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1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday (dominical letter AG) of the Julian calendar, the 1828th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 828th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1828, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
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- January 4 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac succeeds the Comte de Villèle as Prime Minister of France.
- January 22 – Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington succeeds Lord Goderich as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
- February 19 – The Boston Society for Medical Improvement is established in the United States.
- February 22 – Treaty of Turkmenchay: By this Russian-Persian peace treaty signed on February 10 at Torkamanchay in Persia (Iran), the latter country is forced irrevocably to cede the territories of the Erivan Khanate (most of present-day central Armenia and the northern Iğdır Province of Turkey), the Nakhichevan Khanate (most of the modern-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan), the remainder of the Talysh Khanate (southeastern Azerbaijan) and the Ordubad and Mughan regions (also part of modern-day Azerbaijan) to Imperial Russia. By this and the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) it has now lost all its territories north of the Aras river, comprising modern day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia to Russia. Armenians from Persian Azerbaijan are to be resettled in the Caucasus.
- March 3 — Dom Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil and former King of Portugal, signs a document "to complete my abdication of the Portuguese crown" (made in 1826), to renounce all claims in favor of his daughter Queen Maria II, and to declare "indubitable proof" that he wishes Portugal to be "perpetually separated from the Brazilian nation... in such a manner as may render even the idea of reunion impracticable." 
- March 18 — Simón Bolívar, President of Colombia (and former President of Venezuela, Peru and Bolivia), departs from the capital at Bogotá, in order to help his ally, General José Antonio Páez, suppress an uprising near the Venezuelan border, but is sidetracked by another rebellion in Cartagena. 
- April 11 – Bahía Blanca is founded.
- April 20 – French explorer René Caillié becomes the first non-Muslim to enter Timbuktu and later return alive.
- April 26 – Treaty of Commerce and Navigation signed between Brazil and Denmark, establishing diplomatic relations between the two countries.
- May 26 – Supposedly feral child Kaspar Hauser is discovered in Nuremberg, Germany.
- June 3 – Gran Colombia–Peru War: President Simón Bolívar declares war on Peru.
- June 23 – King Miguel I of Portugal overthrows his niece Queen Maria II, beginning the Liberal Wars.
- July 4 – Lord William Bentinck arrives at Calcutta (now Kolkata) to begin his administration as the new Governor-General of India on behalf of King George IV of the United Kingdom. 
- August 11 – William Corder is hanged at Bury St Edmunds, England, for the murder of Maria Marten at the Red Barn a year ago.
- August 27 – South America: Brazil and Argentina recognize the independence of Uruguay. Simón Bolívar declares himself dictator of Gran Colombia.
- September 17 – A typhoon kills approximately 10,000 people in Kyūshū, Japan. 
- September 29 – Russo-Turkish War (1828–29): Varna is taken by the Russian army.
- October 26 – English naturalist and explorer William John Burchell collects the only known specimen of Parabouchetia brasiliensis, an exceptionally rare member of the nightshade family Solanaceae, in central Brazil.
- November 11 – Greek War of Independence: the London Protocol entails the creation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty, encompassing the Morea and the Cyclades.
- November 12 – Anouvong, ruler of the Kingdom of Vientiane, is deposed and the kingdom is annexed by Siam. During the war, the city of Vientiane is obliterated by Siamese forces.
- December 1 – Decembrist revolution (Argentina): Juan Lavalle, returning to Buenos Aires with troops that fought in the Cisplatine War, deposes the provincial governor Manuel Dorrego, reigniting the Argentine Civil Wars.
- December 3 – U.S. presidential election: Andrew Jackson is elected President of the United States.
- December 30 – Publication (begun on January 14) of Franz Schubert's song cycle Winterreise is concluded posthumously.
- January 22 – Dora d'Istria, Romanian-Albanian writer (died 1888)
- January 23 – Saigō Takamori, Japanese samurai (d. 1877)
- February 8 – Jules Verne, French author (d. 1905)
- March 13 – Sébastien Lespès, French admiral (d. 1897)
- March 17 – Patrick Cleburne, Irish soldier and Confederate general (d. 1864)
- March 18 – Randal Cremer, English politician and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1908)
- March 20 – Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian playwright (d. 1906)
- March 24 – Horace Gray, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1902)
- April 17 – Johanna Mestorf, German prehistoric archaeologist (d. 1909)
- April 20 – Josephine Butler, British social reformer (d. 1906)
- April 29 – Étienne Stéphane Tarnier, French obstetrician and inventor (d. 1897)
- May 8
- May 12 – Dante Gabriel Rossetti, English poet and painter (d. 1882)
- June 21 – Ferdinand André Fouqué, French geologist and petrologist (d. 1904)
- July 9 – Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano, Italian Catholic churchman (d. 1913)
- July 23 – Jonathan Hutchinson, English physician (d. 1913)
- July 28 – Iosif Gurko, Russian field marshal (d. 1901)
- July 31 – Ignacio de Veintemilla, 11th President of Ecuador (d. 1908)
- August 6 – Andrew Taylor Still, father of osteopathy (d. 1917)
- August 17 – Maria Deraismes, French feminist (d. 1894)
- August 28 – William A. Hammond, American military physician and neurologist, eleventh Surgeon General of the United States Army (1862–1864) (d. 1900)
- September 8
- September 9 (O.S. August 28) – Leo Tolstoy, Russian writer (d. 1910)
- October 2 – Charles Floquet, Prime Minister of France (d. 1896)
- October 20 – Horatio Spafford, author of the hymn "It Is Well with My Soul" (d. 1888)
- October 26 – William M. Robbins, U.S. Representative from North Carolina (d. 1905)
- October 31 – Joseph Swan, English physicist and chemist (d. 1914)
- November 17 – Milton Wright, American bishop of the United Brethren Church and father of aviation pioneers the Wright brothers (d. 1917)
- November 19 – Rani Lakshmibai, queen of the Maratha-ruled princely state of Jhansi (d. 1858)
- November 26 – René Goblet, Prime Minister of France (d. 1905)
- December 8 – Clinton B. Fisk, American temperance movement leader (d. 1890)
- January 10 – François de Neufchâteau, French politician and intellectual figure (b. 1750)
- February 11 – DeWitt Clinton, 6th Governor of New York, United States Senator (b. 1769)
- March 12 – Jack Randall, early boxing champion
- April 16 – Francisco Goya, Spanish painter (b. 1746)
- May 8 – Mauro Giuliani, Italian composer (b. 1781)
- May 16 – William Congreve, British rocket pioneer (b. 1772)
- May 28 – Daikokuya Kōdayū, Japanese castaway (b. 1751)
- June 1 – Lyncoya Jackson, second adopted son of American President Andrew Jackson (b. c. 1811)
- June 21 – Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Spanish dramatist and poet (b. 1760)
- July 9 – Gilbert Stuart, an American painter from Rhode Island (b. 1755)
- July 15 – Jean-Antoine Houdon, French sculptor (b. 1741)
- July 21 – Charles Manners-Sutton, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1755)
- September 20 – George Bethune English, American explorer and writer (b. 1797)
- September 22 – Shaka, the most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom (b. 1787)
- September 25 – Charlotta Seuerling, Swedish musician (b. 1783)
- November 5 – Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg), Empress of Paul I of Russia (b. 1759)
- November 19 – Franz Schubert, Austrian composer (b. 1797)
- December 4 – Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1770)
- December 22
- Portugal; or, Who is the lawful Successor to the Throne (London: John Richardson, 1828) p126
- John Lynch, Simón Bolívar: A Life (Yale University Press, 2007) p233
- British and Foreign State Papers.
- John Clark Marshman, History of India from the Earliest Period to the Close of the East India Company's Government (William Blackwood and Sons, 1876) p357; reprinted by Cambridge University Press, 2010)
- "Japan", in Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones, by David Longshore (Infobase Publishing, 2010) p272