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• Established by Maha Manikya
|Today part of||India|
The present political areas which were part of the Tipra Kingdom are:
The Twipra Kingdom in all its various ages comprised the areas with the borders:
A list of legendary Tripuri kings is given in the Rajmala chronicle, a 15th-century chronicle in Bengali verse written by the court pandits of Dharma Manikya I (r. 1431). The chronicle traces the king's ancestry to the mythological Lunar Dynasty. Son of Yayati, Druhyu became king of Kirata land and constructed a city named Trivega on the bank of Kapila river. His kingdom was bounded by the river Tairang on the north, Acaranga on the south, Mekhali on the east, Koch and Vanga on the west. The Daughter of the King of Hedamba was married to King Trilochona of Trivega. The King of Hedamba having no heir made the eldest son of Trilochona the King of Hedamba. After death of Trilochona, His second son Daksina became King of Tripura. Daksina shared the wealth of the kingdom among the eleven brothers. Being the eldest son of Trilochona, the King of Hedamba demands his kingdom from his brothers. In denial, the enraged King of Hedamba attacked Tripura and destroyed the capital. The eleven brothers leave Trivega and move to Khalangma on the bank of river Varavakra and found the capital Khalangma. In the 8th century, the kingdom shifted its capital eastwards along the Surma river in Sylhet near present Kailasahar town of North Tripura.
The religion of the Tipra had 14 deities known as Chaturdasa Devata and is still preserved in the Chaturdasha Temple in Agartala, which is maintained by the Tipra priests known as Chantai's, who oversee the festivals of the Kharchi and Ker according to traditions.
The earliest historical records concerning the Twipra kingdom appears in the 15th century, when it first came under pressure from the Islamic invaders. This is also the time of origin of the Manikya Dynasty, when Chhengthung Fa adopted the title Manikya, becoming Maha Manikya, with the cognomen being held by all Kings of Tripura until the death of Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya in 1947. Under Ratna Manikya I, the capital shifted to Rangamati on the banks of the river Gumti, now in South Tripura.
Tripura was one of the states that pushed back successive waves of invasions from Turks, Afghans, and Mughals. On many occasions, Tripuris (Tiprasa) also pushed back Burmese and Arakanese invasions from the East. At its height it comprised what is now Tripura, Sylhet division of Bangladesh, Cachar region of Assam state and the Chittagong Hill Tracts of what is now Bangladesh, and even managed to remain free and independent before the British takeover.
The plains of Tripura, however, fell to the attacks from Mughals. The plains territories comprise today's South-East Dhaka and Comilla areas. While the plains areas were thus Islamized, the Hills of Tripura served as a continuous bulwark against penetration to the East. The Tripura Hill Kings were major sponsors of Hindu traditions and customs. In the modern age, they are remembered as one of the longest and most stable dynasties from the Indian East.
Dhanya Manikya (reigned 1463 to 1515) expanded Twipra's territorial domain well into Eastern Bengal. Rangamati was renamed Udaipur after Udai Manikya. The kingdom flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries with kings such as Govinda Manikya putting up a strong defence against the pressure of the Muslim kingdoms to the west. However, the plains areas fell away from Tripura state due to the actions of a renegade Tripuri prince who was backed by Mughal governors of Eastern Bengal plains. After this, plains Twipra became a separate Mughal client kingdom, with the Mughal rulers exerting influence on the appointment of its kings. However, the Mughals could never penetrate the Hills territories to the east.
In British India, the kings retained an estate in British India, known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad (now the greater Comilla region of Bangladesh), in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state of Tripura. Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation. The last king was Kirit Bikram Kishore, son of Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarma, who ruled for two years, 1947–1949. In 1949, Tripura became part of the Republic of India. The Tripuri "heir apparent" is Kirat Pradyot Kishore Manikya Debbarma (born 1978), the son of the last king, who is sometimes given the courtesy title of "Maharaja".
- Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 147. ISBN 0226742210.
- In 1562, Chilarai attacked the kingdom and took possession of the Barak valley in which the state of Khaspur was established as a dewani of the Koch kingdom). (Bhattacharjee 1994:71) In the 18th-century, a Kachari king annexed the Hailakandi valley. (Bhattacharjee 1994:72)
- Druhyu, the son of Sarmistha, the daughter of Vrsaparvan, became king of the Kirata Land... Druhyu constructed a city in the Trikvega region. His capital was situated on the bank of the River Kapila. (Nath 2020:15)
- (Nath 2020:32)
- (Nath 2020:32)
- (Nath 2020:39)
- "The MSL records that the territory of this polity was in the early 15th century occupied by Da Gu-la (Tai-zong 269.3a-b), which suggests an area near Assam, There seems little doubt that it refers to Tripura, which lies south of the Brahmaputra and north of Bengal"(Wade 1994:253)
- (Boland-Crewe & Lea 2005, p. 238)
- Nath, NC (February 2020). Sri Rajmala (PDF). Tribal Research & Cultural Institute Government of Tripura.
- Wade, Geoffrey (1994), The Ming Shi-lu (Veritable Records of the Ming Dynasty) as a Source for Southeast Asian History -- 14th to 17th Centuries, Hong Kong
- Bhattacharjee, J B (1994), "Pre-colonial Political Structure of Barak Valley", in Sangma, Milton S (ed.), Essays on North-east India: Presented in Memory of Professor V. Venkata Rao, New Delhi: Indus Publishing Company, pp. 61–85
- Boland-Crewe, Tara; Lea, David (2005) . The Territories and States of India. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-35625-5.
- Tripura Buranji 17th Century Ahom Chronicle.
- Progressive Tripura, 1930
- Rajmala, royal chronicle of Tripura Kings.
- Hill Tippera – History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 13, p. 118.
- Online Books and material
- Tripura Rajmala (1850) by Rev. James Long