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Stanislaus Hosius (Polish: Stanisław Hozjusz; 5 May 1504 – 5 August 1579) was a Polish Roman Catholic cardinal. From 1551 he was the Prince-Bishop of the Bishopric of Warmia in Royal Prussia and from 1558 he served as the papal legate to the Holy Roman Emperor's Imperial Court in Vienna, Austria. From 1566 he was also the papal legate to Poland.
|Prince-Bishop of the Bishopric of Warmia|
Portrait of Cardinal Hosius by Marcello Bacciarelli
|Archdiocese||Bishopric of Warmia|
|Appointed||2 March 1551|
|Installed||11 May 1551|
|Term ended||5 August 1579|
|Consecration||23 March 1550|
|Created cardinal||26 February 1561|
by Pope Pius IV
|Birth name||Stanisław Hozjusz|
|Born||5 May 1504|
Kraków, Kingdom of Poland
|Died||5 August 1579 (aged 75)|
Capranica Prenestina, Italy
|Parents||Ulrich Hosse of Pforzheim|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Title as Saint||Servant of God|
Ordination history of
He is designated a Servant of God.
Hosius was born in Kraków, son of Ulrich Hosse of Pforzheim. He spent his early youth at Cracow and Wilna; and at the age of fifteen, when he was already well versed in German, Polish, and Latin, entered the University of Cracow, from which he graduated as Bachelor of Arts in 1520. Piotr Tomicki, Bishop of Cracow and Vice-Chancellor of Poland, employed him as private secretary and entrusted to him the education of his nephews. Tomicki became his patron and underwrote his studies at the University of Padua and the University of Bologna, Italy. At Padua, Reginald Pole was one of his fellow-students. At Bologna he pursued jurisprudence under Hugo Buoncompagni, the future Gregory XIII.
After graduating as doctor of canon and civil law at the University of Bologna on 8 June, 1534, he returned to Cracow and became secretary in the royal chancery. On the death of Bishop Tomicki (1535) he continued as secretary under the new vice-chancellor, Bishop Jan Chojeński of Plock. After the death of Bishop Choinski in 1538, Hosius was appointed royal secretary. In this position he had the entire confidence of King Sigismund, who bestowed various ecclesiastical benefices upon him as reward for his faithful services. In 1543 Hosius was ordained priest. King Sigismund died in 1548, but before his death he had instructed his son and successor, Sigismund II, to nominate Hosius for the next vacant episcopal see.
Hosius was nominated for the See of Culm in 1549. He had not sought this dignity and accepted it only with reluctance. Hosius was then sent by Sigismund on a diplomatic important mission to the courts of King Ferdinand I at Prague, and Emperor Charles V at Brussels and Ghent. The mission resulted in an alliance between Poland and these two monarchies. Upon his return to Poland he received episcopal consecration at Cracow on 23 March, 1550, and immediately took possession of his see. Hosius had Jesuit sympathies and actively opposed the Protestant Reformation.
Two years late he became Prince-Bishop of Ermland in East Prussia. Hosius drew up the Confessio fidei christiana catholica, adopted by the Synod of Piotrków in 1557. He was a supremely skillful diplomat and administrator. Hosius and Marcin Kromer were the two bishops most instrumental in keeping the Warmia region Catholic, while neighboring Ducal Prussia became Protestant. In 1558 Pope Paul IV summoned him to Rome, and soon Hosius became an influential member of the Roman Curia.
The following year Pope Pius IV appointed Hosius as his personal nuncio to Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor at the court in Vienna, where he was to work on the reopening of the Council of Trent. He was further charged with gaining the support of the Emperor's son Maximilian, who appeared to have Protestant sympathies. For his successful work Hosius was promoted to cardinal in 1561. Pope Pius IV named him Legate-Theologian for the third session of the Council of Trent; the other two legates were Cardinals Puteo and Gonzaga.
Despite health issues he mediated between the various factions at the Council as well as addressed issue particular to Poland-Lithuania, such as the status of the Teutonic Knights and the marriage of Stansilaus Orzechowski. When the Council ended he returned home despite requests that he should travel to Rome for the Papal conclave which was to be held after the death of the ailing Pius IV. Cardinal Truchess even suggested the Hosius was a candidate for the papacy. Instead of going to Rome he returned to his diocese, leaving Trent on December 1563, to implement the decrees and canons of the Council of Trent. In 1566 Pope Pius V consecrated him as Papal Legate to Poland.
Death and legacyEdit
Besides carrying through many difficult negotiations, he founded the lyceum of Braniewo (Braunsberg) in order to counter the rapidly spreading Protestants. It became the center of the Roman Catholic mission among Protestants. In 1572 Pope Gregory XIII declared Hosius a member of the Congregatio Germania. He died at Capranica Prenestina near Rome, Italy on 5 August 1579.
A special friend to Hosius was Saint Peter Canisius. Both Kromer and Hosius left many records of their German language speeches and sermons in their years of duty in the Bishopric of Warmia. They were later translated to Czech, English, and French.
Cause of beatificationEdit
The cause of sainthood commenced but paused for a while until it resumed as of 5 August 2006. He is now known as a Servant of God.
- Theodor Hirsch (1881), "Hosius, Stanislaus", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 13, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 180–184
- Hubert Jedin (1972), "Hosius, Stanislaus", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 9, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 650–651
- Theologische Realenzyklopädie (TRE), Bd. 15, S. 598-600
- Benrath: Realenzyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche (RE) 3. Auflage Bd. 8 S. 382-392
- Heinz Scheible: Melanchthons Briefwechsel Personen 12 Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, Germany, 2005 ISBN 3-7728-2258-4
- Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche (LThK) 3. Auflage Bd. 5 S. 284
- Arno Sames: Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG) 4 Auflage, Bd. 3, S. 1912
- Stanislao Rescio (Reszka), "D. Stanislai Hosii Vita," Acta Historica Res Gestas Poloniae illustrantia Tomus IV (ed. F. Hipler and V. Zakrzewski) (Cracow 1879), I-CXXIV.
- Ott, Michael. "Stanislaus Hosius." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 29 June 2019 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Grabka OFM Conv., Gregory. "Cardinal Hosius and the Council of Trent", St. Hyacinth Seminary
- Wojtyska, Cardinal Hosius Legate to the Council of Trent, 262-3.
- Wojtyska, Henryk Damian. Cardinal Hosius Legate to the Council of Trent Studia Ecclesiastica, 3 Historica, 4 Dissertationes, 5. Rome,: Institute of ecclesiastical studies, 1967.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hosius, Stanislaus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 790.
- Stanislaus Hosius in the German National Library catalogue
- "Stanislaus Hosius". Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German).
- Stanislai Hosii (...) Opera omnia in duos divisa tomos, quorum primus ab (...) auctore (...) auctus et recognitus (...) secundus autem totus novus, nuncque primum typis excusus (...)
- Stanislai Hosii (...) Opera omnia (...) nunc novissime ab ipso auctore (...) recognita (...) cura (...) Henrici Dunghaei (...) edita (...)
- Ersch / Gruber: Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste VOLUME Sect. 2 T. 11 S. 93[permanent dead link]
- "Entry". Zedlers Universallexikon. 13. p. 504.
- Four cities of Germany
|Catholic Church titles|
| Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland)