|Ab urbe condita||2281|
|Balinese saka calendar||1449–1450|
|English Regnal year||19 Hen. 8 – 20 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||丁亥年 (Fire Pig)|
4224 or 4164
— to —
戊子年 (Earth Rat)
4225 or 4165
|- Vikram Samvat||1584–1585|
|- Shaka Samvat||1449–1450|
|- Kali Yuga||4628–4629|
|Japanese calendar||Daiei 8 / Kyōroku 1|
|Minguo calendar||384 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2070–2071|
1654 or 1273 or 501
— to —
1655 or 1274 or 502
- January 12 – Gustav I of Sweden is crowned king of Sweden, having already reigned since his election in June 1523.
- April 28 – Battle of Capo d'Orso: The French fleet, under mercenary captain Filippino Doria, crushes the Spanish squadron trying to run the blockade of Naples.
- May (end) – The fourth major outbreak of the sweating sickness appears in London, rapidly spreading to the rest of England and, on this occasion, to northern Europe.
- September 12 – Andrea Doria defeats his former allies, the French, and establishes the independence of Genoa.
- October 3 – Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón arrives in the Maluku Islands.
- October 13 – Cardinal Thomas Wolsey founds a college in his birthplace of Ipswich, England, which becomes the modern-day Ipswich School (incorporating institutions in the town dating back to 1299).
- October 20 – The Treaty of Gorinchem is signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Charles, Duke of Guelders.
- November 6 – Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his companions become the first known Europeans to set foot on the shores of what is present-day Texas.
- Montenegro gains autonomy under Ottoman power.
- Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Montejo attempts an invasion of the Yucatán, but is driven out by the Maya peoples.
- Spain takes direct control of Acapulco.
- Bubonic plague breaks out in England.
- St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle is completed.
- Chateau Fontainebleau in France is begun.
- Michelangelo Buonarroti begins work on the fortifications of Florence.
- Baldassare Castiglione publishes The Book of the Courtier.
- In Henan province, China, during the mid Ming dynasty, a vast drought deprives the region of harvests for the next two years, killing off half the people in some communities, due to starvation and cannibalism.
- Paracelsus leaves Basel.
- Perak Sultanate is established at Perak Darul Ridzuan.
- Johor Sultanate is established at Johor Darul Takzim.
- February 29
- March 10 – Akechi Mitsuhide, Japanese samurai and warlord (d. 1582)
- March 25 – Jakob Andreae, German theologian (d. 1590)
- June 7 – Cyriacus Spangenberg, German theologian and historian (d. 1604)
- June 21 – Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress (d. 1603)
- June 29 – Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (d. 1589)
- July 7 – Archduchess Anna of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria (d. 1590)
- July 8 – Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (d. 1580)
- July 26 – Diego Andrada de Payva, Portuguese theologian (d. 1575)
- August 10 – Eric II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (d. 1584)
- September 25 – Otto II, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg (d. 1603)
- October 4? – Francisco Guerrero, Spanish composer (d. 1599)
- October 10 – Adam Lonicer, German botanist (d. 1586)
- November 2 – Petrus Lotichius Secundus, German Neo-Latin poet (d. 1560)
- November 6 – Gabriel Goodman, Dean of Westminster (d. 1601)
- November 12 – Qi Jiguang, Chinese military general (d. 1588)
- November 14 – Francisco Pérez de Valenzuela, Spanish noble (d. 1599)
- November 16 – Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre (d. 1572)
- November 29 – Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu, English politician (d. 1592)
- date unknown
- Igram van Achelen, Dutch statesman (d. 1604)
- Adam von Bodenstein, Swiss alchemist and physician (d. 1577)
- Jean-Jacques Boissard, French antiquary and Latin poet (d. 1602)
- Andrey Kurbsky, Russian writer (d. 1583)
- George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, English statesman (d. 1590)
- Phùng Khắc Khoan, Vietnamese military strategist, politician, diplomat and poet (d. 1613)
- Sabina, Duchess of Bavaria (d. 1578)
- Tanegashima Tokitaka, Japanese daimyō (d. 1579)
- Thomas Whythorne, English musician and author (d. 1595)
- January 30 – Maharana Sangram Singh, Rana of Mewar (b. 1484)
- February 29 – Patrick Hamilton, Scottish religious reformer (martyred) (b. 1504)
- March 10 – Balthasar Hübmaier, influential German/Moravian Anabaptist leader (b. 1480)
- April 1 – Francisco de Peñalosa, Spanish composer (b. c. 1470)
- April 6 – Albrecht Dürer, German artist, writer, and mathematician (b. 1471)
- July – Palma il Vecchio, Italian painter (b. 1480)
- August 15 – Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, French military leader (b. 1485)
- August 20 – Georg von Frundsberg, German knight and landowner (b. 1473)
- August 23 – Louis, Count of Vaudémont, Italian bishop (b. 1500)
- August 31 – Matthias Grünewald, German artist (b. 1470)
- September – Pánfilo de Narváez, Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas (b. 1480)
- October 5 – Richard Foxe, English churchman (b. c. 1448)
- October 18 – Michele Antonio, Marquess of Saluzzo (b. 1495)
- October 21 – Johann of Schwarzenberg, German judge and poet (b. 1463)
- November 17 – Jakob Wimpfeling, Renaissance humanist (b. 1450)
- December 7 – Margaret of Saxony, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1469)
- date unknown
- Lillie Rollins Crawford; Robert Junious Crawford (1996). Roos Af Hjelmsäter: A Swedish Noble Family with Allied Families and Emigrants. Gateway Press. p. 420.
- Los viajes de Diego García de Moguer.
- Cristina Acidini; Cristina Acidini Luchinat; Palazzo Strozzi (January 1, 2002). The Medici, Michelangelo, & the Art of Late Renaissance Florence. Yale University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-300-09495-4.
- "Renaissance: The Reconstructed Libraries of European Scholars: 1450-1700". Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- Reported by local gazetteers.
- Jo Eldridge Carney (2001). Renaissance and Reformation, 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-313-30574-0.
- Richard Ford Heath (1929). Albrecht Dürer, 1471-1528. S. Low, Marston. p. 87.