1741 (MDCCXLI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1741st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 741st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1741, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2494|
|Balinese saka calendar||1662–1663|
|British Regnal year||14 Geo. 2 – 15 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||庚申年 (Metal Monkey)|
4437 or 4377
— to —
辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)
4438 or 4378
|- Vikram Samvat||1797–1798|
|- Shaka Samvat||1662–1663|
|- Kali Yuga||4841–4842|
|Japanese calendar||Genbun 6 / Kanpō 1|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||171 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2283–2284|
1867 or 1486 or 714
— to —
1868 or 1487 or 715
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1741.|
- April – The New York Slave Insurrection, a plot to set fire to New York City, is discovered.
- April 10 – An Austrian army is defeated by Prussian troops of Frederick the Great in the Battle of Mollwitz.
- May – Vitus Bering sets out from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, to map the coasts of Siberia and Alaska.
- May – Spain wins an impressive victory over Great Britain in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias.
- June 25 – Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned Queen Regnant of Hungary in Bratislava.
- July 8 – Jonathan Edwards repeats his Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God sermon at Enfield, Connecticut.
- July 15 – Alexei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska, and sends some men aboard his ship ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.
- August 4–5 – War of Jenkins' Ear – Invasion of Cuba: British Admiral Edward Vernon captures Guantánamo Bay in Cuba, which he renames Cumberland Bay, but which his forces are forced to abandon on December 9.
- August 10 – Raja Marthanda Varma of Travancore defeats the Dutch East India Company in the Battle of Colachel, ending the Dutch colonial rule in India.
- November 25–26 – Franco-Bavarian troops commanded by Maurice of Saxony storm Prague.
- December 6 – Elizabeth of Russia becomes czarina, after a palace coup.
- December 19 – Vitus Bering dies during his expedition, east of Siberia.
- December 25 – Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale, Centigrade, the predecessor of the Celsius scale.
- January 14 – Benedict Arnold, American Revolutionary War general, traitor (d. 1801)
- January 27 – Hester Thrale, Welsh diarist (d. 1821)
- February 7 – Henry Fuseli, Swiss painter and writer (d. 1825)
- March 13 – Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1790)
- March 17 – William Withering, British physician (d. 1799)
- March 20 – Jean Antoine Houdon, French sculptor (d. 1828)
- April 14 – Emperor Momozono of Japan (d. 1762)
- April 17 – Samuel Chase, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1811)
- May 13 – Ingeborg Akeleye, Norwegian noble known for her love life (d. 1800)
- May 23 – Andrea Luchesi, Italian composer (d. 1801)
- June 11 – Joseph Warren, American Patriot, physician (d. 1775)
- September 22 – Peter Simon Pallas, German zoologist (d. 1811)
- October 4 – Edmond Malone, Irish scholar (d. 1812)
- October 18 – Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French general, author (d. 1803)
- October 24 – Johann August von Starck, German pastor (d. 1816)
- November 15 – Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss physiognomist (d. 1801)
- Date unknown – Nikolaos Koutouzis, Greek painter, poet and priest (d. 1813)
- January 15 – Ramon Despuig, Spanish-born 67th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1670)
- February 13 – Johann Joseph Fux, Austrian composer (b. 1660)
- February 21 – Jethro Tull, British agriculturist (b. 1674)
- March 16 – Eleonora Luisa Gonzaga, Tuscan princess (b. 1686)
- March 17 – Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French poet (b. 1671)
- March 31 – Pieter Burmann the Elder, Dutch classical scholar (b. 1668)
- April 10 – Celia Fiennes, English travel writer (b. 1662)
- May 21 – Henry Dawnay, 2nd Viscount Downe, Irish peer (b. 1664)
- May 24 – Lord Augustus FitzRoy, Royal Navy officer during the Battle of Cartagena de Indias (b. 1716)
- May 25 – Daniel Ernst Jablonski, German theologian (b. 1660)
- June 14 – Landgravine Caroline of Hesse-Rotenburg, German noble (b. 1714)
- June 18 – François Pourfour du Petit, French anatomist, ophthalmologist and surgeon (b. 1664)
- July 3 – Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine, Sardinian queen consort (b. 1711)
- July 28 – Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer (b. 1678)
- August 4 – Andrew Hamilton, American lawyer (b. 1676)
- August 31 – Johann Gottlieb Heineccius, German jurist (b. 1681)
- September 7 – Blas de Lezo, Spanish admiral (b. 1689)
- September 28 – Edward Bayly, Irish politician (b. 1684)
- November 18 – Stephen Delancey, major colonial New York figure (b. 1663)
- November 24 – Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (b.1688)
- December 14 – Charles Rollin, French historian (b. 1661)
- December 19 – Vitus Bering, Danish-born explorer (b. 1681)
- December 21 – Bernard de Montfaucon, French Benedictine monk (b. 1655)
- December 31 – Andrew Archer, English politician (b. 1659)