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|Ab urbe condita||2257|
|Balinese saka calendar||1425–1426|
|English Regnal year||19 Hen. 7 – 20 Hen. 7|
|Chinese calendar||癸亥年 (Water Pig)|
4200 or 4140
— to —
甲子年 (Wood Rat)
4201 or 4141
|- Vikram Samvat||1560–1561|
|- Shaka Samvat||1425–1426|
|- Kali Yuga||4604–4605|
|Japanese calendar||Bunki 4 / Eishō 1|
|Minguo calendar||408 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2046–2047|
1630 or 1249 or 477
— to —
1631 or 1250 or 478
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1504.|
- January 1 – French troops of King Louis XII surrender Gaeta to the Spanish, under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba.
- January 21 – After the death of Sten Sture the Elder on December 14 the year before, Svante Nilsson is elected the new Regent of Sweden.
- January 31 – Treaty of Lyon: France cedes Naples to Ferdinand II of Aragon, who becomes King of Naples as Ferdinand III.
- February 29 – Christopher Columbus uses his knowledge of a lunar eclipse this night, to convince the indigenous Jamaican people to provide him with supplies.
- April 1 – English guilds become subject to state control.
- April 23 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, routes troops to Bavaria.
- September 8 – Michelangelo's sculpture of David is completed in Florence.
- September 13 – Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand issue a Royal Warrant for the construction of Capilla Real, a Royal Chapel, to be built.
- September 22 – A settled engagement is arranged, between Karel of Luxembourg and Claudia the Beaujeu.
- September 22 – Treaty of Blois: Philip I of Castile, Maximilian I and Louis XII agree to terms.
- October 12 – Isabella I of Castile signs her testament.
- November 7 – Christopher Columbus returns to Spain from his fourth voyage, during which he and his younger son, Ferdinand, explored the coast of Central America from Belize to Panama.
- November 26 – Isabella I of Castile, Catholic Queen of Castile and Aragon, dies, ending her patronage for Columbus. The Crown of Castile passes to her daughter Joanna.
- December 8 (approximate date) – Islamic scholar Ahmad ibn Abi Jum'ah issues the Oran fatwa for Muslims in Spain (1 Rajab 910 AH in Hijri calendar, Gregorian date is approximate).
- December 24 – The Alvsson's rebellion was crushed at Olsborg Castle in Båhuslen.
- Babur besieges and captures Kabul.
- Islamization of the Sudan region: A Funj leader, Amara Dunqas, founds the Sultanate of Sennar.
- Sheikh Ahmad, final leader of the Great Horde, is last heard of as a Lithuanian prisoner at Vilnius.
- Juan de la Cosa begins his first independent voyage, to the Isthmus of Panama.
- In Florence, Leonardo da Vinci and Niccolò Machiavelli become involved in a scheme to divert the Arno River, cutting the water supply to Pisa to force its surrender: Colombino, the project foreman, fails to follow da Vinci’s design, and the project is a major failure.
- Venetian ambassadors suggest to Turkey the construction of a Suez Canal.
- Aldus Manutius publishes his edition of Demosthenes in Venice.
- Matthias Grünewald paints a Crucifixion.
- The Signoria of Florence commissions both Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio.
- Raphael paints The Marriage of the Virgin, which exemplifies some major principles of High Renaissance art.
- January 1 – Caspar Creuziger, German humanist (d. 1548)
- January 17 – Pope Pius V (d. 1572)
- January 28 – Anna II, Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg, German noblewoman, reigning from 1516 until her death (d. 1574)
- February 3 – Scipione Rebiba, Italian cardinal (d. 1577)
- March 31 – Guru Angad, Indian religious leader (d. 1552)
- April 12 – Alessandro Campeggio, Italian cardinal (d. 1554)
- April 30 – Francesco Primaticcio, Italian painter (d. 1570)
- May 5 – Stanislaus Hosius, Polish cardinal (d. 1579)
- May 29 – Antun Vrančić, Croatian archbishop (d. 1573)
- June 24 – Johannes Mathesius, German theologian (d. 1565)
- July 18 – Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious reformer (d. 1575)
- August 1 – Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Prussia, Danish princess (d. 1547)
- August 6 – Matthew Parker, English Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1574)
- September 4 – John V, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Prince of Anahlt-Dessau (1516–1544) and Anhalt-Zerbst (1544–1551) (d. 1551)
- September 20 – Philip III, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (d. 1559)
- October 29 – Shin Saimdang, Korean calligraphist and noted poet (d. 1551)
- November – Giovanni Battista Giraldi, Italian novelist and poet (d. 1573)
- November 13 – Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse (d. 1567)
- December – Nicholas Udall, English playwright and schoolmaster (d. 1556)
- December 31 – Beatrice of Portugal, Duchess of Savoy (d. 1538)
- date unknown
- Ali ibn Ahmad al-Samhudi (علي بن أحمد السمهودي), Egyptian Sunni Islamic scholar, author of Wafa al-Wafa bi akhbar Dar al-Mustafa
- John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, English Tudor nobleman and politician (executed 1553)
- Patrick Hamilton, Scottish churchman and Reformer (burned at the stake 1528)
- Dirk Philips, early Dutch Anabaptist writer and theologian (d. 1568)
- January 9 – Gaspare Nadi, Italian builder (b. 1418)
- January 27 – Ludovico II, Marquess of Saluzzo (b. 1438)
- February 17 – Eberhard II, Duke of Württemberg (b. 1447)
- April – Filippino Lippi, Italian painter (b. 1457)
- May 31 – Engelbert II of Nassau (b. 1451)
- June – Lê Hiến Tông, Emperor of the Lê Dynasty
- June 19 – Bernhard Walther, German astronomer and humanist (b. 1430)
- July 2 – Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldova (b. 1434)
- July 29 – Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby (b. 1435)
- August – Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara, Italian astronomer (b. 1454)
- August 20 – Ruprecht of the Palatinate (Bishop of Freising) (b. 1481)
- August 22 – Philipp II, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg (1489–1503) (b. 1462)
- September 9 – Bartolomeo della Rocca ("Cocles"), Italian astrologer (b. 1467)
- September 10 – Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (b. 1480)
- September 15 – Elisabeth of Bavaria (b. 1478)
- September 22 – Jan II the Mad, Duke of Żagań (1439–1449 and 1461–1468 and again in 1472) (b. 1435)
- October 12 – John Corvinus, Hungarian noble (b. 1473)
- November 9 – King Frederick IV of Naples (b. 1452)
- November 26 – Queen Isabella I of Castile (b. 1451)
- December – Lê Túc Tông, Emperor of the Lê Dynasty
- December 21 – Berthold von Henneberg, German archbishop and elector (b. 1442)
- date unknown
- Abdal-Karim Khan Astrakhani, Khan of Astrakhan
- Abu Abdallah IV, Sultan of Tlemcen
- Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya, first Wattasid Sultan of Morocco and King of Fez
- Éamonn Mág Samhradháin, Lord of Tullyhaw
- Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk, Indian-born founder of the Berar Sultanate
- Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, Spanish author
- Qasim Barid I, founder of the Bidar Sultanate
- Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad
- Choe Bu, Korean official and venturer to China (b. 1454)