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1590 (MDXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. As of the start of 1590, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar.
|Ab urbe condita||2343|
|Balinese saka calendar||1511–1512|
|English Regnal year||32 Eliz. 1 – 33 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||己丑年 (Earth Ox)|
4286 or 4226
— to —
庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
4287 or 4227
|- Vikram Samvat||1646–1647|
|- Shaka Samvat||1511–1512|
|- Kali Yuga||4690–4691|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 18|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||322 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2132–2133|
1716 or 1335 or 563
— to —
1717 or 1336 or 564
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1590.|
- January 11 – The Cortes of Castile approves a new subsidy, the millones.
- March – Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, takes Breda, by concealing 68 of his best men in a peat-boat, to get through the impregnable defences.
- March 14 – Battle of Ivry: Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League, under Charles, Duke of Mayenne.
- May–August – Henry IV of France unsuccessfully attempts to besiege Paris. Henry is forced to raise the siege, when Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma comes to its rescue with a Spanish army.
- May 17 – Anne of Denmark is crowned queen consort of Scotland, at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh.
- May 21 – The Treaty of Constantinople is signed.
- August 18 – John White, governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns from a supply-trip to England and finds his settlement deserted. After the unsuccessful search, he returns to England on October 24.
- September 5 – Alexander Farnese's army forces Henry IV of France to lift the siege of Paris.
- September 15 – Urban VII succeeds Sixtus V, as the 228th pope; he dies of malaria twelve days later.
- September 15 – The Neulengbach earthquake causes significant damage and some loss of life, in Lower Austria and Vienna; the effects are felt as far as Bohemia and Silesia.
- December 5 – Gregory XIV succeeds Urban VII, as the 229th pope.
- December 7 – North Berwick witch trials: Agnes Sampson is questioned by King James VI of Scotland, and confesses to practising witchcraft.
- Orthodox Patriarch Meletius I of Alexandria succeeds Silvester.
- Japan is united by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
- The Spanish are pushed out of southern Gelderland, by the Dutch forces.
- A group of English merchants gains the right to trade in Ottoman territory, in return for supplying the sultan with iron, steel, brass and tin for his war with Persia.
- Invention of compound microscope by Hans and Zacharias Janssen.
- January 9 – Simon Vouet, French painter (d. 1649)
- January 13 – Arthur Bell, English Franciscan martyr (d. 1643)
- January 20 – Edward Convers, American settler (d. 1663)
- January 27 – Charles Caesar, English politician and judge (d. 1642)
- January 30 – Lady Anne Clifford, 14th Baroness de Clifford (d. 1676)
- February 7 – Barthold Nihus, Roman Catholic priest (d. 1657)
- March – Roger Ludlow, one of the founders of the colony (later the state) of Connecticut (d. 1664)
- March 6 – Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament, French Discalced Carmelite nun (d. 1660)
- March 10 – Dietrich Reinkingk, German lawyer and politician (d. 1664)
- March 18 – Manuel de Faria e Sousa, Spanish and Portuguese historian and poet (d. 1649)
- March 29 – Michael Reyniersz Pauw, Dutch businessman (d. 1640)
- April 7
- April 18 – Ahmed I, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1617)
- May – William Cecil, 17th Baron de Ros (d. 1618)
- May 3 – Franco Burgersdijk, Dutch logician (d. 1635)
- May 5
- May 12 – Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1621)
- May 31 – Frances Carr, Countess of Somerset (d. 1632)
- June 1 – Isaac Manasses de Pas, Marquis de Feuquieres, French soldier (d. 1640)
- June 9 – Caspar Sibelius, Dutch Protestant minister (d. 1658)
- June 19 – Philip Bell, British colonial governor (d. 1678)
- June 24 – Samuel Ampzing, Dutch linguist and historian (d. 1632)
- June 29 – Edward Rodney, English politician (d. 1657)
- July 3 – Lucrezia Orsina Vizzana, Italian singer and composer (d. 1662)
- July 13 – Pope Clement X (d. 1676)
- July 26 – Johannes Crellius, Polish–German theologian (d. 1633)
- August 6 – Count John Louis of Nassau-Hadamar (d. 1653)
- August 7 – Charles of Austria, Bishop of Wroclaw (d. 1624)
- August 9 – John Webster, colonial settler and governor of Connecticut (d. 1661)
- August 19 – Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier (d. 1649)
- August 27 – Ferruccio Baffa Trasci, Italian bishop (d. 1656)
- August 30 – Anthony Stapley, English politician (d. 1655)
- September 12 – María de Zayas, Spanish writer (d. 1661)
- September 15 – Erasmus Earle, English barrister and politician (d. 1667)
- October 3 – Anna of Pomerania, Duchess-Consort of Croy and Havré (d. 1660)
- October 11 – William Pynchon, English colonist and fur trader in North America (d. 1662)
- November 25 – Juan Alonso de Cuevas y Davalos, Roman Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Mexico and Antequera (d. 1665)
- December 3 – Daniel Seghers, Flemish Jesuit brother and painter (d. 1661)
- December 14 – John West, colonial governor of Virginia (d. 1659)
- December 18 – William Louis, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken (d. 1640)
- Isaac de Caus, French landscaper (d. 1648)
- Boris Morozov, Russian statesman and boyar (d. 1661)
- Yamada Nagamasa, Japanese adventurer (d. 1630)
- William Bradford, English leader of Plymouth Colony (d. 1657)
- William Browne, English poet (d. 1645)
- Theophilus Eaton, Puritan colonial merchant (d. 1658)
- Kösem Sultan (d. 1651)
- Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, Irish chronicler (d. 1643)
- Marie Vernier, French actress (d. 1627)
- Caterina Assandra, Italian composer (died c. 1618)
- Magdalena Andersdotter, Norwegian-Faroese shipowner (d. 1650)
- Teofila Chmielecka, Polish military role model (d. 1650)
- Marie Fouquet, French medical writer and philanthropist (d. 1681)
- January 7 – Jakob Andreae, German theologian (b. 1528)
- January 20 – Giambattista Benedetti, Italian mathematician and physicist (b. 1530)
- February 1 – Lawrence Humphrey, president of Magdalen College, Oxford (b. 1527)
- February 2 – Catherine of Ricci, Catholic prioress and saint (b. 1522)
- February 4 – Gioseffo Zarlino, Italian music theorist and composer (b. 1517)
- February 12
- February 18 – Asahi no kata, Japanese lady, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's half-sister (b. 1543)
- February 19 – Philipp IV, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg (b. 1514)
- February 21 – Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick, English nobleman and general (b. 1528)
- March 4 – Duchess Hedwig of Württemberg, by marriage countess of Hesse-Marburg (b. 1547)
- April 2 – Elisabeth of Saxony, Countess Palatine of Simmern (b. 1552)
- April 6 – Francis Walsingham, English spymaster (b. 1530)
- May 9 – Charles de Bourbon French cardinal and pretender to the throne (b. 1523)
- June 28 – Hori Hidemasa, Japanese warlord (b. 1553)
- July 10 – Charles II, Archduke of Austria, regent of Inner Austria (b. 1540)
- July 21 – Sophie of Württemberg, German noble (b. 1563)
- August 10
- August 17 – James III, Margrave of Baden-Hachberg (b. 1562)
- August 27 – Pope Sixtus V (b. 1521)
- September 10 – Archduchess Magdalena of Austria, Member of the House of Habsburg (b. 1532)
- September 13 – Pedro Téllez-Girón, 1st Duke of Osuna, Spanish duke (b. 1537)
- September 20 – Lodovico Agostini, Italian composer (b. 1534)
- September 27 – Pope Urban VII (b. 1521)
- October 4 – Jacques Cujas, French legal expert (b. 1520)
- October 12 – Kanō Eitoku, Japanese painter (b. 1543)
- October 16 – Archduchess Anna of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria (b. 1528)
- October 18 – Philip, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (b. 1570)
- October 23 – Bernardino de Sahagún, Franciscan missionary (b. 1499)
- October 29 – Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert, Dutch politician and theologian (b. 1522)
- November 18 – George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, English statesman (b. 1528)
- November 19 – Girolamo Zanchi, Italian theologian (b. 1516)
- November 29 – Philipp Nicodemus Frischlin, German philologist and poet (b. 1547)
- December 20 – Ambroise Paré, French surgeon (b. 1510)
- December 27 – Emanuel Philibert de Lalaing, Belgian noble and army commander (b. 1557)
- date unknown
- Nicholas Bobadilla, one of the first Spanish Jesuits (b. 1511)
- Roger Dudley, British soldier (b. 1535)
- Sorley Boy MacDonnell, Irish chieftain (b. 1505)
- Juan Bautista de Pomar, Spanish colonial historian and writer
- Catherine Salvaresso, Wallachian regent
- Maddalena Casulana, Italian composer, lutenist and singer (d. 1590)
- probable – Bernard Palissy, French potter (b. 1510)