Hester Lynch Thrale (born Hester Lynch Salusbury and after her second marriage becoming Hester Lynch Piozzi, 27 January 1741 [NS] – 2 May 1821) was a Welsh-born diarist, author, and patron of the arts. Her diaries and correspondence are an important source of information about Samuel Johnson and 18th-century English life.
Portrait by Joshua Reynolds
Hester Lynch Salusbury
27 January 1741
|Died||2 May 1821(aged 80)|
|Other names||Hester Salusbury, Hester Piozzi|
Hester Lynch Salusbury was born at Bodvel Hall, Caernarvonshire, Wales, the only daughter of Hester Lynch Cotton and Sir John Salusbury. As a member of the powerful Salusbury Family, she belonged to one of the most illustrious Welsh land-owning dynasties of the Georgian era. Through her father's line, she was a direct descendant of Katheryn of Berain.
After her father had gone bankrupt in an attempt to invest in Halifax, Canada, she married the rich brewer Henry Thrale on 11 October 1763, at St. Anne's Chapel, Soho, London. They had 12 children and lived at Streatham Park. The marriage often was strained, however: her husband frequently felt slighted by members of the court and may well have married to improve his social status. The Thrales' eldest daughter, Hester, became a viscountess.
After her marriage, Thrale was liberated and free to associate with whom she pleased. Due to her husband's financial status, she was able to enter London society, as a result of which she met Samuel Johnson, James Boswell, Bishop Thomas Percy, Oliver Goldsmith, and other literary figures, including the young Fanny Burney, whom she took with her to Gay Street, Bath.
In July 1774 Johnson visited Wales in Thrale's company, during which time they visited Hester's uncle Sir Lynch Cotton at Combermere in Denbighshire. Frances, the wife of Sir Lynch's son Robert "found Johnson, despite his rudeness, at times delightful, having a manner peculiar to himself in relating anecdotes that could not fail to attract old and young. Her impression was that Thrale was very vexatious in wishing to engross all his attention, which annoyed him much."
Fanny Burney, in her diary, describes the conversations at several of Thrale's soirées, including one in 1779 about a young woman named Miss Sophy Streatfeild (1755–1835), who was a favourite of both Mr. Johnson and Mr. Thrale, rather to the chagrin of Hester, who commented that Sophy "had a power of captivation that was irresistible... her beauty joined to her softness, her caressing manners, her tearful eyes, and alluring looks, would insinuate her into the heart of any man she thought worth attacking." The touch of understandable spite hereby revealed in Thrale's nature is tempered by her wry humour in remarking (after another of her male guests had professed devotion to Sophy and the desire to "soothe" her): "I would ensure her power of crying herself into any of your hearts she pleased. I made her cry to Miss Burney, to show how beautiful she looked in tears" and (on being rebuked about this) "Oh but she liked it... Miss Burney would have run away but she came forward on purpose to show herself. Sophy Streatfeild is never happier than when tears trickle down from her fine eyes in company."
The Thrales were in Bath in 1780 at the time of the Gordon Riots, when a Roman Catholic chapel was set on fire, although the greater worry was whether Mr. Thrale's brewery in Southwark would escape being ransacked, which it narrowly did.
Fanny records Thrale's distress on losing her husband (4 April 1781), referring to her as "sweet Mrs. Thrale" and sympathising with the "agitation" she was under in having to sell the brewery and wind up his affairs. Fanny was there to congratulate and cheer Thrale when the business was concluded.
During the ensuing years, Thrale fell in love with Gabriel Mario Piozzi, an Italian music teacher, and married him on 25 July 1784. She complained: "I see the English newspapers are full of gross Insolence towards me," with one commenting how Thrale could not have imagined "his wife's disgrace, by eventually raising an obscure and penniless Fiddler into sudden Wealth." This caused a rift with Johnson, which was only perfunctorily mended shortly before his death. The levelling marriage also earned her the disapproval of Fanny (who would herself marry in 1793 the impoverished, Catholic émigré Alexandre D'Arblay) and her cousins the Cottons. With her second husband, Hester retired to Brynbella, a specially built country house on her Bach y Graig estate in the Vale of Clwyd, near Tremeirchion village in north Wales. During this time she began to reflect heavily on her ancestry, and for a time became obsessed with the idea of reclaiming her father's Canadian lands in Herring Cove, an enclave of Nova Scotia.
After Johnson's death, she published Anecdotes of the Late Samuel Johnson (1786) and their letters to each other (1788). Fanny Burney, who considered both Johnson and Thrale to be among her dearest friends, read the unpublished manuscript with much interest, but disapproved of the decision to publish, noting, "She has given all – every word – and thinks that, perhaps, a justice to Dr. Johnson, which, in fact, is the greatest injury to his memory." Together with Thrale's diaries, which were known as Thraliana, and were not published until 1949, these sources help to fill out the biased picture of Johnson often presented in Boswell's Life. Johnson often stayed with the Thrale household and had his own room above the library at Streatham, in which he worked. Hester's papers provide more insight into his composition process.
Her Retrospection: or a review of the most striking and important events, characters, situations, and their consequences which the last eighteen hundred years have presented to the view of mankind was an attempt at a popular history of that period, but it was not received well by critics, some of whom patently resented female intrusion into the male preserve of history. Posterity has been kinder. According to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, "it has since been seen as a feminist history, concerned to show changes in manners and mores in so far as they affected women; it has also been judged to anticipate Marxian history in its keen apprehension of reification: 'machines imitated mortals to unhoped perfection, and men found out they were themselves machines.'"
A lexicographer in her own right Mrs. Piozzi's British synonymy, or, An attempt at regulating the choice of words in familiar conversation was published in 1794, ten years after Dr. Johnson's death, by G.G. & J. Robinson of London.
Death and legacyEdit
Hester Piozzi died at No. 10 (now 20) Sion Row, Clifton, Bristol, of complications after a fall, and was buried on 16 May 1821 near Brynbella in the churchyard of Corpus Christi Church, Tremeirchion, next to Piozzi. A marble inside the church was erected in 1909 inscribed with the words
Near this place are interred the remains of
Hester Lynch Piozzi.
"Doctor Johnson's Mrs Thrale"
Born 1741. Died 1821.
Witty. Vivacious and Charming. In an Age of Genius
She Ever Held a Foremost Place
This Tablet is Erected by Orlando Butler Fellowes
Grand-Son of Sir James Fellowes. The Intimate Friend of
Mrs. Piozzi and her Executor.
Assisted by Subscriptions
28th April 1909.
From the time of her death almost up to the present, she was referred to by scholars as Johnson had done, as Mrs. Thrale or Hester Thrale. Nowadays she is now often referred to as Hester Lynch Piozzi or Mrs Piozzi.
Samuel Beckett would draw on Thrale's diaries and Anecdotes to dramatize her and Samuel Johnson's relationship in one of his earliest plays, Human Wishes. The play was abandoned after the completion of the first act.
- Bainbridge, Beryl, According to Queeney, Little Brown & Co., 2001 (novel)
- Boswell, James (1851). The life of Samuel Johnson. [Followed by] The journal of a tour to the Hebrides.
- D'Ezio, Marianna. The Advantages of 'Demi-Naturalization': Hester Piozzi's Observations and Reflections Made in the Course of a Journey Through France, Italy and Germany (1789), Journal for Eighteenth Century Studies 33:2 (2010), pp. 165–180
- D'Ezio, Marianna. Hester Lynch Thrale Piozzi. A Taste for Eccentricity. Newcastle upon Tyne. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010
- McIntyre, Ian (2008). Hester: The Remarkable Life of Dr Johnson's 'dear Mistress'. Constable. ISBN 978-1-84529-449-6.
- Piozzi, H. L., Bloom, E. A., & Bloom, L. D. (1989). The Piozzi letters: Correspondence of Hester Lynch Piozzi, 1784-1821 (formerly Mrs. Thrale). Newark: University of Delaware Press
- Vulliamy, C. E. Mrs. Thrale of Streatham. London. Cape, 1936
- Stapleton Cotton, Mary Woolley; Stapleton Cotton, Stapleton; Knollys, William Wallingford (1866). Memoirs and Correspondence of Field-marshal Viscount Combermere, from his family papers, by Mary Viscountess Combermere and W. W. Knollys.
- Burney, F. The Diary of Fanny Burney, Dent (Everyman edition), London, 1971, pp. 45–56.
- Boswell 1851, p. 185.
- Broadley 1909, p. 176.
- Stapleton Cotton, Stapleton Cotton & Knollys 1866, p. 22.
- Burney, F. The Diary of Fanny Burney, Dent (Everyman edition), London, 1971, p. 32.
- Burney, F. The Diary of Fanny Burney, Dent (Everyman edition), London, 1971, p. 33.
- Burney, F. The Diary of Fanny Burney, Dent (Everyman edition), London, 1971, pp. 54–56.
- Burney, F. The Diary of Fanny Burney, Dent (Everyman edition), London, 1971, p. 59.
- Burney, F. The Diary of Fanny Burney, Dent (Everyman edition), London, 1971, pp. 60–62.
- Gopnik 2008.
- Michael J. Franklin, "Piozzi , Hester Lynch (1741–1821)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2004) Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- Burney, F. The Diary of Fanny Burney, Dent (Everyman edition), London, 1971, p. 187.
- Hester Thrale Piozzi, 2 vols, London: John Stockdale, 1801
- Broadley 1909, p. 154.
- The Journals and Letters of Fanny Burney (Madame D'Arblay, ed. Joyce Hemlow et al., 12 vols (London: OUP, 1972–1984), IX, pp. 208–209.
- Broadley, A. M. (1909). Doctor Johnson and Mrs Thrale : Including Mrs Thrale's unpublished Journal of the Welsh Tour Made in 1774 and Much Hitherto Unpublished Correspondence of the Streatham Coterie. London: John Lane The Bodley Head.
- Boswell, James. Life of Johnson ed. R. W. Chapman, intro. Pat Rogers. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998.
- Burney, Frances (Fanny). The Diary of Fanny Burney ed. L Gibbs. London: Dent (Everyman edition), 1971.
- Gopnik, Adam (8 December 2008), "The Critics: A Critic at Large: Man of Fetters: Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale", The New Yorker, 84 (40): 90–96, retrieved 9 July 2011.
- Prose, Francine. The lives of the muses. New York: Harper Collins, 2002. 29–56.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hester Thrale|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article about Hester Thrale.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Piozzi, Hester Lynch.|
- Stephen, Leslie (1896). . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 45. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 323–326.
- Works by Hester Thrale at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Hester Thrale at Internet Archive
- Works by Hester Thrale at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Works by Hester Thrale at Open Library
- Grand Ball in celebration of her 80th birthday
- "Archival material relating to Hester Thrale". UK National Archives.
- Thrale Piozzi Manuscripts, John Rylands Library, University of Manchester
- Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale by Adam Gopnick
- Portraits of Hester Lynch Piozzi (née Salusbury; Mrs Thrale) at the National Portrait Gallery, London
- Hester Lynch Piozzi at the Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive (ECPA)