Chanderi, is a town of historical importance in Ashoknagar District of the state Madhya Pradesh in India. It is situated at a distance of 127 km from Shivpuri, 37 km from Lalitpur, 55 km from Ashok Nagar and about 46 km from Isagarh. It is surrounded by hills southwest of the Betwa River. Chanderi is surrounded by hills, lakes and forests and is spotted with several monuments of the Bundela Rajputs and Malwa sultans. It is famous for ancient Jain Temples. Its population in 2011 was 33,081.

View of Chanderi town from kila Kothi. The Chaubisi Jain temple with 24 shikharas, installed in 1836 by Bhattaraka Harichand of Sonagir, is in the center.
View of Chanderi town from kila Kothi. The Chaubisi Jain temple with 24 shikharas, installed in 1836 by Bhattaraka Harichand of Sonagir, is in the center.
Chanderi is located in Madhya Pradesh
Location in Madhya Pradesh, India
Chanderi is located in India
Chanderi (India)
Coordinates: 24°43′N 78°08′E / 24.72°N 78.13°E / 24.72; 78.13
Country India
StateMadhya Pradesh
Founded byRaja Shishupal (mentioned in Mahabharata)
Named forChedi Kingdom
 • TypeCity Municipality Board
 • Total10.7 km2 (4.1 sq mi)
456 m (1,496 ft)
 • Total33,081[1]
 • Rank3rd in Ashoknagar District
 • OfficialBundelkhandi, Hindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code07547
Vehicle registrationMP 67

History edit

Chanderi is mentioned by the Persian scholar Alberuni in 1030. Ghiyas ud din Balban captured the city in 1251 for Nasiruddin Mahmud, Sultan of Delhi. Sultan Mahmud I Khilji of Malwa captured the city in 1438 after a siege of several months. Rana Sanga of Mewar conquer much of the Malwa along with Chanderi and appointed his vassal Medini Rai a rebellious minister of Sultan Mahmud II of Malwa as ruler of Malwa under his lordship. Medini Rai made Chanderi as capital of his kingdom.[2] In the Battle of Chanderi, the Mughal Emperor Babur captured the fort from Medini Rai and witnessed the macabre Rajput rite of jauhar, in which, faced with certain defeat and in an attempt to escape dishonor in the hands of the enemy, women with children in their arms jumped in a fire pit to commit suicide, which was made for this specific purpose, against the background of vedic hymns recited by the priests. Jauhar was performed during the night and in the morning the men would rub the ashes of their dead women folk on their forehead, don a saffron garment known as kesariya, chew tulsi leaves (in India tulsi leaves are placed in the mouth of a dead body), symbolizing their awareness about impending death and resolve to fight and die with honour. This method of fighting & dying for the cause of retaining honour was called saka.[3] In 1529, Puran Mal was defeated by Babur's forces after he tried to recapture Chanderi.[4][need quotation to verify]

In 1542 it was captured by Sher Shah Suri and added to the governorship of Shujaat Khan. The Mughal Emperor Akbar made the city a sarkar in the subah of Malwa.[citation needed]

The Bundela Rajputs captured the city in 1586, and it was held by Ram Sab, a son of Raja Madhukar of Orchha. In 1646 Devi Singh Bundela was made ruler of the city, and Chanderi remained in the hands of his family until it was annexed in 1811 by Jean Baptiste Filose for the Maratha ruler Daulat Rao Sindhia of Gwalior. The city was transferred to the British in 1844. The British lost control of the city during the Revolt of 1857, and the city was recaptured by Hugh Rose on 14 March 1858. Richard Harte Keatinge led the assault, for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. The city was transferred back to the Sindhias of Gwalior in 1861, and became part of Isagarh District of Gwalior state.

After India's independence in 1947, Gwalior became part of the new state of Madhya Bharat, which was merged into Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 1956.

Geography edit

Chanderi is located at 24°43′N 78°08′E / 24.72°N 78.13°E / 24.72; 78.13.[5] It has an average elevation of 456 metres (1496 feet).

Demographics edit

As of 2001 India census,[6] Chanderi had a population of 28,313. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%.

Access edit

There is a good roadway network in Chanderi. The town lies at State Highway 20 and National Highway 376 with connections to Ashoknagar, Ishagarh, Lalitpur etc.

There is no railway service in or near Chanderi but necessary administrative measures were adopted in 2014 for a line to be operated by Northern Railways on a Pipraigaon-Chanderi-Lalitpur route.[7]

Jainism at Chanderi edit

The Chanderi area has been a major center of Jain culture. It was a major center of the Parwar Jain community. There are a number of Jain places nearby- Gurilagiri (7 km), Aamanachar (29 km), Bithala (19 km), Bhamon (16 km), Khandargiri (2 km), Thuvanji (22 km) and Bhiyadant (14 km), and Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh (20 km, across the border).

The Jain Bhattarakas of Mula Sangh, Balatkara Gana had a center at Chanderi that flourished for several centuries. The lineage, as constructed by Pt. Phulachandra Shastri is as following:

Khandargiri Jain Cave temples
It is a 45 feet tall rock cut murti of the first Jain Tirthankara Rishabhnath, popularly known as Adinath
  1. Devendrakirti (see Balatkara Gana), who awarded Singhai title in 1436 CE (see Parwar (Jain))
  2. Tribhuvanakirti (anointed in Vikram Samvat 1522),
  3. Sasasrakirti
  4. Padmanandi
  5. Yashahkirti
  6. Lalitkirti
  7. Dharmakirt
  8. Padmakirti (died Vikram Samvat 1717)
  9. Sakalakirti
  10. Surendrakirti (pratishtha in Vikram Samvat 1746)

A branch of this lineage continued at Sironj.

  1. Jagatkirti (pupil of Dharmakirti above)
  2. Tribhuvanakirti
  3. Narendrakirti
  4. Unknown
  5. Rajkirti
  6. Devendrakirti (pratishtha in samvat 1871)

Jain Temple edit

List of Jain temples at Chanderi:[8]

  1. Shri Choubeesee Bara Mandir : This temple has 2 parts with front part is known as Bara mandir and back part called Choubeesee mandir. As suggested by inscription this temple was built around year 1293(V.S. 1350). This temple was renovated in 13th to 18th century. This temple has 24 idols for 24 Tirthankars and these idols are made by the stones of actual colors as the Tirthankar. All idols are same in dimensions, which is very difficult in real.[9][10]
  1. Shri Parasnath Digamber Jain Purana mandir Jain temple : It is one of the oldest jain temple in chanderi containing idols of Shri Prasnath ji of 7th century.
  1. Shri Khandargiri Jain temple : It is one of the most famous religious site in Chanderi. This temple has a 45 feet carved idol of Rishabhnatha. Inscriptions suggest that this statue is over 700 years old.[11] Six caves have been cut out of the hillside. Inside there are a number of religious carvings of Jain saints and decorations carved into the existing hillside. The oldest cave is cave 6 that dates back to 1236.
  2. Shri thobonji Jain temple : This temple belongs to 9th century.[12] Moolnayak of this temple is light blue colored idol colossal of Adinath of height 36 feet 8 inches. The other colossal idols in this temple are Bhagwan ParshVanatha of height 13 feet 4 inches and Bhagwan Parshwanath of height 12 feet 6 inches.[13]
  3. Shri Chandraprabha digambar Jain temple : This temple is dedicated to Chandraprabha, the 8th tirthankar of Jainism. Oldest inscription date back to year 967 AD.[14]

In popular culture edit

See also edit

Transport edit

The nearest airport is Gwalior.

References edit

  1. ^ "Chanderi Municipality City Population Census 2011-2020 | Madhya Pradesh".
  2. ^ Chaurasia 2002, pp. 156–157.
  3. ^ The Mughal Throne by Abraham Eraly pg 33
  4. ^ Singhi, Narendra Kumar; Joshi, Rajendra (1995). "Institute of Rajasthan Studies". Folk, Faith & Feudalism: Rajasthan Studies. Rawat Publications. p. 381. ISBN 978-8-170-3-32732.
  5. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Chanderi, India".
  6. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  7. ^ "Pipraigaon and Lalitpur via Chanderi - Railway Enquiry". Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  8. ^ "Jainism at Chanderi". Archived from the original on 17 March 2012.
  9. ^ "Shri Digamber Jain Atishaya Kshetra Choubeesee Bara Mandir, Chanderi. |".
  10. ^ "Jain-Tirth-Shri Bhojpur, M.P". Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Khandargiri Temple". 5 May 2010.
  12. ^ "Madhya Pradesh Tourism, Madhya Pradesh, Tourism in MP, Tourism Info of Madhyapradesh, MP Tourism Guide, Madhya Pradesh Tour Packages, Mp tour packages, wildlife of madhya pradesh, wildlife tour packages, pilgrimage tour mptitletitle>". Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  13. ^ "WWW.JAINHERITAGECENTRES.COM > Jainism In India > Madhya Pradesh > Thuvanji". Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  14. ^ "Chandraprabh Jain Temple |". 5 May 2010.
  15. ^ "Stree Preview: Boo. Rajkummar Rao, Shraddha Kapoor Blend Comedy And Spook". Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  16. ^ "Sui Dhaaga: Anushka Sharma, Varun Dhawan begin shooting in bylanes of Chanderi, Madhya Pradesh". Firstpost. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  17. ^ "सीरियल 'गुड़िया हमारी सभी पे भारी' में दिखेंगी शहर की सारिका". (in Hindi). 25 August 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2019.

Sources edit

External links edit