Langah Sultanate

Langah Sultanate, also known as Sultanate of Multan (1445 – 1540) was a kingdom centered around city of Multan in south Punjab, modern day Pakistan. It was established by Sultan Qutbudin (previously Rai Sehra) in 1445.

Langah Sultanate
1445–1540
Approximate territory of the Langah Sultanate at its greatest extent, circa 1475 CE.[1]
Approximate territory of the Langah Sultanate at its greatest extent, circa 1475 CE.[1]
CapitalMultan
Religion
Islam
GovernmentSultanate
History 
• Langah Sultanate begins
1445
• Langah Sultanate ends
1540
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Delhi Sultanate
Mughal Empire
Today part ofPakistan

OriginEdit

There are conflicting reports on the origin of the Langah tribe, in Ain-i Akbari the Langah are listed as one of the Jatt Zamindar tribes came from punjab[2][3] While Abd al-Haqq, in the 16th century, refers to the Langah as a Baloch tribe.[4] Historian and archaeologist, HT Lambrick refers to the Langah rulers as Jats,[5] this view is also echoed by other scholars.[6][7][8][9] During the British Raj, the Langah tribe remained one of the principal tribes of Multan District and were regarded as Jats.[10]

HistoryEdit

The first independent Sultan of Multan city was Nasir ad-Din Qabacha, who after the death of Muhammad Ghouri ruled the Sultanate from 1203 to 1228. During his reign, education developed and colleges were founded; his court became a rendezvous for the learned, and some of the earliest Persian works in the subcontinent, such as Awfi's literary anthology Lubab al-Albab and Ali Kufi's Fat’h-nama on Sind history (translated from Arabic) were produced.[1] However, Multan was annexed into Delhi Sultanate after his death.

After invasion of Emir Timur in 1398, the Delhi Sultanate became greatly weak and the city of Multan became independent of the Sultanate of Delhi. The inhabitants chose Shaikh Yousaf Qureshi, a descendent of the famous Sufi Baha-ud-din Zakariya, as ruler in 1438. He was a mild and unexperienced ruler. In 1445, Rai Sahra, chief of the Langah attacked the city at night with the help of his tribesmen, seized Sheikh Yousaf and proclaimed himself Sultan. In this way Multan passed to the Langah clan,[1][11] who established the Langah Sultanate in Multan.[1] The reign of Sultan Husayn I who ruled from 1469 to 1498 is considered to most illustrious of the Langah Sultans.[1] Multan experienced prosperity during this time, and a large number of Baloch settlers arrived in the city at the invitation of Shah Husayn.[1] Shah Husayn successfully repulsed attempted invasion by the Delhi Sultans led by Tatar Khan and Barbak Shah. [1] He fought off attempts to reinstall Shiekh Yousaf who had taken refuge under Delhi Sultans. Eventually, he signed a peace treaty with Sikander Lodhi and abducted in the favour of his son. His successor, Budhan Khan, who assumed the title Sultan Mahmud Shah I, inherited the Sultanate stretched encompassing the neighbouring regions, including the cities of Chiniot and Shorkot.[1] During the rule of the Langah, a large number of Baloch tribes were allowed to settle in the Derajaat Border in turn for military service.[12][13]

DeclineEdit

Sultan Husayn I being unable to hold his trans-Indus possessions, assigned the region around Dera Ismail Khan to Sardar Malik Sohrab Dodai Baloch in 1469 or 1471 and appointed him as "Jagir". [15] During the reign of Mahmud Langah, his Vizier rebelled and declared himself independent ruler of Sorkot. The city was invaded during the reign of Sultan Husseyn II by ruler Shah Husayn of the Arghun dynasty, probably at Babur's insistence,[1] who was either ethnic Mongol,[16] or of Turkic or Turco-Mongol extraction.[17] Multan fell in 1528 after an extended siege and Shah Husayn appointed his son Mirza Askari as governor of the city, assisted by Langar Khan, one of the powerful amirs of Sultan Mahmud Langah I. Shortly after Shah Husayn departed Multan for Thatta, however, the governor was thrown out of the city. The rebels under Sultan Mahmud II administered Multan for a time independently[18] but in 1541, Sher Shah Suri captured Multan, and the Sultanate ended.[19]

CultureEdit

 
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai was built to house visiting Multani merchants.[20]

The position of Multan as trans-regional mercantile centre for trade with the Islamic world remained dominant during the Sultanate era. During their reign, Multan became the principle caravan route between Qandahar and Delhi. The extent of Multan's influence is also reflected in the construction of the Multani caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan — which was built in the 15th century to house Multani merchants visiting the city.[20] Legal records from the Uzbek city of Bukhara note that Multani merchants settled and owned land in the city in the late 1550s.[21]

 
Tomb of Ghazi Khan, the Langah Governor of Derajat.

Another important feature of this era was migration of Baloch tribes and their settling in South Punjab.[1] They soon became core of the military [13] and held political positions in regions like Derajat.

MinistersEdit

Following is the list of known ministers of Langah Sultante:

  • Imadul Mulk (1469 -1499), he was Vizier of Husseyn Langah I. He rebelled against him and was imprisoned.
  • Jam Bayzid (1499 - 1503), he was Vizier of Mahmud Langah I. Due to his strained relations with the Sultan, he rebelled and declared himself independent ruler of Sorkot.[22]
  • Shuja Bukhari (1503 - 1518), He was Vizier of Mahmud Langah.
  • Langar Khan (1518 -1526), He was last Vizier of Sultanate. He assisted Shah Hussain Arghun to conquer Multan.

RulersEdit

  • Sultan Qutbudin, previously Rai Sehra (1445–1469)
  • Sultan Husseyn Langah I (1469–1498)
  • Sultan Mahmud I (1498–1518)
  • Sultan Husseyn II (1518–1526)
  • Sultan Mahmud Langah II (1526-1540)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Baloch, N. A.; Rafi, A. Q. (1998). History of civilizations of Central Asia, v. 4: THE REGIONS OF SIND, BALUCHISTAN, MULTAN AND KASHMIR: THE HISTORICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SETTING (PDF). Unesco. p. 305. ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1.
  2. ^ Ahmed, Iftikhar (1984). "TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION OF JATT CASTES IN PUNJAB c. 1595 - c. 1881". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. Indian History Congress. 45: 429, 432. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44140224. Retrieved 2022-07-28.
  3. ^ Mubārak, A.F.; Blochmann, H. (1891). The Ain I Akbari. Bibliotheca Indica. Asiatic Society of Bengal. p. 321. Retrieved 2022-07-28.
  4. ^ Asimov, M. S.; Bosworth, C. E. (1998-01-01). Volume IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. UNESCO. ISBN 9789231034671.
  5. ^ Lambrick, H. T. (1975). Sind : a general introduction. Hyderabad: Sindhi Adabi Board. p. 212. ISBN 0-19-577220-2. OCLC 2404471.
  6. ^ Wagha, A. (1990). The Siraiki Language: Its Growth and Development. Dderawar Publications. Retrieved 2022-08-03. In the first quarter of the 16th century A.D. the Langah Jat rulers of Multan encouraged the Balochs to be settled in Derajat by granting Jageers in return for which they were to render as military service.
  7. ^ Pakistan Historical Society (1995). Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 167. Retrieved 2022-08-09. ...Mahmūd - ul - Hasan Siddiqui has classified them as Jats
  8. ^ "History of the Arghuns and Tarkhans of Sind (1507-1593): An Annotated Translation of the Relevant Parts of Mir Ma'sum's "Ta'rikh-i-Sind," with an Introduction and Appendices". ProQuest. Retrieved 2022-08-09. Origin of the Langahs:.. They are now classed as Jats"
  9. ^ Achmad, H. Noor; Nurcholis, Nanang (2016). A SOCIO-HISTORICAL APPROACH TO HINDUISM: FROM PRE-ISLAMIC TIMES TO THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD ERA (PDF). Proceeding of the 16th Annual International Conference on Islamic studies 1-4 Nov 2016 (Kementerian Agama). p. 166. Retrieved 2022-07-29.
  10. ^ Roseberry, J.R. (1987). Imperial Rule in Punjab: The Conquest and Administration of Multan, 1818-1881. Manohar. p. 177. ISBN 978-81-85054-28-5. Retrieved 2022-07-28.
  11. ^ Rose, H.A. (1997). A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province: L.-Z, Volume 3. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 9788185297705. Langah are described by Tod as a clan of the Chaluk or Solanki tribe of Agnikula Rajputs, who inhabited Multan and Jaisalmer...
  12. ^ Hussain, J (1997). A History of the Peoples of Pakistan: Towards Independence. Oxford University Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780195778199.
  13. ^ a b Unesco (1998-01-01). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1.
  14. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 39, 147. ISBN 0226742210.
  15. ^ Tolbort, T (1871). The District of Dera Ismail Khan, Trans-Indus. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  16. ^ Davies, C. Collin. "Arghun." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume I. New ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960. ISBN 90-04-08114-3
  17. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-231-10714-5
  18. ^ Davies, pp. 627-8
  19. ^ Chandra, Chandra (2005). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 9788124110669.
  20. ^ a b Amity, Volumes 1-3. Indo-Soviet Cultural Society. 1963. p. 135. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  21. ^ Levi, Scott (2016). "Caravans: Punjabi Khatri Merchants on the Silk Road". Penguin UK. ISBN 9789351189169. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  22. ^ Ferishta, II, p,329; Nahawandi, I, p.278.