. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9506829-6-9.
- Clayton J. Drees (2001). The Late Medieval Age of Crisis and Renewal, 1300-1500: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-313-30588-7.
- Raphael Holinshed (1907). Shakespeare's Holinshed: The Chronicle and the Historical Plays Compared. Chatto and Windus. p. 218.
- Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini; Pope Pius II (November 2013). Europe (c.1400-1458). CUA Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8132-2182-3.
- Jerzy Lukowski; Hubert Zawadzki (20 September 2001). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1.
- The early Italian pictures in the collection of Her Majesty the Queen. 1983. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-521-24214-1.
- Norman Macdougall (1982). James III: A Political Study. J. Donald. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-0-85976-078-2.
- Sir John Wyndham Pope-Hennessy (1986). Italian Renaissance Sculpture. Phaidon. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-7148-2416-1.
- Joachim W. Stieber (1 January 1978). Pope Eugenius IV, the Council of Basel and the Secular and Ecclesiastical Authorities in the Empire: The Conflict Over Supreme Authority and Power in the Church. BRILL. p. 302. ISBN 90-04-05240-2.
- "Oettingen 1". genealogy.euweb.cz. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
- Dracula : essays on the life and times of Vlad Țepeș. Treptow, Kurt W. [Boulder, Colo.]: East European Monographs. 1991. ISBN 0-88033-220-4. OCLC 24689405.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Sainik Samachar: The Pictorial Weekly of the Armed Forces. Director of Public Relations, Ministry of Defence. 1990. p. 20.
- University of Oxford (1885). Register of the University of Oxford, 1449 (-1622). ed. by C.W. Boase (A. Clark). 2 vols. [in 5 pt.]. p. 168.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1440s.|