Langah Sultanate, also known as Sultanate of Multan (1445 – 1540) was a kingdom centered around city of Multan in south Punjab, modern day Pakistan. It was established by Sultan Qutbudin (previously Rai Sehra) in 1445.
• Langah Sultanate begins
• Langah Sultanate ends
|Today part of||Pakistan|
There are conflicting reports on the origin of the Langah tribe, in Ain-i Akbari the Langah are listed as one of the Jatt Zamindar tribes came from punjab While Abd al-Haqq, in the 16th century, refers to the Langah as a Baloch tribe. Historian and archaeologist, HT Lambrick refers to the Langah rulers as Jats, this view is also echoed by other scholars. During the British Raj, the Langah tribe remained one of the principal tribes of Multan District and were regarded as Jats.
The first independent Sultan of Multan city was Nasir ad-Din Qabacha, who after the death of Muhammad Ghouri ruled the Sultanate from 1203 to 1228. During his reign, education developed and colleges were founded; his court became a rendezvous for the learned, and some of the earliest Persian works in the subcontinent, such as Awfi's literary anthology Lubab al-Albab and Ali Kufi's Fat’h-nama on Sind history (translated from Arabic) were produced. However, Multan was annexed into Delhi Sultanate after his death.
After invasion of Emir Timur in 1398, the Delhi Sultanate became greatly weak and the city of Multan became independent of the Sultanate of Delhi. The inhabitants chose Shaikh Yousaf Qureshi, a descendent of the famous Sufi Baha-ud-din Zakariya, as ruler in 1438. He was a mild and unexperienced ruler. In 1445, Rai Sahra, chief of the Langah attacked the city at night with the help of his tribesmen, seized Sheikh Yousaf and proclaimed himself Sultan. In this way Multan passed to the Langah clan, who established the Langah Sultanate in Multan. The reign of Sultan Husayn I who ruled from 1469 to 1498 is considered to most illustrious of the Langah Sultans. Multan experienced prosperity during this time, and a large number of Baloch settlers arrived in the city at the invitation of Shah Husayn. Shah Husayn successfully repulsed attempted invasion by the Delhi Sultans led by Tatar Khan and Barbak Shah.  He fought off attempts to reinstall Shiekh Yousaf who had taken refuge under Delhi Sultans. Eventually, he signed a peace treaty with Sikander Lodhi and abducted in the favour of his son. His successor, Budhan Khan, who assumed the title Sultan Mahmud Shah I, inherited the Sultanate stretched encompassing the neighbouring regions, including the cities of Chiniot and Shorkot. During the rule of the Langah, a large number of Baloch tribes were allowed to settle in the Derajaat Border in turn for military service.
Sultan Husayn I being unable to hold his trans-Indus possessions, assigned the region around Dera Ismail Khan to Sardar Malik Sohrab Dodai Baloch in 1469 or 1471 and appointed him as "Jagir".  During the reign of Mahmud Langah, his Vizier rebelled and declared himself independent ruler of Sorkot. The city was invaded during the reign of Sultan Husseyn II by ruler Shah Husayn of the Arghun dynasty, probably at Babur's insistence, who was either ethnic Mongol, or of Turkic or Turco-Mongol extraction. Multan fell in 1528 after an extended siege and Shah Husayn appointed his son Mirza Askari as governor of the city, assisted by Langar Khan, one of the powerful amirs of Sultan Mahmud Langah I. Shortly after Shah Husayn departed Multan for Thatta, however, the governor was thrown out of the city. The rebels under Sultan Mahmud II administered Multan for a time independently but in 1541, Sher Shah Suri captured Multan, and the Sultanate ended.
The position of Multan as trans-regional mercantile centre for trade with the Islamic world remained dominant during the Sultanate era. During their reign, Multan became the principle caravan route between Qandahar and Delhi. The extent of Multan's influence is also reflected in the construction of the Multani caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan — which was built in the 15th century to house Multani merchants visiting the city. Legal records from the Uzbek city of Bukhara note that Multani merchants settled and owned land in the city in the late 1550s.
Another important feature of this era was migration of Baloch tribes and their settling in South Punjab. They soon became core of the military  and held political positions in regions like Derajat.
Following is the list of known ministers of Langah Sultante:
- Imadul Mulk (1469 -1499), he was Vizier of Husseyn Langah I. He rebelled against him and was imprisoned.
- Jam Bayzid (1499 - 1503), he was Vizier of Mahmud Langah I. Due to his strained relations with the Sultan, he rebelled and declared himself independent ruler of Sorkot.
- Shuja Bukhari (1503 - 1518), He was Vizier of Mahmud Langah.
- Langar Khan (1518 -1526), He was last Vizier of Sultanate. He assisted Shah Hussain Arghun to conquer Multan.
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- Wagha, A. (1990). The Siraiki Language: Its Growth and Development. Dderawar Publications. Retrieved 2022-08-03.
In the first quarter of the 16th century A.D. the Langah Jat rulers of Multan encouraged the Balochs to be settled in Derajat by granting Jageers in return for which they were to render as military service.
- Pakistan Historical Society (1995). Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 167. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
...Mahmūd - ul - Hasan Siddiqui has classified them as Jats
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Origin of the Langahs:.. They are now classed as Jats"
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- Rose, H.A. (1997). A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province: L.-Z, Volume 3. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 9788185297705.
Langah are described by Tod as a clan of the Chaluk or Solanki tribe of Agnikula Rajputs, who inhabited Multan and Jaisalmer...
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- Davies, pp. 627-8
- Chandra, Chandra (2005). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 9788124110669.
- Amity, Volumes 1-3. Indo-Soviet Cultural Society. 1963. p. 135. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Levi, Scott (2016). "Caravans: Punjabi Khatri Merchants on the Silk Road". Penguin UK. ISBN 9789351189169. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Ferishta, II, p,329; Nahawandi, I, p.278.