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Maharana Sangram Singh (12 April 1482 – 30 January 1528) commonly known as Rana Sanga, was Rana of Mewar and head of a powerful Hindu Rajput confederacy in Rajputana during the 16th century. He belonged to Sisodiya clan of Rajput. Rana ruled between 1508 and 1528.[1]

Maharana Sangram Singh
राणा सांगा
Rana Sanga
Depiction of Maharana Sangram Singh.
Rana of Mewar
Reign 1508–1528
Predecessor Rana Raimal
Successor Ratan Singh II
Born (1482-04-12)12 April 1482
Malwa, Rajasthan, India
Died 30 January 1528(1528-01-30) (aged 43)
Kalpi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Spouse Rani Karnavati
Issue Bhoj Raj
Ratan Singh II
Vikramaditya Singh
Udai Singh II
Full name
Sangram Singh
House Sisodia
Father Rana Raimal
Religion Hindu
Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar II
(1326–1884)
Hammir Singh (1326–1364)
Kshetra Singh (1364–1382)
Lakha Singh (1382–1421)
Mokal Singh (1421–1433)
Rana Kumbha (1433–1468)
Udai Singh I (1468–1473)
Rana Raimal (1473–1508)
Rana Sanga (1508–1527)
Ratan Singh II (1528–1531)
Vikramaditya Singh (1531–1536)
Vanvir Singh (1536–1540)
Udai Singh II (1540–1572)
Pratap Singh I (1572–1597)
Amar Singh I (1597–1620)
Karan Singh II (1620–1628)
Jagat Singh I (1628–1652)
Raj Singh I (1652–1680)
Jai Singh (1680–1698)
Amar Singh II (1698–1710)
Sangram Singh II (1710–1734)
Jagat Singh II (1734–1751)
Pratap Singh II (1751–1754)
Raj Singh II (1754–1762)
Ari Singh II (1762–1772)
Hamir Singh II (1772–1778)
Bhim Singh (1778–1828)
Jawan Singh (1828–1838)
Sardar Singh (1828–1842)
Swarup Singh (1842–1861)
Shambhu Singh (1861–1874)
Sajjan Singh (1874–1884)
Fateh Singh (1884–1930)
Bhupal Singh (1930—1955)

Rana Sanga succeeded his father, Rana Raimal, as king of Mewar in 1508. He fought against the Afghan Lodhi dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, and later against the Mughals.

Rana Sanga had over 80 wounds, was blinded in one eye by his brother, lost an arm by a sword cut against the Pashtuns of Delhi, and he limped because of an arrow wound in his leg.[2]

Contents

Succession to throneEdit

 
Chittorgarh Fort, Chittor

Rana Sanga was a grandson of Rana Kumbha. Sanga became the ruler of Mewar after a battle for succession with his brothers.[3]

Conquest of MalwaEdit

Medini Rai was granted a fief by Rana Sanga. The Malwa Sultan encroached on it. To teach him a lesson, Rana Sanga marched against the Sultan. in the ensuing battle, the Muslim army was completely routed and Mahmud was taken prisoner. Rana Sanga treated him with honor and restored him his kingdom.

Idar feudEdit

The Battles of Idar were three major battles fought in the principality of Idar between the armies of the two princes of Idar, Bhar Mal who was supported by the Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah II and Rai Mal who was supported by the Rajputs under Rana Sanga. The main reason for Rana Sangas involvement in these battles was to reinstate Rai Mal to his rightful throne and to weaken the growing power of the Gujarat Sultanate. In 1517 Rai Mal with the help of Rana Sanga was able to successfully defeat Muzzafar Shah II and retake his kingdom

Victories over Ibrahim LodiEdit

Battle of KhatoliEdit

On the death of Sikander Lodi in A.D. 1517, his son Ibrahim Lodi succeeded him. He was engaged in putting down the revolts of his nobles, when news of Rana Sanga’s encroachments reached him. He prepared an army and marched against Mewar. The Maharana advanced to meet him and the two armies met near the village of Khatoli on the borders of Haravati (Haraoti). The Delhi army could not stand the onslaught of the Rajput’s, and after a fight lasting two pahars (5 hours), the Sultan’s army gave way and fled, followed by the Sultan himself, leaving a Lodi prince prisoner in the hands of Sanga. The prince was released after a few days , on payment of a ransom. In this battle, the Maharana lost an arm by a sword cut, and an arrow made him lame for life.

Battle of DholpurEdit

Ibrahim Lodi was smarting under his defeat at Battle of Khatoli. To avenge it, he made great preparations and moved against Rana Sanga. The Rajput armies were stretched because of wars with the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat. Ibrahim Lodi was keen on taking advantage of this situation to crush the Rajputs. in hot action fought near Dholpur, the Rajputs, as in the earlier action, made a furious charge. "under its momentum, The Lodi army scattered like dead leaves caught in a gale". Ibrahim Lodi was once again humbled and Rana Sanga followed this victory by capturing most of present-day Rajasthan.

Invasion of GujaratEdit

Siege of MandsaurEdit

War Between Sanga and BaburEdit

After his initial gains Rana Sanga became recognized within north India as a principal player in the power struggle to rule the northern territories of princely India. His objectives grew in scope – he planned to conquer the much sought after prize of the Muslim rulers of the time, Delhi, and bring the whole of India under his control.

He had crushed Gujarat and conquered Malwa and was now close to Agra. It was at this juncture that he heard that Babur had defeated and slain Ibrahim Lodi and was now master of the Delhi Sultanate.[citation needed]

Rana Sanga decided, in a miscalculation of Babur's strength and determination, to wage a war against the Mughal Emperor.[citation needed] As a first move, he coerced Afghan fugitive princes like Mehmud Lodi to join him. A number of Mewati Muslims under Hasan Khan Mewati also assured their support to Rana Sanga. Then Rana ordered Babur to leave India. Initially he hoped to attain this by sending his vassal Sardar Silhadi of Raisen as his emissary.[4][page needed] Silhadi who went to Babur’s camp was won over by Babur. Babur accepted that to rule North India he may have to engage in battle with Rana Sanga and hence had no desire for retreat. Babur and Silhadi hatched a plot. Silhadi, who held a large contingent of 30,000 men would join Babur’s camp at critical moment of battle and thus defeat Rana Sanga. Silhadi who went back to Chittor, told Rana that war is a must.[5][page needed]

The Rajput forces of Rana Sanga, supplemented by the contingents of Afghan, Mehmud Lodi and Medini Rai of Alwar, met Babur’s army at Khanwa near Fatehpur Sikri in 1527. The battle, which lasted for not more than 10 hours, was bitterly contested and became an exceedingly brutal affair. At a critical moment of battle, the defection of Silhadi and his contingent caused a split in the Rajput forces. Rana Sanga while trying to rebuild his front was wounded and fell unconscious from his horse. The Rajput army thought their leader was dead and fled in disorder, thus allowing the Mughals to win the day.[6][page needed][7][page needed]

Rana Sanga was whisked away to safety by the Rathore contingent from Marwar and once he became conscious he learnt of the defeat. But Rana Sanga, unwilling to admit defeat, set out once more to rebuild his military and renew war with Babur.

On 30 January 1528, Rana Sanga died in Chittor, apparently poisoned by his own chiefs who held his plans of renewing the fight with Babur to be suicidal.[8]

It is suggested that had there not been the cannons of Babur, then Rana Sanga might have achieved a historic victory against Babur.[9] The historian Pradeep Barua notes that Babur's cannons had put an end to the outdated trends in Indian warfare.[9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  2. ^ Duff's Chronology of India, p. 271 Archived December 8, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Chandra, Satish (2004) [1997]. Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206-1526). 1 (Revised ed.). Har-Anand Publications. p. 224. ISBN 978-8-12411-064-5. 
  4. ^ Upendra Nath Day, Medieval Malwa: A Political and Cultural History
  5. ^ Upendra Nath Day
  6. ^ Refer LP Sharma, Bakshi & Verma, Upendra Nath Day
  7. ^ Nilakanta Sashtri and Srinivasachari, Advanced History of India
  8. ^ Chandra, Satish (2006). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526). 2. Har-Anand Publications.
  9. ^ a b Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-80321-344-9. 
Rana Sanga
Born: 12 April 1484 Died: 17 March 1527
Preceded by
Rana Raimal
Sisodia Rajput Ruler
1508–1527
Succeeded by
Vikramaditya Singh

See alsoEdit