1694 (MDCXCIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1694th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 694th year of the 2nd millennium, the 94th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1694, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2447|
|Balinese saka calendar||1615–1616|
|English Regnal year||6 Will. & Mar. – 7 Will. & Mar.|
|Chinese calendar||癸酉年 (Water Rooster)|
4391 or 4184
— to —
甲戌年 (Wood Dog)
4392 or 4185
|- Vikram Samvat||1750–1751|
|- Shaka Samvat||1615–1616|
|- Kali Yuga||4794–4795|
|Japanese calendar||Genroku 7|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||218 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2236–2237|
1820 or 1439 or 667
— to —
1821 or 1440 or 668
- January 16 – Francesco Morosini, the Doge of Venice since 1688, dies after ruling the Republic for more than five years and a few months after an unsuccessful attempt to capture the island of Negropont from the Ottoman Empire during the Morean War.
- January 18 – Sir James Montgomery of Scotland, who had been arrested on January 11 for conspiracy to restore King James to the throne, escapes and flees to France.
- January 21 (January 11 O.S.) – The Kiev Academy, now the national university of Ukraine, receives official recognition by Tsar Ivan V of Russia.
- January 28 – Pirro e Demetrio, an opera by Alessandro Scarlatti, is given its first performance, debuting at the Teatro San Bartolomeo in Naples. The opera is adapted in 1708 in London as Pyrrhus and Demetrius and becomes the second most popular opera in 18th century London.
- January 29 – French missionary Jean-Baptiste Labat arrives in the "New World", landing at the Caribbean island of Martinique.
- February 5 – The ship Ridderschap van Holland is lost at sea, having departed the Cape of Good Hope with a crew of 300, with a destination of Batavia (now Jakarta in Indonesia), normally a voyage of two months. It never arrives and is never seen again.
- February 6 – The colony of Quilombo dos Palmares, created by rebel African slaves in Brazil, is destroyed by the bandeirantes, colonial troops under the command of Domingos Jorge Velho. After a successful attack on its capital, Cerca do Macaco, the last King of Dos Palmares, Zumbi, flees after a reign of more than 13 years, but is later captured and executed.
- February 26 – Silvestro Valier is elected as the new Doge of Venice to replace the late Francesco Morosini
- March 1 – The HMS Sussex treasure fleet of thirteen ships is wrecked in the Mediterranean off Gibraltar, with the loss of approximately 1,200 lives.
- March 8 – The Casa da Moeda do Brasil is formed by Peter II of Portugal.
- April – The largest volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius since 1631 takes place, with explosive activity in the crater from 5 April and lava flows on 13 April towards both San Giorgio a Cremano and Torre del Greco. Around 20 April ash falls are experienced as far away as Calabria.
- April 2 – Sheikh Yusuf, exiled by the administrators of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), arrives at the Dutch Cape Colony on the ship De Voetboog, at what is now Cape Town, South Africa, along with two wives, two concubines and 12 children. Resettled by the colonial government at a farm in Zandvliet, the Sheikh introduces Islam to South Africa.
- April 7 – The English Navy's 40-gun warship, HMS Ruby, captures the French privateer Entreprenant in battle. The confiscated ship is renamed HMS Ruby Prize.
- April 12 – The French ship Diligente, commanded by René Duguay-Trouin, covers the escape of a convoy of ships that he is escorting, but then is surrounded and attacked by six Royal Navy ships led by David Mitchell. Most of the Diligente crew is lost in the battle, and Duguay-Trouin is captured.
- April 27 – Frederick Augustus of Wettin, later known as "Augustus the Strong" and the future King of Poland, becomes the new Elector of Saxony upon the death of his 25-year-old older brother, John George IV
- May 27 – Taking advantage of a fog, the French Army, with 24,000 troops, fights the Battle of Torroella against an equally large Spanish Army force on the banks of the Ter in Spain, near the city of Girona during the Nine Years' War. The Spaniards suffer 3,000 casualties, while the French sustain 500.
- June 22 – An annular solar eclipse is visible across North America and the Atlantic Ocean.
- June 24 – The Tunisian–Algerian War begins as Algerian troops cross into Tunisia.
- June 29 – The Battle of Texel is fought near the Dutch island of Texel, one of the West Frisian Islands. The French Navy force of 8 ships, commanded by Jean Bart, locates and rescues three French ships that had been captured by the Dutch Republic in late May. Bart fights a larger force commanded by Hidde Sjoerds de Vries, who dies of his wounds after being captured.
- July 27 – The Bank of England is founded through Royal charter by the Whig-dominated Parliament of England, following a proposal by Scottish merchant William Paterson to raise capital, by offering safe and steady returns of interest guaranteed by future taxes. A total of £1.2 million is raised for the war effort against Louis XIV of France by the end of the year, to establish the first-ever government debt.
- August 6 – The coronation of Sultan Husayn of the Safavid dynasty as the Shah of Persia takes place in Isfahan, eight days after the death of his father Suleiman I.
- August 24 – The Dictionnaire de l'Académie française, the first official dictionary of the French language, is presented by Jacques de Tourreil and Academy members on behalf of the Académie française to King Louis XIV.
- September 5 – The Great Fire of Warwick breaks out in England and destroys half the town. Donors raise £110,000 toward disaster relief, with Queen Anne contributing £1,000.
- September 8 – The 1694 Irpinia–Basilicata earthquake causes widespread severe damage and over 6,000 deaths in the Kingdom of Naples.
- September 27 – A hurricane hits Carlisle Bay, Barbados, sinking 27 British ships and resulting in 3,000 casualties.
- October 19 – A major windstorm begins and continues for several days, spreading the Culbin Sands over a large area of farmland in the Scottish Highlands in the County of Moray and burying the now-abandoned village of Culbin.
- October 23 – British/American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phips, fail to seize Quebec from the French.
- October 25 – Queen Mary II of England founds the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich.
- November 12 – The Army of Algeria captures Tunis, the capital of Tunisia, after a siege of three months, bringing an end to the Tunisian–Algerian War. Mohamed Bey El Mouradi, the Bey of Tunis, flees southward while Prince Muhammad ben Cheker of Tunisia becomes the new Dey on behalf of the Dey of Algiers, Hadj Ahmed.
- December 3 – The Parliament of England passes the Triennial Act, requiring general elections every three years.
- December 6 – Thomas Tenison is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
- December 16 – A total solar eclipse is visible across South America.
Date unknown edit
- The Lao empire of Lan Xang unofficially ends.
- The notorious voyage of the English slave ship Hannibal (part of the Atlantic slave trade out of Benin) ends with the death of nearly half of the 692 slaves aboard.
- Rascians establish the settlement which will become Novi Sad on the Danube.
- The Parker Tavern is built in Reading, Massachusetts.
- January 1 – Abdallah of Morocco, Sultan of Morocco (d. 1757)
- January 3 – Paul of the Cross, Italian mystic (d. 1775)
- January 5 – Theophilus Siegfried Bayer, German sinologst (d. 1738)
- January 6 – Melchor Chyliński, Polish presbyter (d. 1741)
- January 12
- January 25 – Simon Henry Adolph, Count of Lippe-Detmold (d. 1734)
- January 28 – Peter Collinson, botanist (d. 1768)
- February 1 – Giuseppe Spinelli, Catholic cardinal (d. 1763)
- February 4 – Georg Gottlob Richter, German philosopher and physician (d. 1773)
- February 11 – Henrietta Harley, Countess of Oxford and Countess Mortimer, English noblewoman (d. 1755)
- February 18 – Johann Christoph Handke, Czech painter (d. 1774)
- February 21 – Richard Waldron, Colonial New Hampshire businessman and politician (d. 1753)
- February 24 – Bartolomeo Altomonte, Austrian artist (d. 1783)
- March 11 – Elizabeth Tollet, British poet (d. 1754)
- March 15 – Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen, English clergyman with German connection (d. 1776)
- March 21 – Daniel Scott, British lexicographer (d. 1759)
- March 24
- March 25 – Christian Otto of Limburg, Reigning count of Limburg-Styrum-Styrum (d. 1749)
- April 3 – George Edwards, English naturalist and ornithologist (d. 1773)
- April 14 – Maximilien-Henri de Horion (d. 1759)
- April 25 – Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, English architect (d. 1753)
- April 30 – William Pitkin, Governor of the Connecticut Colony (d. 1769)
- May 7 – Pierre-Jean Mariette, French art historian (d. 1774)
- May 8 – Étienne Lauréault de Foncemagne, French writer (d. 1779)
- May 10 – Michael Harvey, British Member of Parliament (d. 1748)
- May 11
- May 22 – Daniel Gran, Austrian painter (d. 1757)
- June 3 – Scawen Kenrick, English clergyman (d. 1753)
- June 4 – François Quesnay, French economist (d. 1774)
- June 6 – Francis Wollaston, English scientist (d. 1774)
- June 9 – Price Devereux, 10th Viscount Hereford, British politician (d. 1748)
- June 11 – Thomas Willoughby, British politician (d. 1742)
- June 18 – Karl Heinrich von Hoym, German diplomat, statesman and politician (d. 1736)
- June 19 – Jean-André Peyssonnel, French physician (d. 1759)
- June 20 – Hans Adolph Brorson, Danish bishop (d. 1764)
- June 23 – Stamp Brooksbank, MP and Governor of the Bank of England (d. 1756)
- June 24 – Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, Genevan legal and political theorist (d. 1748)
- June 26 – Georg Brandt, Swedish chemist and mineralogist (d. 1768)
- June 27 – John Michael Rysbrack, Flemish sculptor (d. 1770)
- June 29 – Maria Josepha of Dietrichstein, German noblewoman, member of the House of Dietrichstein; by marriage Countess and later Princess Kinsky of Wchinitz und Tettau (d. 1758)
- July 4
- July 11 – Charles-Antoine Coypel, French painter, art commentator, and playwright (d. 1752)
- July 12 – Duchess Gustave Caroline of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, German noble (d. 1748)
- July 16 – Marcus Beresford, 1st Earl of Tyrone, Irish politician (d. 1763)
- July 18
- August 1 – Michael Davies, priest (d. 1779)
- August 3 – Marc-Antoine-Nicolas de Croismare, French dilettante (d. 1772)
- August 4 – Étienne-François Avisse, French playwright (d. 1747)
- August 5 – Leonardo Leo, Italian composer (d. 1744)
- August 8 – Francis Hutcheson, Scottish philosopher (d. 1746)
- August 10 – John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower, British politician (d. 1754)
- August 11 – Giorgio Baffo, Venetian senator and poet (d. 1768)
- August 14
- August 16 – Réginald Outhier, French astronomer and priest (d. 1774)
- August 19 – Elizabeth Compton, Countess of Northampton, British noble (d. 1741)
- August 20
- August 23 – Johann Georg Schmidt, engraver from Germany (d. 1767)
- August 25
- August 26 – Elisha Williams, American rector of Yale College (d. 1755)
- August 27 – Henry Osborn, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1771)
- August 28 – Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Grand Duchess of Russia (d. 1715)
- September 6 – Johann Daniel Schöpflin, German historian (d. 1771)
- September 7 – Johan Ludvig Holstein, Danish politician (d. 1763)
- September 9 – John Vanderbank, British artist (d. 1739)
- September 12 – Johan von Mangelsen, Norwegian businessman and general (d. 1769)
- September 13 – Yeongjo of Joseon, 21st King of Joseon Dynasty in Korean history (d. 1776)
- September 18 – Jacques-Ignace de La Touche, painter (d. 1781)
- September 22 – Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, British statesman and man of letters (d. 1773)
- September 25 – Henry Pelham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1754)
- September 26 – Martin Schmid, Swiss composer and architect (d. 1772)
- October 4
- October 9 – Marquard Herrgott, German Benedictine historian and diplomat (d. 1762)
- October 14 – Jacob Bouverie, 1st Viscount Folkestone, British politician (d. 1761)
- October 15
- October 18 – René Louis de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson, French statesman (d. 1757)
- October 24 – Humphrey Sydenham, British politician (d. 1757)
- October 26
- October 27 – Simon Pelloutier, German historian (d. 1757)
- November 2 – Count Palatine Joseph Charles of Sulzbach, Heir apparent of Neuburg, Sulzbach and the Palatinate (d. 1729)
- November 3
- November 5 – Ricardo Wall, Irish-born soldier, diplomat and minister in the Spanish service (d. 1777)
- November 12 – Augustine Washington, British-American planter, slave owner, and the father of George Washington (d. 1743)
- November 16 – Isabella Simons, banker in the Austrian Netherlands (d. 1756)
- November 21 – Voltaire, French writer, historian, and philosopher (d. 1778)
- November 23 – Charlotte Daneau de Muy, Canadian historian (d. 1759)
- November 26 – Louis de Boissy, French writer (d. 1758)
- November 29 – Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, German prince and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen (d. 1728)
- December 2 – William Shirley, British governor of Massachusetts and then of the Bahamas (d. 1771)
- December 10 – Vittorio Francesco, Marquis of Susa, Prince of Savoy (d. 1762)
- December 11 – Johann Michael von Loën, German author (d. 1776)
- December 20 – Andrew Johnston, American politician (d. 1762)
- December 22 – Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer (d. 1768)
- December 24
- January 2 – Henry Booth, 1st Earl of Warrington, English politician and Earl (b. 1652)
- January 7 – Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, English aristocrat and soldier (b. c. 1618)
- January 8 – Thomas Strickland, English royalist soldier (b. 1621)
- January 10 – Andrew Balfour, British doctor and botanist (b. 1630)
- January 16
- January 17
- January 19 – François Marie, Prince of Lillebonne, French nobleman and member of the House of Lorraine (b. 1624)
- January 25 – William Dolben, English judge (b. 1627)
- January 31 – Henry Northleigh, English Member of Parliament (b. 1643)
- February 1 – John Louis of Elderen, Bishop of Liege (b. 1620)
- February 4
- February 8 – Domenico Santi, Italian painter (b. 1621)
- February 9 – Anne-Marie Bigot de Cornuel, French salon-holder (b. 1605)
- February 17 – Antoinette du Ligier de la Garde Deshoulières, French writer, poet (b. 1638)
- February 19
- February 21 – Simon Abeles, Jewish youth in Prague whose father was accused of murdering him “out of hatred for the Christian faith” (b. 1682)
- February 23 – Sir Thomas Samwell, 1st Baronet, English politician (b. 1650)
- February 25 – Gilles Hallet, Flemish Baroque painter (b. 1620)
- February 26 – Charles Scarborough, English physician and natural philosopher (b. 1615)
- March 5 – Vittoria della Rovere, Italian noble (b. 1622)
- March 10 – Paul Fréart de Chantelou, art collector (b. 1609)
- March 11 – Jean-Nicolas Geoffroy, French harpsichordist and composer (b. 1633)
- March 12 – John Conant, English theologian, clergyman, and academic administrator (b. 1608)
- March 15 – Cresheld Draper, English politician (b. 1646)
- March 24 – Peter Colleton, English politician (b. 1635)
- March 25 – Greenvile Collins, English hydrographer (b. 1643)
- March 26 – Arthur Stanhope, English politician (b. 1627)
- April 5 – Diego Ibáñez de la Madrid y Bustamente, Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1649)
- April 8 – Nicolás de Villacis, Spanish painter (b. 1616)
- April 9 – Angelo Berardi, Italian composer and music theorist (b. 1630)
- April 10 – Catharina Regina von Greiffenberg, Austrian writer and noble (b. 1633)
- April 12 – John Swinfen, English politician (b. 1613)
- April 13 – José de Jesús María Fajardo, Spanish Roman Catholic prelate; Bishop of Alghero (b. 1643)
- April 14 – Magdalena Sibylla of Neidschutz, German countess (b. 1675)
- April 16 – Claire-Clémence de Maillé-Brézé, French noblewoman (b. 1628)
- April 17 – François IV de Beauharnais, French nobleman (b. 1636)
- April 18 – William Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton in the Peerage of Scotland (b. 1634)
- April 20
- April 27 – John George IV, Elector of Saxony, German noble (b. 1668)
- May 1 – Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt, Mother of Johann Sebastian Bach (b. 1644)
- May 2 – Martin Desjardins, French sculptor (b. 1637)
- May 4 – Ludwig Anton von Pfalz-Neuburg, Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1660)
- May 17 – Johann Michael Bach, German composer (b. 1648)
- May 20 – Robert Spencer, 1st Viscount Teviot, Member of the Parliament of England (b. 1629)
- May 24 – Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount Falkland, English politician (b. 1656)
- May 27 – Thomas Hervey, politician of Ickworth, Suffolk (b. 1625)
- June 2
- June 8 – Pieter van der Willigen, Dutch painter (b. 1634)
- June 17
- June 22 – Thomas Tollemache, English general (b. 1651)
- June 27 – François Louis, Count of Harcourt, French count (b. 1627)
- June 28 – Francisco Spinola, Roman Catholic clergyman (b. 1654)
- June 30 – Pieter Claesen Wyckoff, American farmer and landowner (b. 1625)
- July 1
- July 6 – Francesco Beretta, Italian composer (b. 1640)
- July 11 – Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, Swedish count of Brandenburgian extraction and a soldier (b. 1665)
- July 12 – Juan de Santiago y León Garabito, Spanish Catholic prelate, Bishop of Guadalajara and Bishop of Puerto Rico (b. 1641)
- July 19 – René Ouvrard, French composer (b. 1624)
- July 21 – Jacob Jensen Jersin, Danish-Norwegian theologian, priest, bishop of the Diocese of Christianssand (b. 1633)
- July 25
- July 27 – George Pitt, English politician (b. 1625)
- July 28 – William Lowther, English Member of Parliament (b. 1668)
- July 29 – Suleiman I of Persia, Shah of Persia from 1666 to 1694 (b. 1647)
- August 1
- August 5
- August 6 – Gabriel de la Corte, Spanish painter (b. 1648)
- August 8 – Antoine Arnauld, French theologian, philosopher, mathematician (b. 1612)
- August 21 – Tommaso Saladini, Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1647)
- August 22
- August 28 – Francesco Antonio Picchiatti, Italian architect (b. 1617)
- August 29 – Sir Richard Everard, 2nd Baronet, English politician (b. 1625)
- August 30 – Louis de Crevant, Duke of Humières, Marshal of France (b. 1628)
- September 3 – Jean Barbier d'Aucour, French lawyer to the parliament of Paris, ardent Jansenist and satirist (b. 1641)
- September 6 – Francesco II d'Este, Duke of Modena, Italian noble (b. 1660)
- September 7 – Andrija Zmajević, Serbian poet (b. 1624)
- September 10 – Thomas Lloyd, Lieutenant-governor of provincial Pennsylvania and Quaker preacher (b. 1640)
- September 14
- September 22 – Henry Neville, English politician (b. 1620)
- September 24 – Jean Garet, French monk (b. 1627)
- September 27 – Giuseppe Colombi, musician, composer (b. 1635)
- September 28 – Gabriel Mouton, French abbot and scientist (b. 1619)
- September 29
- October 6 – Sugiyama Waichi, Japanese acupuncturist (b. 1610)
- October 9 – Jean-Louis Bergeret, French lawyer (b. 1641)
- October 12
- October 13 – Johann Christoph Pezel, German violinist, trumpeter and composer (b. 1639)
- October 18 – Pierre Ango, French Catholic priest and scientist (b. 1640)
- October 19 – Pierre Menault, French composer (b. 1642)
- October 20 – Christian II, Duke of Saxe-Merseburg (b. 1653)
- October 26 – Samuel von Pufendorf, German philosopher (b. 1632)
- October 27 – Gevherhan Sultan, Daughter of Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim I (b. 1642)
- October 30
- November 7 – Jacques de Claeuw, painter from the Northern Netherlands (b. 1623)
- November 14 – Christian III Maurice, Duke of Saxe-Merseburg, German duke (b. 1680)
- November 16 – Jacques-Théodore de Bryas, clergyman from the Low Countries, bishop of Saint-Omer and archbishop of Cambrai (b. 1631)
- November 22 – John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1630)
- November 23
- November 25 – Ismaël Bullialdus, French astronomer (b. 1605)
- November 28 – Matsuo Bashō, Japanese poet (b. 1644)
- November 29 – Marcello Malpighi, Italian physician (b. 1628)
- December 2 – Pierre Puget, French painter, sculptor, architect and engineer (b. 1620)
- December 4
- December 5 – William Beecher, English politician (b. 1628)
- December 7 – Tiberio Fiorilli, Italian-born actor (b. 1608)
- December 9 – Paolo Segneri, Italian Jesuit (b. 1624)
- December 11 – Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma from 1646 until his death (b. 1630)
- December 12 – Filippo Lauri, Italian painter (b. 1623)
- December 20 – Erasmus Finx, German polymath (b. 1627)
- December 24 – Giovanni Paolo Meniconi, Catholic bishop (b. 1629)
- December 26 – Francis Cuffe, politician (b. 1654)
- December 27 – Henrik Span, naval officer in the Dutch (b. 1634)
- December 28
- date unknown – Hafız Post, Turkish musician (b. c. 1630)
- "Vesuvio: Activity from 1632 until 1794". geo.mtu.edu. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
- Fred Espenak. "EclipseWise - Annular Solar Eclipse of 1694 Jun 22". eclipsewise.com. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
- Henri-Delmas de Grammont, Histoire d'Alger sous la domination turque (1515-1830), Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1887, 458 p. (lire en ligne [archive]), p. 265
- Guillaume Massieu, Oeuvres de Mr de Tourreil (Brunet, 1721) Vol. I, pp. ix–x.
- Ferdinand Brunot, Histoire de la langue française, des origines à 1900, vol. IV (A. Colin, 1939)
- "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p. 46
- "Historical Events in 1694". On This Day. November 21, 1694. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
- "How a storm-stricken Scottish village was swallowed by sand", by Paul Brown, The Guardian (London), October 19, 2020
- "Greenwich Hospital". Retrieved March 7, 2012.
- Alphonse Rousseau, Annales tunisiennes ou aperçu historique sur la régence de Tunis (Bastide, 1864)
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Fred Espenak. "EclipseWise - Total Solar Eclipse of 1694 Dec 16". eclipsewise.com. Retrieved September 28, 2022.
- "Voltaire | Biography, Works, Philosophy, Ideas, Beliefs, & Facts | Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved June 7, 2022.
- "Mary II | Biography & Accomplishments". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 13, 2021.