Manikya dynasty

The Manikya dynasty was the ruling house of the Twipra Kingdom and later the princely Tripura State, what is now the Indian state of Tripura. Ruling since the early 15th century, the dynasty at its height controlled a large swathe of the north-east of the Indian subcontinent. After coming under British influence, in 1761 they transitioned from feudal monarchs into rulers of a princely state, though the Manikyas maintain control of the region until 1949, when it ascended in union with India.

Manikya
Coat of Arms of Tripura Princely State.gif
Parent houseLunar dynasty (legendary)
Country
Foundedc. 1400
FounderMaha Manikya
Current headKirit Pradyot Manikya (titular)
Final rulerKirit Bikram Kishore Manikya
Titles
Deposition1949
Coinage of Rajadhara Manikya (1586-1599 CE), king of Tripura.

HistoryEdit

Tracing a descent from the mythological Lunar dynasty,[1] the Rajmala royal chronicle records an unbroken line of 144 (likely legendary) monarchs of Tripura up to the ascension of one Ratna Fa, who is stated to have become the first Manikya after being granted the cognomen by the Sultan of Bengal.[2] However, it is now believed that the Rajmala had been mistaken in the genealogy and chronology of the initial Manikya rulers.[3] Numismatic evidence suggests that the first historical Manikya was in fact Maha Manikya,[4] a Tripuri chief who founded the kingdom after establishing dominance over neighbouring tribes in the early 1400s.[5] This monarch then took the title "Manikya" in honour of a historic victory over Bengal, with the name being inherited by his descendants.[6]

Maha Manikya's early successors achieved considerable military success, conquering territory in Bengal, Assam and Burma. Tripura reached its zenith in the 16th century under such prominent kings as Dhanya Manikya and Vijaya Manikya II,[7] with its lands stretching from the Garo Hills in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south. As monarchs of a Hindu kingdom, the Manikyas developed a rivalry with the successive Muslim rulers of Bengal, coming into conflict with Sultans, governors and Nawabs before being brought under Mughal suzerainty in the early 17th century. As Mughal power waned, the antagonism with Bengal re-erupted, which drove the Manikyas to first approach the British for aid. In 1761, Tripura had succumb to British influence, becoming a princely protectorate, though control of the region remained under the Manikya dynasty.[8]

In 1870, Bir Chandra Manikya ascended the throne and began a series of political reforms to his kingdom, modelling his government on the British system. A lover of the culture of Bengal, Bengali was adopted by the court under his rule and he developed a friendship with the celebrated poet, Rabindranath Tagore. After Tripura was briefly incorporated into the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam at the beginning of the 20th century, the last Manikya monarch, Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore, chose to come under the jurisdiction of the predominantly Hindu Dominion of India in 1947. The final ascension of Tripura into the modern Indian nation was signed by his widow, Kanchan Prava Devi, in place of the minor Kirit Bikram Kishore, bringing to an end five centuries of Manikya rule.[8]

List of rulersEdit

 
Princely States. Tripura. Vijaya Manikya II (1532-1564), dated 1560
 
Tripura princely state in 1909
Kingdom of Tripura
Part of History of Tripura
Maha Manikyac. 1400–1431
Dharma Manikya I1431–1462
Ratna Manikya I1462–1487
Pratap Manikya1487
Vijaya Manikya I1488
Mukut Manikya1489
Dhanya Manikya1490–1515
Dhwaja Manikya1515–1520
Deva Manikya1520–1530
Indra Manikya I1530–1532
Vijaya Manikya II1532–1563
Ananta Manikya1563–1567
Udai Manikya I1567–1573
Joy Manikya I1573–1577
Amar Manikya1577–1585
Rajdhar Manikya I1586–1600
Ishwar Manikya1600
Yashodhar Manikya1600–1623
Interregnum1623–1626
Kalyan Manikya1626–1660
Govinda Manikya1660–1661
Chhatra Manikya1661–1667
Govinda Manikya1661–1673
Rama Manikya1673–1685
Ratna Manikya II1685–1693
Narendra Manikya1693–1695
Ratna Manikya II1695–1712
Mahendra Manikya1712–1714
Dharma Manikya II1714–1725
Jagat Manikya1725–1729
Dharma Manikya II1729
Mukunda Manikya1729–1739
Joy Manikya IIc. 1739–1744
Indra Manikya IIc. 1744–1746
Udai Manikya IIc. 1744
Joy Manikya II1746
Vijaya Manikya III1746–1748
Lakshman Manikya1740s/1750s
Interregnum1750s–1760
Krishna Manikya1760–1783
Rajdhar Manikya II1785–1806
Rama Ganga Manikya1806–1809
Durga Manikya1809–1813
Rama Ganga Manikya1813–1826
Kashi Chandra Manikya1826–1829
Krishna Kishore Manikya1829–1849
Ishan Chandra Manikya1849–1862
Bir Chandra Manikya1862–1896
Birendra Kishore Manikya1909–1923
Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya1923–1947
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya1947–1949
1949–1978 (titular)
Kirit Pradyot Manikya1978–present (titular)
Tripura monarchy data
Manikya dynasty (Royal family)
Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)
Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)
Neermahal (Royal residence)
Rajmala (Royal chronicle)
Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)
Chaturdasa Devata (Family deities)
Rulers of the Manikya dynasty (c.1400 – 1949)[9]
Name Reign start Reign end Claim Notes
Maha Manikya c.1400 1431
Dharma Manikya I 1431 1462 Son of Maha Manikya
Ratna Manikya I 1462 c.1487 Son of Dharma Manikya I
Pratap Manikya c.1487 c.1487 Son of Ratna Manikya I
Vijaya Manikya I 1488 1488 Possibly son of Pratap Manikya
Mukut Manikya 1489 1489 Son of Ratna Manikya I
Dhanya Manikya 1490 1515 Son of Ratna Manikya I
Dhwaja Manikya 1515 1520 Son of Dhanya Manikya
Deva Manikya 1520 1530 Son of Dhanya Manikya
Indra Manikya I 1530 1532 Son of Deva Manikya
Vijaya Manikya II 1532 1563 Son of Deva Manikya
Ananta Manikya 1563 1567 Son of Vijaya Manikya II
Udai Manikya I 1567 1573 Father-in-law of Ananta Manikya Claimed the throne following the death of his predecessor, briefly supplanting the ruling dynasty with his own line.[10]
Joy Manikya I 1573 1577 Son of Udai Manikya
Amar Manikya 1577 1586 Son of Deva Manikya Restored the Manikya dynasty after killing his predecessor.[11]
Rajdhar Manikya I 1586 1600 Son of Amar Manikya
Ishwar Manikya 1600 1600 Possibly son of Amar Manikya or Rajdhar Manikya I
Yashodhar Manikya 1600 1618 Son of Rajdhar Manikya I Monarchy temporarily overthrown by the Mughal Empire.[12]
Kalyan Manikya 1626 1660 Descendant of Maha Manikya From a cadet branch of the dynasty.[13] Elected as monarch after Mughal interregnum.[14]
Govinda Manikya 1660 1661 Son of Kalyan Manikya First reign
Chhatra Manikya 1661 1667 Son of Kalyan Manikya
Govinda Manikya 1667 1676 Son of Kalyan Manikya Second reign
Rama Manikya 1676 1685 Son of Govinda Manikya
Ratna Manikya II 1685[15] 1693[15] Son of Rama Manikya First reign
Narendra Manikya 1693[15] 1695[15] Grandson of Govinda Manikya
Ratna Manikya II 1695[15] 1712[15] Son of Rama Manikya Second reign
Mahendra Manikya 1712[16] 1714[16] Son of Rama Manikya
Dharma Manikya II 1714[16] 1725[16] Son of Rama Manikya First reign
Jagat Manikya 1725[17] 1729[17] Great-grandson of Chhatra Manikya
Dharma Manikya II 1729[17] 1729[17] Son of Rama Manikya Second reign
Mukunda Manikya 1729 1739 Son of Rama Manikya
Joy Manikya II 1739 1744 Great-great-grandson of Kalyan Manikya First reign
Indra Manikya II 1744 1746 Son of Mukunda Manikya
Udai Manikya II c. 1744 c. 1744 Son of Dharma Manikya II Briefly laid claim to the throne during a power struggle between his relatives.[18]
Joy Manikya II 1746 1746 Great-great-grandson of Kalyan Manikya Second reign
Vijaya Manikya III 1746 1748 Brother of Joy Manikya II, great-great-grandson of Kalyan Manikya
Lakshman Manikya ? ? Grandson of Dharma Manikya II Ruled as a puppet-monarch under Shamsher Gazi for three years before the latter took the throne for himself.[19]
Krishna Manikya 1760 1783 Son of Mukunda Manikya
Rajdhar Manikya II 1785 1806 Grandson of Mukunda Manikya
Rama Ganga Manikya 1806 1809 Son of Rajdhar Manikya II First reign
Durga Manikya 1809 1813 Son of Lakshman Manikya
Rama Ganga Manikya 1813 1826 Son of Rajdhar Manikya II Second reign
Kashi Chandra Manikya 1826 1829 Son of Rajdhar Manikya II
Krishna Kishore Manikya 1829 1849 Son of Rama Ganga Manikya
Ishan Chandra Manikya 1849 1862 Son of Krishna Kishore Manikya
Bir Chandra Manikya 1862 1896 Son of Krishna Kishore Manikya
Radha Kishore Manikya 1896 1909 Son of Bir Chandra Manikya
Birendra Kishore Manikya 1909 1923 Son of Radha Kishore Manikya
Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya 1923 1947 Son of Birendra Kishore Manikya
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya 1947 1949 Son of Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya
Titular (1949 – present)
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya 1949 2006 Son of Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya
Kirit Pradyot Manikya 2006 current Son of Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya

Family treeEdit

Family tree
Maha Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. c. 1400–1431
Dharma Manikya I
Raja of Tripura
r. 1431–1462
Gagan Fa
Ratna Manikya I
Raja of Tripura
r. 1462–c. 1487
Dhanya Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1490–1515
Pratap Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. c. 1487
Mukut Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1489
Dhwaja Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1515–1520
Deva Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1520–1530
Possibly
Vijaya Manikya I
Raja of Tripura
r. 1488
Udai Manikya I
Raja of Tripura
r. 1567–1573
Indra Manikya I
Raja of Tripura
r. 1530–1532
Vijaya Manikya II
Raja of Tripura
r. 1532–1563
Amar Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1577–1586
Joy Manikya I
Raja of Tripura
r. 1573–1577
Ratnavati
Ruler of Chandipur
Ananta Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1563–1567
Rajdhar Manikya I
Raja of Tripura
r. 1586–1600
Yashodhar Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1600–1618
Ishwar Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1600
Kachu Fa
Kalyan Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1626–1660
Govinda Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1660–1661
r. 1667–1676
Jagannath ThakurChhatra Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1661–1667
Rama Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1676–1685
Durga ThakurSurya Pratap Narayan ThakurUtsab Roy
Ratna Manikya II
Raja of Tripura
r. 1685–1693
r. 1695–1712
Mahendra Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1712–1714
Dharma Manikya II
Raja of Tripura
r. 1714–1725
r. 1729
Mukunda Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1729–1739
Narendra Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1693–1695
Haradhan ThakurVijaya Narayan
Udai Manikya II
Raja of Tripura
r. c. 1744
Gadadhar ThakurIndra Manikya II
Raja of Tripura
r. c. 1744–1746
Krishna Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1760–1783
HarimaniJoy Manikya II
Raja of Tripura
r. c. 1739–1744
r. 1746
Vijaya Manikya III
Raja of Tripura
r. 1746–1748
Jagat Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1725–1729
Lakshman Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. c. 1740/50s
Rajdhar Manikya II
Raja of Tripura
r. 1785–1806
Balaram Manikya
Ruler of Chakla Roshnabad
r. 1767
Durga Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1809–1813
Rama Ganga Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1806–1809
r. 1813–1826
Kashi Chandra Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1826–1829
Krishna Kishore Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1829–1849
Ishan Chandra Manikya
Raja of Tripura
r. 1849–1862
Bir Chandra Manikya
Maharaja of Tripura
r. 1862–1896
Radha Kishore Manikya
Maharaja of Tripura
r. 1896–1909
Birendra Kishore Manikya
Maharaja of Tripura
r. 1909–1923
Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya
Maharaja of Tripura
r. 1923–1947
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya
Maharaja of Tripura
r. 1947–1949
Kirit Pradyot Manikya
Bibliography:
  • Choudhury, Achyut Charan (2000) [1910], Srihatter Itibritta: Purbangsho (in Bengali), Kolkata: Kotha, p. 502
  • Sarma, Ramani Mohan (1987), Political History of Tripura, Calcutta: Puthipatra

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Singh Rana (1998), p. 210.
  2. ^ Bhattacharyya (1977), p. 13.
  3. ^ Saha (1986), p. 168.
  4. ^ Sarma (1987), p. 39.
  5. ^ Momin, Mawlong & Qādrī (2006), p. 81.
  6. ^ Lahiri (1999), p. 53.
  7. ^ Nayar (2005), p. 70.
  8. ^ a b Boland-Crewe & Lea (2005), p. 238.
  9. ^ Sarma (1987), pp. 233–34.
  10. ^ Sarma (1987), pp. 75–76.
  11. ^ Sarma (1987), p. 77.
  12. ^ Chib (1988), p. 11.
  13. ^ Gan-Chaudhuri (1980), p. 25.
  14. ^ Sarma (1987), p. 96.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Friedberg & Friedberg (2009), p. 498.
  16. ^ a b c d DebBarma (2006), p. 24.
  17. ^ a b c d DebBarma (2006), p. 25.
  18. ^ Sarma (1987), p. 130.
  19. ^ Sur (1986), p. 14.

BibliographyEdit