Karauli State

Karauli State[1] was a princely state in India from 1348 to 1949. It is located in the Braj region. Karauli city was the capital while Mandrayal or Mandrail was another important town.

Karauli State
करौली रियासत
Princely State of British India
Flag of Karauli
Coat of arms of Karauli
Coat of arms
Alwar-karauli map.jpg
Karauli State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
• 1931
3,216 km2 (1,242 sq mi)
• 1931
• Established
Succeeded by
Matsya Union
Today part ofRajasthan, India
View of Timan Garh Fort in former Karauli State. Its foundations are said to have been built in the 2 century AD.


The state had an area of 3,178 km2 (1,227 sq mi). In 1901, the population of the state was 156,786, and that of the town was 23,482. Millets, the staple food of the people,[2] was the main agricultural produce. As of the early 20th century, there were no major industries; a little weaving, dyeing, wood-turning, and stone cutting constituted the notable cottage industries.[2] Most goods, as also salt, sugar, cotton, buffaloes, and bullocks, were imported; rice and goats comprised the main exports.[2]


The Maharaja of Karauli is considered as the head of the Jadaun clan of Rajputs and claim to be descendants of Krishna. The Jadauns once ruled the kingdom of Braj which included Alwar, Bharatpur, Karauli and Dholpur. In 1196 Kunwar Pal lost all of his territories to the invading Ghurids. One of the scions called Arjun Pal was able to recover some of his ancestral lands and founded the town of Karauli. The Jadauns remained independent for a century until their lands were once again captured by Mahmud I of Malwa. The Jadauns remained insignificant until they gained patronage under the Mughal emperor Akbar, the Jadaun ruler Gopaldas was made the Maharaja of Karauli and was made the commander of 2000, he also played an important role in the foundation of Agra fort on the orders of the Mughal emperor.[3][4]

Alliance with the BritishEdit

Karauli was the first state to conclude the treaty with the British on the 9th November, 1817. The Maharaja of Karauli, Harbaksh Pal Deo, had accepted a 'protectorate' treaty through his agent at Delhi.[5]

In 1857, at the time of the great mutiny, Madan Pal lent a hearty support to the English, and gave shelter and protection to many of their distressed fugitives, who were all securely harboured in the State, or placed in safe retreats beyond the vengeance of their blood-thirsty pursuers. He sent a detachment of 800, followed by reinforcement of 1500. These troops proved themselves bold and trustworthy soldiers, and drove the rebels from that part of the town where the palace was situated, and of which they were able to retain possession for two months, till the arrival of the British troops.

Madan Pal for his loyalty was made Grand Commander of the Order of Star of India.[6]

The salute of honour, to which the Chiefs of Karauli were entitled, was also enhanced from 15 to 17 in appreciation of the loyal services of Raja Madan Pal, who was also decorated with a rich dress of honour.[7][8]

After India's independence in 1947, the state under Maharaja Ganesh Pal Deo acceded to the Dominion of India on 7 April 1949; Karauli later merged with the Union of India and became part of the state of Rajasthan.


The rulers of the state bore the title 'Maharaja'.[9]


  • 1691 – 1734: Kanwar Pal II
  • 1734 – 1757: Gopal Singh (d. 1757)
  • 1757 – 24 Oct 1772: Tarsam Pal (d. 1772)
  • 1772 – 1804: Manak Pal (d. 1804)
  • 1804 – 1805: Amola Pal (d. 1805)
  • 1805 – 1837: Herbaksh Pal (b. c. 1792 – d. 1837)
  • 1837 – 1849: Pratap Pal (d. 1849)
  • 1849 – 10 Jul 1852:Narsingh Pal (d. 1852)
  • 4 Sep 1852 – 14 Mar 1854: Bharat Pal
  • 14 Mar 1854 – 16 Aug 1869: Madan Pal (d. 1869) (from 12 Feb 1866, Sir Madan Pal)
  • 1869: Lakshman Pal
  • 1869 – 17 Nov 1875: Jaisingh Pal (d. 1875)
  • 1869 – 1871: Vrishbhan Singh Tanwar – Regent
  • Jan 1876 – 14 Aug 1886: Arjun Pal II (d. 1886)
  • 14 Aug 1886 – 3 Aug 1927: Bhanwar Pal (b. 1864 – d. 1927) (from 22 Jun 1897, Sir Bhanwar Pal)
  • 3 Aug 1927 – 6 Apr 1947: Bhom Pal (b. 1866 – d. 1947) (from 1 Jan 1935, Sir Bhom Pal)
  • 6 Apr 1940 – 15 Aug 1947: Ganesh Pal (b. 1906 – d. 1984)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 26.
  2. ^ a b c Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Karauli" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 677.
  3. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 15, page 26 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library".
  4. ^ An ethnographical hand-book for the N.-W. provinces and Oudh By William Crooke
  5. ^ Gaur, Meena (1989). Sati and Social Reforms in India. Publication Scheme, 1989. p. 23. ISBN 9788185263571. Karauli was the first state to conclude the treaty with the British on the 9th November, 1817. The Maharaja of Karauli, Harbaksh Pal Deo, had accepted a 'protectorate' treaty through his agent at Delhi.
  6. ^ Gaur, D. D. (1978). Constitutional Development of Eastern Rajputana States. Usha Publishing House, 1978. p. 18.
  7. ^ Mehta, Markand Nandshankar (1985). The Hind Rajasthan, Or, The Annals of the Native States of India, Volume 1. Usha, 1985. pp. 332–334.
  8. ^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers].: Sawai Madhopur. Printed at Government Central Press, 1981. 1981. p. 40-42.
  9. ^ Princely States of India

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 26°18′N 77°14′E / 26.3°N 77.23°E / 26.3; 77.23