Bundi State

Bundi State was an India princely state, located in modern-day Rajasthan. It was ruled by Hada Chauhans.[1]

Bundi State
बूँदी रियासत
1342–1949
Flag of Bundi State
Flag
Coat of arms of Bundi State
Coat of arms
Motto: "Dharm ke jeet ho, adharm ka naash ho"
Let religion prevail, iniquity perish
Bundi State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India.
Bundi State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India.
Religion
Hinduism
History 
• Established
1342
• Accession in
Dominion of India
1949
Area
• Total
5,750 km2 (2,220 sq mi)
Population
• 1931
216,722
Succeeded by
Republic of India
Today part ofRajasthan, India
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bundi". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
View of the Garh Palace in Bundi
Garh Palace Chitrasala
Maharao Bhao Singh riding an elephant. c. 1675
Maharao Umed Singh of Bundi

It was a princely state in the era of British India. The last ruler of Bundi State signed the accession to join the Indian Union in 1949.

HistoryEdit

 
Watercolour painting of the town and pass of Bundi in Rajasthan, by an anonymous artist working in the British school, c. 1840.
 
Sukh Niwas Palace on the edge of the Jait Sagar tank at Bundi, c. 1900

In ancient times, the area around Bundi was apparently inhabited by various local tribes, of which the Parihar and Meena tribes were prominent. Bundi and the eponymous princely state are said to derive their names from a former Meena King called Bunda Meena. Bundi was previously called “Bunda-Ka-Nal", Nal meaning “narrow ways”. Bundi is situated in a narrow valley within the Aravalli Hills in Rajasthan.

Medieval eraEdit

Later the region was governed by Rao Deva, who took over Bundi from Jaita Meena in 1242, renaming the surrounding area as Haravati or Haroti. For the next two centuries, the Hadas of Bundi were the vassals of the Sisodias of Mewar and ruled by the title of Rao until 1569, when Emperor Akbar conferred the title of Rao Raja upon Rao Surjan Singh after the surrender of Ranthambore Fort and his submission. In 1632, Rao Raja Chattar Sal became the ruler, he was one of the most valiant, principled and just kings of Bundi. He built the temple of Keshavarao at Keshoraipatan and Chathra Mahal at Bundi. He became king of Bundi after his grandfather Rao Ratan Singh, as his father Gopinath died while Ratan Singh was still ruling. He saw service with the Mughal forces as head of his Hada Chauhan Rajput troop and was considered an integral part of Mughal army by Shahjahan. Rao Chattar Sal was trusted by Dara Shikoh with governorship of Delhi, a rare privilege for a Hindu. He remained loyal to Shah Jahan and Dara Shikoh during the rebellion of Aurangzeb despite many temptations and even threats from Aurangzeb. Rao Chattar Sal died fighting valiantly as the head of his Hada Rajput troops[2] in the Battle of Samugarh in 1658 along with his youngest son Bharat Singh.[3] Rao Bhao Singh (1658–1678) the eldest son of Chhattar Sal succeeded his father to the throne of Bundi. In 1707, Bahadur Shah I conferred the title of Maharao Raja upon Raja Budh Singh.[4]

British eraEdit

 
View looking along a bazaar at Bundi taken by Gunpatrao Abajee Kale, c.1900.
 
Palace and fortress at Bundi (1832)

In 1804 Rao Raja Bishan Singh (1773–1821) gave valuable assistance to Colonel Monson in his disastrous retreat before Holkar, in revenge for which the Maratha Empire and Pindaris continually ravaged his state and forced the kingdom to pay tribute up to 1817. Consequently, Bishan Singh made a subsidiary alliance with the British East India Company on 10 February 1818, which brought him under its protection. was responsible for the creation of the pleasure palace of Sukh Niwas on the outskirts of Bundi.

Maharao Raja Ram Singh (1821–89) grew up to be a much-respected ruler who initiated economic and administrative reforms and established schools for the teaching of Sanskrit. On the throne for 68 years, he was described as a grand specimen of the Rajput gentleman and "the most conservative prince in conservative Rajputana."[5] His rule was popular and beneficial; and though during the mutiny of 1857 his attitude was equivocal, he continued to enjoy the confidence of the British, being created G.C.S.I. and a counselor of the empire in 1877 and C.I.E. in 1878. He was succeeded by his adopted son Raghubir Singh (1889–1927), who was made a K.C.S.I. in 1897 and a G.C.I.E. in 1901. His reign was blighted by two disastrous famines. Despite his best efforts at alleviation, the population of his kingdom was reduced from some 258,000 to 171,000 by 1901 due to death and emigration.[5]

Maharao Bahadur Singh (1945–77) also supported the British and served in the Burma campaign, where he earned the Military Cross for his gallantry before succeeding to the throne. He was a guest at 1947 wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[6]

Accession to IndiaEdit

At the time of the partition of India in 1947, the British abandoned their suzerainty over the princely states, which were left to decide whether to remain independent or to accede to the newly independent Dominion of India or to Pakistan. The ruler of the state of Bundi decided to accede to India, which later became the Union of India. This brought the internal affairs of Bundi under the control of Delhi. Bundi's last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 7 April 1949.[7]

Coat of armsEdit

The coat of arms of Bundi was a shield depicting a warrior emerging from flames, signifying the creation-legend of the ruling Chauhan clan of Rajputs which was supposedly created from fire. The shield is flanked by cows representing dharma or righteousness; it is crowned by a hand holding a Katar.[8]

RulersEdit

The rulers of Bundi State belonged to Hada Chauhan dynasty of Rajputs.[9]

Rao RajaEdit

  • 1554 - 1585 Surjan Singh
  • 1585 - 1608 Bhoj Singh
  • 1608 - 1632 Ratan Singh
  • 1632 - 1658 Chattar Sal Singh
  • 1658 - 1682 Bhao Singh
  • 1682 - 1696 Anirudh Singh
  • 1696 - 1730 Budh Singh (b. 16.. - d. 1739)
  • 1730 - 1749 Dalel Singh
  • 1749 - 1770 Umaid Singh (1st time) (b. 1729 - d. 1804)
  • 1770 - 1773 Ajit Singh (d. 1773)
  • 1773 - 1804 Umaid Singh (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1804 - 14 May 1821 Bishen Singh (b. 1773 - d. 1821)

Maharao RajaEdit

  • 14 May 1821 - 28 Mar 1889 Ram Singh (b. 1811 - d. 1889) (from 1 Jan 1877, Sir Ram Singh)
  • 28 Mar 1889 - 26 Jul 1927 Raghubir Singh (b. 1869 - d. 1927)

(from 1 Jan 1894, Sir Raghubir Singh)

  • 26 Jul 1927 - 23 Apr 1945 Ishwari Singh (b. 1893 - d. 1945) (from 11 May 1937, Sir Ishwari Singh)
  • 23 Apr 1945 - 15 Aug 1947 Bahadur Singh (b. 1920 - d. 1977)

Titular MaharajdhirajaEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 80.
  2. ^ Crump, Vivien; Toh, Irene (1996). Rajasthan. London: Everyman Guides. p. 291. ISBN 1-85715-887-3.
  3. ^ Sodhi, Jiwan (1999). A Study of Bundi School of Painting. India: Abhinav Publications. p. 29. ISBN 81-7017-347-7.
  4. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v.9, p. 80-81
  5. ^ a b The Times, 30 July 1927, page 12, Issue 44647.
  6. ^ Royal Collection: Seating plan for the Ball Supper Room http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/microsites/royalwedding1947/object.asp?grouping=&exhibs=NONE&object=9000366&row=82&detail=magnify
  7. ^ Princely States of India
  8. ^ The Princely Armory. Publ. by The Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. Calcutta. 1877
  9. ^ "Indian Princely States".

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 25°26′N 75°38′E / 25.44°N 75.64°E / 25.44; 75.64