The Sodhas of Amarkot were a Rajput[2] dynasty who ruled Amarkot, which is now located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The Sodha Rajput clan are a branch of the Parmar clan of Rajputs, as they are an off-shoot of Parmara Rajputs, who once controlled regions of Malwa and later North-West parts of Rajasthan. The kingdom was known for giving refuge to Mughal emperor Humayun, after he was fleeing from the forces of Sher Shah Suri, hence Akbar was born in the kingdom of Amarkot.

Sodha Dynasty
12th century–1947
Amarkot kingdom circa 1250 CE.[1]
Historical eraLate Medieval Period
• Established
12th century
• Acceded to Pakistan



The area around Suratgarh was called 'Sodhawati' and south-east of Bhatner was once occupied by the Sodha Rajputs before being evicted from these regions by Bhati Rajputs, after which they moved their base to Thar desert.[2][3]

Amarkot Fort of Sodha Rajputs

A branch of Parmaras left Abu and settled in Radhanpur led by Bahar Parmar. His descendant Sodhoji became the founder of Sodha clan of Rajputs and captured Ratokot in 1125 AD. With base at Ratokot, they consolidated neighbouring villages under their influence.[4] Further, Sodhoji's ambitious descendant Rana Raj Dev began plotting for the Amarkot fort held by the Soomras. For this purpose, he sent his trusted Charan allies Junfahji and Budhimanji to Amarkot to prepare the ground for the invasion, where they lived for some time before returning to Ratokot.[4] After deliberations with both the Charanas, Rana Raj Dev launched his invasion of Amarkot (Umarkot) in 1226 AD. In the ensuing battle between the armies of Khenhro Soomro and Rana Raj Dev, Sodhas were victorious while Soomras had to retreat. Thus, Rana Raj Dev established Sodha rule over Amarkot and is considered the real founder of the Sodha dynasty.[4] Thereafter, with Umarkot under control, the Sodhas began expansion of their kingdom and soon captured parts of Mithi, Chelhar, Chacharo, and extended their sway up to Nagarparkar. Four generations later, Rana Darabursh divided his state between his two sons and gave Amarkot and adjoining areas to his elder son Darjanshal and Nagarparkar to the younger son, Aasrai.[4]

Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor was born in Amarkot.

Mughal Significance


The city of Amarkot held prominence during the Mughal Empire Jalaluddin Mohammed Akbar and the British Raj. Mughal Emperor Akbar was born in Amarkot 14 October 1542 when his father Humayun fled from the military defeat at the hands of Sher Shah Suri.[5] Rana Parshad, the Sodha Rajput ruler of Amarkot, gave him refuge.[6] Rana Prasad Rao of Amarkot duly welcomed Humayun into his home and sheltered the refugees for several months. Here, in the household of a Hindu Rajput nobleman, Humayun's wife Hamida Bano, daughter of a Sindhi family, gave birth to the future Emperor Akbar on 15 October 1542. The date of birth is well established because Humayun consulted his astronomer to utilise the astrolabe and check the location of the planets. The infant was the long-awaited heir-apparent to the 34-year-old Humayun and the answer of many prayers. Shortly after the birth, Humayun and his party left Amarkot for Sindh, leaving Akbar behind, who was not ready for the grueling journey ahead in his infancy.[citation needed]

Annexation by Marwar and British rule


The Anarkot Kingdom ruled by Sodha Rajputs was annexed by Jodhpur State in the 18th century, which caused the decay of power as the Sodha rulers became vassals. The Amarkot area and its fort was later handed to the British in 1847 by the Maharaja of Jodhpur in return for reducing the tribute imposed on Jodhpur State by Rs.10,000. and the territory came under direct rule of British India, and the Ranas were reduced to category of Jagirdars.[7]

End of Reign


The Sodha rule came to an end in 1947 Partition of British India, after the Amarkot king Rana Arjun Singh contested for the All-India Muslim League platform, and decided to join the new nation of Pakistan.[citation needed]


Rana Hamir Singh, the 26th Rana and a prominent Pakistani politician.

Rana Chandra Singh, a federal minister and the chieftain of the Hindu Sodha Rajput clan and the Amarkot Jagir, was one of the founder members of Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan from Umarkot, seven times with PPP between 1977 and 1999, when he founded the Pakistan Hindu Party (PHP).[8] Chandra Singh's son Rana Hamir Singh is the 26th Rana of Tharparkar, Amarkot and Mithi.[9][10][11]


  1. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 21, 147. ISBN 0226742210.
  2. ^ a b Singh, Rajvi Amar (1992). Mediaeval History of Rajasthan: Western Rajasthan. Rajvi Amar Singh. p. 202. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  3. ^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers].: Ganganagar. Printed at Government Central Press. 1972. p. 35. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d Kalhoro, Zulfiqar Ali. "VANISHING VISUAL HERITAGE: SATI AND HERO STONES IN NAGARPARKAR, SINDH ZULFIQAR ALI KALHORO Introduction". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ Part 10:..the birth of Akbar Humayun nama by Gulbadan Begum.
  6. ^ Part 10:..the birth of Akbar Humayun-nama by Gulbadan Begum.
  7. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 14, page 186 – Imperial Gazetteer of India – Digital South Asia Library".
  8. ^ "Hindu Leader, Ex-minister Chardar Singh is Dead". Khaleej Times. 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2009.
  9. ^ Footprints: Once upon a time in Umerkot, Dawn (newspaper), 16 January 2015.
  10. ^ Pakistan's Umerkot gets a new Hindu ruler, The Hindu, 30 May 2010.
  11. ^ Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development (1987). Land Reforms in Pakistan: A Historical Perspective. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. p. 200. Retrieved 30 April 2021.