Jean-Antoine Houdon (French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃n‿ɑ̃twan udɔ̃]) (25 March 1741 – 15 July 1828) was a French neoclassical sculptor.
1808 portrait by Rembrandt Peale
|Died||15 July 1828 (aged 87)|
|Education||Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture|
|Known for||Portrait sculpture|
|Awards||Prix de Rome|
Houdon is famous for his portrait busts and statues of philosophers, inventors and political figures of the Enlightenment. Houdon's subjects included Denis Diderot (1771), Benjamin Franklin (1778-09), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1778), Voltaire (1781), Molière (1781), George Washington (1785–88), Thomas Jefferson (1789), Louis XVI (1790), Robert Fulton, (1803–04), and Napoléon Bonaparte (1806).
He was born in Versailles, on 25 March 1741. In 1752, he entered the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, where he studied with René-Michel Slodtz, Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, and Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. From 1761 to 1764, he studied at the École royale des élèves protégés.
Houdon won the Prix de Rome in 1761, but was not greatly influenced by ancient and Renaissance art in Rome. His stay in the city is marked by two characteristic and important productions: the superb écorché (1767), an anatomical model which has served as a guide to all artists since his day, and the statue of Saint Bruno in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri in Rome. After ten years stay in Italy, Houdon returned to Paris.
He submitted "Morpheus" to the Salon of 1771. He developed his practise of portrait busts. He became a member of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture in 1771, and a professor in 1778. In 1778, he modeled Voltaire, producing a portrait bust with wig for the Comédie-Française; one for the Palace of Versailles, and one for Catherine the Great.
Houdon's portrait sculpture of Washington was the result of a specific invitation by Benjamin Franklin to cross the Atlantic in 1785, specifically to visit Mount Vernon, so that Washington could model for him. Washington sat for wet clay life models and a plaster life mask. These models served for many commissions of Washington, including the standing figure commissioned by the Virginia General Assembly, for the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond. Numerous variations of the Washington bust were produced, portraying him variously as a general in uniform, in the classical manner showing chest musculature, and as Roman Consul Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus clad in a toga. A cast of the latter is located in the Vermont State House.
Perceived as bourgeois for his connections to the court of Louis XVI, he fell out of favour during the French Revolution, although he escaped imprisonment. Houdon returned to favor during the French Consulate and Empire, being taken on as one of the original artistic team for what became the Column of the Grande Armée at Wimille. He was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur, on 17 December 1804.
Legacy and influenceEdit
Voltaire, 1778, National Gallery of Art
- Chisholm 1911.
- Murray 2004.
- "Jean-Antoine Houdon: l'Ecorche (Flayed Man)". artcyclopedia.com.
- Herbermann 1913.
- Hart & Biddle 1911, p. 36.
- Marshall, Kaufman & Johnston 2005.
- "Jean Antoine Houdon (1741–1828)". metmuseum.org. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- Hart & Biddle 1911, p. 264.
- Hart & Biddle 1911, p. 274.
- Hart & Biddle 1911, p. 256.
- Smithsonian National Postal Museum
- Harvard, Arnason H. (1975), The Sculptures of Houdon, London: Phaidon
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. .
- Christopher John Murray, ed. (2004), Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760–1850: A-K, 1, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9781579584238
- Poulet, Ann L. (2003), Jean-Antoine Houdon: Sculptor of the Enlightenment., University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-67647-1
- Hart, Charles Henry; Biddle, Edward (1911), Memoirs of the Life and Works of Jean Antoine Houdon: The Sculptor of Voltaire and of Washington, Princeton University; Kessinger Publishing, 2006, ISBN 9781425499891
- Marshall, Bill; Kaufman, Will; Johnston, Cristina, eds. (2005), France and the Americas: Culture, Politics, And History, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9781851094110
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean-Antoine Houdon.|
- Virtual Gallery
- Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741–1828) (Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History)
- Art and the empire city: New York, 1825–1861, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Houdon (see index)
- Jean-Antoine Houdon in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website