1604 (MDCIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1604th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 604th year of the 2nd millennium, the 4th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1604, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2357|
|Balinese saka calendar||1525–1526|
|English Regnal year||1 Ja. 1 – 2 Ja. 1|
|Chinese calendar||癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)|
4300 or 4240
— to —
甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
4301 or 4241
|- Vikram Samvat||1660–1661|
|- Shaka Samvat||1525–1526|
|- Kali Yuga||4704–4705|
|Japanese calendar||Keichō 9|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||308 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2146–2147|
1730 or 1349 or 577
— to —
1731 or 1350 or 578
- January 1 – The Masque of Indian and China Knights is performed by courtiers of James VI and I at Hampton Court.
- January 14 – The Hampton Court Conference is held between James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of the Puritans. Work begins on the Authorized King James Version of the Bible and revision of the Book of Common Prayer.
- June – Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18): Shāh Abbas I of Persia's Safavid army captures the city of Yerevan from the Ottoman Empire after a siege. At this time the Shāh begins the expulsion of Armenians from Jolfa to New Julfa in his capital of Isfahan; more than 25,000 die during the exodus.
- August 18 – England concludes the Treaty of London with Spain, ending the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604), an intermittent conflict within the Eighty Years' War.
- September 1 – Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the religious text of Sikhism, whose compilation by Guru Arjan was completed on August 29, is installed at Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar.
- September 20 – After a bloody three-year siege. Ostend is finally captured by Spanish forces under Ambrogio Spinola
- October 4 – Za Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia, is killed in battle with the forces of Za Sellase, who restores his cousin Yaqob to the throne.
- October 9 – The supernova which becomes known as Kepler's Supernova (SN 1604) is first observed from the northern parts of the Italian Peninsula. From October 17, Johannes Kepler begins a year's observation of it from Prague. There won't be another "naked-eye" supernova to be seen until 1987. As of 2021[update], this is the last supernova to be observed in the Milky Way.
- November 1 – First recorded performance of William Shakespeare's tragedy Othello, at the Palace of Whitehall in London.
- December 26 (St. Stephen's night) – First recorded performance of Shakespeare's problem play Measure for Measure, before King James I of England in the banqueting hall of the Palace of Whitehall.
- France begins settling Acadia, first successful French North American colony.
- Before 1 October, Huntingdon Beaumont completes the Wollaton Wagonway, built to transport coal from the mines at Strelley to Wollaton just west of Nottingham, England, the world's oldest wagonway with provenance.
- The Table Alphabeticall, the first known English dictionary to be organized by alphabetical ordering, is published.
- First publication of Christopher Marlowe's play The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, in London.
- Lancelot de Casteau's L'Ouverture de cuisine published in Liège, including the first printed recipe for choux pastry.
- January 4 – Jakob Balde, German Latinist (d. 1668)
- February 2 – Juan de Leyva de la Cerda, conde de Baños, Spanish noble (d. 1678)
- February 24 – Arcangela Tarabotti, born Elena Tarabotti, Venetian nun and feminist (d. 1652)
- March 10 – Johann Rudolf Glauber, German-Dutch alchemist and chemist (approximate date; d. 1670)
- March 19 – King John IV of Portugal (d. 1656)
- March 23 – Girolamo Colonna, Catholic cardinal (d. 1666)
- April 5 – Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1675)
- April 9 – Duke Francis Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg (d. 1658)
- April 17
- April 22 – Peter Venables, Welsh politician (d. 1669)
- April 28 – Joris Jansen Rapelje, Early Dutch settler in colonial North America (d. 1662)
- May 1 – Louis, Count of Soissons (d. 1641)
- May 4 – Sir Hugh Owen, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1670)
- May 10 – Jean Mairet, classical French dramatist who wrote both tragedies and comedies (d. 1686)
- May 17 – Vincent Baron, French Dominican theologian writer (d. 1674)
- May 28 – Catherine of Brandenburg, Princess of Transylvania (1629–1630) (d. 1649)
- June 4 – Claudia de' Medici (d. 1648)
- June 10 – John Manners, 8th Earl of Rutland, English politician when he inherited the peerage (d. 1679)
- June 17 – John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen (d. 1679)
- June 28 – Heinrich Albert, German composer and poet (d. 1651)
- June 30 – Margaret Elisabeth of Leiningen-Westerburg, Regent of Hesse-Homburg (d. 1667)
- July 8 – Christiaen van Couwenbergh, Dutch painter (d. 1667)
- July 25 – Dorothea Diana of Salm, German noblewoman (d. 1672)
- August 4 – François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac, French author (d. 1676)
- August 12 – Tokugawa Iemitsu, Japanese shōgun (d. 1651)
- August 16 – Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, general in the Thirty Years' War (d. 1639)
- August 25 – Shang Kexi, Chinese general (d. 1676)
- September 13 – Sir William Brereton, 1st Baronet, English soldier and politician (d. 1661)
- September 21 – Angelo Michele Colonna, Italian painter (d. 1687)
- October 14 – Nils Brahe, Swedish soldier and younger brother of Per Brahe (d. 1632)
- October 22 – Simon Le Moyne, French missionary (d. 1665)
- October 31
- November 3 – Osman II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (d. 1622)
- November 6 – George Ent, English scientist (d. 1689)
- November 7
- November 26 – Johannes Bach, German composer and musician (d. 1673)
- December 7 – Ambrose Corbie, English Jesuit teacher (d. 1649)
- December 10 – David Barry, 1st Earl of Barrymore, Irish noble (d. 1642)
- Jasper Mayne, English dramatist (d. 1672)
- Isaac Ambrose, English Puritan divine (d. 1664)
- Menasseh Ben Israel, Jewish Rabbi (d. 1657)
- Giovanni Battista Michelini, Italian painter (d. 1655)
- Edward Pococke, English Orientalist and biblical scholar (d. 1691)
- January 4 – Ferenc Nádasdy, Hungarian noble (b. 1555)
- January 10 – Juliana of Lazarevo, Russian saint (b. 1530)
- January 17 – Santino Garsi da Parma, Italian musician (b. 1542)
- January 18 – Dorothy Catherine of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Burggräfin of Meissen (b. 1538)
- January 23 – Hyujeong, Korean Seon master (b. 1520)
- February 9 – Anne Russell, Countess of Warwick, wife of Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick (b. 1548)
- February 10 – Cyriacus Spangenberg, German theologian and historian (b. 1528)
- February 13 – Catherine de Bourbon, French princess (b. 1559)
- February 24 – Christoph Pezel, German theologian (b. 1539)
- February 29 – John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death (b. c. 1530)
- March 4 – Fausto Paolo Sozzini, Italian theologian (b. 1539)
- March 13 – Arnaud d'Ossat, French diplomat and writer (b. 1537)
- April 8 – Daniyal, Imperial Prince of the Timurid Dynasty, Viceroy of Deccan (b. 1572)
- April 14 – Ernest Frederick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1584–1604) (b. 1560)
- April 19 – Kuroda Yoshitaka, Japanese daimyō (b. 1546)
- April 21 – Koide Hidemasa, Samurai (b. 1539)
- April 25 – Pietro de' Medici, Italian noble (b. 1554)
- May 4 – Claudio Merulo, Italian composer (b. 1533)
- May 13 – Christine of Hesse (b. 1543)
- May 22 – Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort, Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands (b. 1517)
- May 26 – Godfrey Goldsborough, English bishop (b. 1548)
- June 5 – Thomas Muffet, English naturalist and physician (b. 1553)
- June 10 – Isabella Andreini, Italian actress (b. 1562)
- June 21 – Jonathan Trelawny, English politician (b. 1568)
- June 24 – Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, Lord Great Chamberlain of England, poet and possibly playwright (b. 1550)
- July 14 – Gaspar de Bono, Beatified Spanish Army veteran and Minim friar (b. 1530)
- August 3 – Bernardino de Mendoza, Spanish military commander
- August 8 – Horio Tadauji, Japanese warlord (b. 1578)
- August 12 – John I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (b. 1550)
- August 20 – Toda Kazuaki, Japanese samurai (b. 1542)
- August 29
- August 30 – John Juvenal Ancina, Italian Oratorian and bishop (b. 1545)
- September 10 – William Morgan, Welsh Bible translator (b. 1545)
- September 12 – Louis Gunther of Nassau, Count of Nassau-Katzenelnbogen (b. 1575)
- September 17 – Lucas Osiander the Elder, German pastor (b. 1534)
- September 22 – Dorothy Stafford, English noble (b. 1526)
- September 23 – Gabriel Vásquez, Spanish theologian (b. 1549)
- October 8 – Janus Dousa, Dutch historian and noble (b. 1545)
- October 9
- October 18 – Igram van Achelen, Dutch statesman (b. 1528)
- October 22 – Domingo Báñez, Spanish theologian (b. 1528)
- October 24 – Za Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia
- October 25 – Claude de La Trémoille, French noble (b. 1566)
- November – Thomas Storer, English poet (b. 1571)
- November 21 – John Thynne, English landowner and politician (b. 1555)
- November 23
- November 29 – Ercole, Lord of Monaco, Monegasque noble (b. 1562)
- December 30 – George Hastings, 4th Earl of Huntingdon, English nobleman (b. 1540)
- Martin Butler, The Stuart Court Masque and Political Culture (Cambridge, 2008), p. 63.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 166–168. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- George Chapman; Ben Jonson; John Marston (1979). Eastward Ho. Manchester University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7190-1514-4.
- "SN 1604, Kepler's Supernova". Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- "Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant". NASA. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- Lever, J. W., ed. (2015) . "Measure for Measure". Measure for measure. The Arden Shakespeare, second series. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. xxxi. doi:10.5040/9781408160237.00000030. ISBN 978-1-9034-3644-8 – via Drama Online Library.
- The exact date is unknown, but a surviving account book for the year ended September 30 1604 proves it was built within the preceding 12 months.
- Burns, D. Thorburn; Müller, R. Klaus; Salzer, Reiner; Werner, Gerhard (2014). Important Figures of Analytical Chemistry from Germany in Brief Biographies: From the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Springer. p. 16. ISBN 978-3-319-12151-2.
- "Charles III (or IV) | duke of Lorraine [1604–1675]". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
- John Morehen (January 1, 2000). Ricercari d'intavolatura d'organo: 1567. A-R Editions, Inc. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-89579-476-5.
- Glanmor Williams. "Morgan, William (c.1545-1604)". Y Bywgraffiadur Cymreig (in Welsh). Retrieved July 4, 2021.