A feral child (also called wild child) is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, and so has had little or no experience of human care, behavior or human language. There are several confirmed cases and other speculative ones. Feral children may have experienced severe abuse or trauma before being abandoned or running away. They are sometimes the subjects of folklore and legends, typically portrayed as having been raised by animals.
Feral children lack the basic social skills that are normally learned in the process of enculturation. For example, they may be unable to learn to use a toilet, have trouble learning to walk upright after walking on fours all their lives, or display a complete lack of interest in the human activity around them. They often seem mentally impaired and have almost insurmountable trouble learning a human language. The impaired ability to learn a natural language after having been isolated for so many years is often attributed to the existence of a critical period for language learning, and taken as evidence in favor of the critical period hypothesis.
There is little scientific knowledge about feral children. One of the best-documented cases has supposedly been that of sisters Amala and Kamala, described by Reverend J. A. L. Singh in 1926 as having been "raised by wolves" in a forest in India. French surgeon Serge Aroles, however, has persuasively argued that the case was a fraud, perpetrated by Singh in order to raise money for his orphanage. Child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim states that Amala and Kamala were born mentally and physically disabled. Yet other scientific studies of feral children exist, such as the case of Genie.
Around the 20th century, psychologists were attempting to differentiate between behavior and biological culture. Feral children who lived in isolation or with animals provided examples of this dilemma.
Prior to the 1600s, feral and wild children stories were usually limited to myths and legends. In those tales, the depiction of feral children included hunting for food, running on all fours, and not knowing language. Philosophers and scientists were infatuated with such children, and began to question if these children were part of a different species from the human family.
The question was taken seriously as science tried to name and categorize the development of humans, and the understanding of the natural world in the 18th and 19th century.
Documented cases of feral childrenEdit
Raised by primatesEdit
Marina Chapman claimed to have lived with weeper capuchin monkeys in the Colombian jungle from the age of four to about nine, following a botched kidnapping in about 1954. Unusual for feral children, she went on to marry, have children and live a largely normal life with no persisting problems.
Robert (1982) lost his parents in the Ugandan Civil War at the age of three, when Milton Obote's looting and murdering soldiers raided their village, around 50 miles (80 km) from Kampala. Robert then survived in the wild, presumably with vervet monkeys, for three years until he was found by soldiers.
Saturday Mthiyane (or Mifune) (1987), a boy of around five, was found after spending about a year in the company of monkeys in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. He was given the name Saturday after the day he was found, and Mthiyane was the name of the headmistress of the Special School which took him in. In 2005, at the age of around 17, he could still not talk, and still walked and jumped like a monkey. He never ate cooked food and refused to share or play with other children.
John Ssebunya, from Uganda, was a toddler when his mother died. Instead of going into a care facility, he went to live with vervet monkeys. For two years he learned how to forage and travel. The monkeys protected him in the wild. When he was around seven years old, he was brought back to civilization. The only form of communication he could do was cry, and he was described as always wanting food. Some considered him “wild” and “scary.” 
Raised by wolvesEdit
Marcos Rodríguez Pantoja (ca. 1946, Sierra Morena, Spain) lived for 12 years with wolves in the mountains of Southern Spain. He was discovered at age 19. Rodríguez's story was depicted in the 2010 Spanish-German film Entrelobos. For his portrayal of Rodríguez, young actor Manuel Camacho received a Best New Actor nomination at the 2011 Goya Awards.
Raised by dogsEdit
Oxana Malaya was an eight-year-old girl who lived with dogs for six years. She was found in a kennel with dogs in 1991. She was neglected by her parents who were alcoholics. The three-year-old looking for comfort crawled into the farm and snuggled in with the dogs. Her behavior imitated dogs more than humans. She walked on all fours, bared her teeth, and barked. She was removed from her parents' custody by the social services. As she lacked human contact she did not know any words besides "yes" and "no". Upon adulthood, Oxana has been taught to subdue her dog-like behavior. She learned to speak fluently and intelligently and works at the farm milking cows, but remains somewhat intellectually impaired. Years later, Oxana admitted on a Russian talkshow that her story was slightly less dramatic; neglected by her parents, she sought out the company of the dogs and learned to imitate them as they were more responsive than her parents.
Ivan Mishukov, a six-year-old boy was rescued by the police in 1998 from wild dogs, who he lived with for two years. He ran from his mother and her abusive alcoholic boyfriend at the age of four. He earned the dogs' trust by giving them food and in return the dogs protected him. The boy had risen to being "alpha male" of the pack. When the police found him, they set a trap for him and the dogs by leaving food in a restaurant kitchen. Because he had lived among the dogs for only two years, he relearned language fairly rapidly. He studied in military school and served in the Russian Army.
A 10-year-old Chilean boy (Dog Boy) was abandoned by his parents, lived with street dogs who hunted for food with him, and may have nursed him. At the age of five, the boy was abandoned by his parents and escaped a child care facility with 15 street dogs. The boy lived in a cave with the stray dogs and searched for food with them. He would search garbage cans to find leftover food to eat. He was raised by dogs since he was little. In 2001, he was found by the police, and he tried to escape by going into the water. However, he was caught and hospitalized.
Traian Căldărar, Romania (found in 2002) also known as "the Romanian Dog Boy" or "Mowgli". From the ages of four to seven, Trajan lived without his family. The boy was found at the age of seven and was described as a three-year-old due to undernutrition. His mother had left her home because of domestic violence, and Traian ran from home sometime after his mother left. He lived in the wild and took shelter in a cardboard box. He suffered from infected wounds, having poor circulation, and a children's disease caused by vitamin D deficiency. Traian was found by Manolescu Ioan, who had been walking across the country after his car broke down. In the surrounding area, a dog that had been eaten was also found. Many assume that the boy was eating the dog to stay alive. When Traian was being cared for, he would usually sleep under the bed and wanted to eat all the time. In 2007, Traian was being taken care of by his grandfather and was doing well in 3rd grade at school. Now, he is a normal child who likes football and mathematics.
Andrei Tolstyk (2004) was raised by dogs in a remote part of Siberia from the age of three months to 7 years. He was neglected by his parents because he had speaking and hearing problems. Social workers who found the boy were curious about why the boy was not admitted to his local school. This boy was not able to talk as he lacked human interaction and had many dog-like characteristics including walking on all fours, biting people, and sniffing his food before eating.
Madina, a three-year-old girl. Madina lived with dogs from birth until she was three years old. She slept with them in the cold, ate food with them, and played with them. Her father left her after she was born, and her mother became an alcoholic. She never looked after Madina since she was always too drunk and Madina would chew on bones from the floor with the dogs. When social workers found Madina in 2013, she acted like dogs and was not wearing any clothes. Madina was being taken care of and the doctors said that she was mentally and physically healthy even after what she had gone through.
Raised by bearsEdit
The three Lithuanian bear-boys (1657, 1669, 1694):21–28 – Serge Aroles shows from the archives of the Queen of Poland (1664–1688) that these are false. There was only one boy, found in the forests in spring 1663 and then brought to Poland's capital.:196
Raised with sheepEdit
An Irish boy brought up by sheep, reported by Nicolaes Tulp in his book Observationes Medicae (1672).:20–1 Serge Aroles gives evidence that this boy was severely disabled and exhibited for money.:199–201
A fourteen-year-old boy also known as the sheep boy, was found in the former Soviet Union living in a sheep flock. He was raised by sheep for 8 years. He had no communication skills and could not use the toilet. His parents left to find work and was left with his grandmother. His grandmother took care of him until she passed away.
Raised with cattleEdit
Raised by goatsEdit
Daniel, Andes Goat Boy (1990) lived in the wild for about 8 years. He was discovered in the mountains of Peru and was raised by goats. He walked and ran on all fours with the mountain goats. He drank goat's milk, ate berries, and roots.
Raised by ostrichesEdit
The "ostrich boy" – A boy named Hadara was lost by his parents in the Sahara desert at the age of two, and was adopted by ostriches. At the age of 12, he was rescued and taken back to society and his parents. He later married and had children. The story of Hadara is often told in west Sahara. In 2000, Hadara's son Ahmedu told his father's story to the Swedish author Monica Zak, who compiled it to a book. The book is a mixture of the stories told by Ahmedu and Zak's own fantasy.
Other documented casesEdit
Marie-Angelique Memmie Le Blanc, was a famous feral child of the 18th century in France who was known as The Wild Girl of Champagne, The Maid of Châlons, or The Wild Child of Songy. Marie-Angélique survived for ten years living wild in the forests of France, between the ages of nine and 19, before she was captured by villagers in Songy in Champagne in September 1731. She was likely born in 1712 as a Native American of the Meskwaki (or "Fox") people, and brought to France in 1720; or she was born in an unknown location in 1721. Marie died in Paris in 1775. Documents show that she learned to read and write as an adult, thus making her unique among feral children.
Hany Istók (a.k.a. Steve of the Marsh) of Kapuvár, Hungary (1749). According to documents stored at the Catholic parish of Kapuvár, an abandoned child was once found in a marshy lakeside forest by two fishermen. He was brought to the town of Kapuvár, where he was christened and received the name Steven. The local governor took him to his castle and tried to raise him, but the boy eventually escaped and ran back to the forest. Later, numerous folk tales developed around his character, depicting him as a "half fish, half human creature" who lived in a nearby lake.
Ramachandra (1970s and 1980s) – First reported in 1973 in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, at roughly 12 years old, and as living an amphibian lifestyle in the Kuano river. He was rescued in 1979 and taken to a nearby village. He only partly adapted to a conventional lifestyle, still preferring raw food, walking with an awkward gait, and spending most of his time alone in nearby rivers and streams. He died in 1982 after approaching a woman who was frightened by him, and who badly scalded Ramachandra with boiling water. Historian Mike Dash speculates that Ramachandra's uncharacteristically bold approach to the woman was sparked by a burgeoning sexual attraction coupled with his ignorance of cultural mores and taboos.
Alleged cases of feral childrenEdit
Raised by pumasEdit
Vicente Caucau (1948) – Chilean boy found in a savage state at age 12, allegedly raised by pumas.
Raised with sheepEdit
The historian Herodotus wrote that Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus I (Psamtik) sought to discover the origin of language by conducting an experiment with two children. Allegedly, he gave two newborn babies to a shepherd, with the instructions that no one should speak to them, but that the shepherd should feed and care for them while listening to determine their first words. The hypothesis was that the first word would be uttered in the root language of all people. When one of the children cried “bekos” (a sound quite similar to the bleating of sheep) with outstretched arms the shepherd concluded that the word was Phrygian because that was the sound of the Phrygian word for bread. Thus, they concluded that the Phrygians were an older people than the Egyptians.
Other alleged casesEdit
Raised in confinementEdit
Isabelle (1938) was almost seven years old when she was discovered. She had spent the first years of her life isolated in a dark room with her deaf-mute mother as her only contact. Only seven months later, she had learned a vocabulary of around 1,500 to 2,000 words. She is reported to have acquired normal linguistic abilities.
Anna (1938) was six years old when she was found, having been kept in a dark room for most of her life. She was born in March 1932 in Pennsylvania, United States. She was her mother's second illegitimate child. Her mother had tried to give Anna up for several months but no agency was willing to take the financial burden, as this was during the Great Depression. Anna was kept in a store room at least until she was five and half, out of the way of her disapproving grandfather, who was infuriated by her presence. Her mother also resented her, considering her troublesome. She was tied to a broken chair which was too small for her, and is believed to have also been tied to a cot for long periods of time. She was mostly fed milk and was never bathed, trained, or caressed by anyone. When she was found, she was suffering from malnutrition as well as muscle atrophy. She was immobile, expressionless, and indifferent to everything. She was believed to be deaf as she did not respond to others (later it was found that her deafness was functional rather than physical). She could not talk, walk, feed herself, or do anything that showed signs of cognition. Once she was taken away and placed in a foster home, she showed signs of improvement. At the age of nine she began to develop speech. She had started to conform to social norms and was able to feed herself, though only using a spoon. Her teachers described her as having a pleasant disposition. Anna passed away in August 1942 of hemorrhagic jaundice.
Sujit Kumar (1979), named the “Chicken Boy of Fiji” by the media, was born with cerebral palsy and epilepsy. Sujit's mother committed suicide when he was a toddler and his father left him confined under the house to live with the chickens. Sujit was rescued while still a boy and committed to the Samabula Old People's Home where he was confined to his room and tied to his bed. He could not speak and his only verbalisation was clucking; his only interaction with people consisted of outbursts. Sujit remained at the old people's home for 20 years until he was found by Elizabeth Clayton, a wealthy businesswoman who founded the Happy Home Trust to care for Sujit and other at risk Fijian children. Sujit's behaviour has improved, but he will never learn to speak and he remains profoundly disabled.
Danielle Crockett, Plant City, Florida, United States (2007–2008), had been locked in her room and deprived of any human interaction for the first 7 years of her life, causing a variety of severe developmental delays. She was found and adopted and is currently undergoing efforts to acclimate her to human conditioning including learning English and effective communication. As of 2017, Dani now lives in a group home.
Vanya Yudin, ("Russian bird boy"), Russia, (2008), a seven-year-old boy was found who spent his entire life living in a tiny two bedroom apartment surrounded by birds. His mother never spoke to him and treated him as a pet, and when found he was unable to communicate except for chirping and flapping his arms like wings.
Natasha, Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia (2009), a five-year-old girl who spent her entire life locked in a room with cats and dogs, and no heat, water, or sewage system. When she was found, she could not speak, would jump at the door and bark as caretakers left, and had "clear attributes of an animal".
Sasha T., Russia (2012), a two-year-old boy whose mother had kept in a room with goats his entire life. He played and spend his time in the room with goats. He had not learned how to speak and weighed a third less than a typical child of his age when he was discovered by Russian social workers.
Following the 2008 disclosure by Belgian newspaper Le Soir that the bestselling book Misha: A Mémoire of the Holocaust Years and movie Survivre avec les loups (“Surviving with Wolves”) was a media hoax, the French media debated the credulity with which numerous cases of feral children have been unquestioningly accepted. Although there are numerous books on these children, almost none of them have been based on archives; the authors instead have used dubious second- or third-hand printed information. According to the French surgeon Serge Aroles, who wrote a general study of feral children based on archives (L'Enigme des Enfants-loups or The Enigma of Wolf-children, 2007), many alleged cases are totally fictitious stories:
- The teenager of Kronstadt (1781):49–55 – According to the Hungarian document published by Serge Aroles, this case is a hoax: the boy, mentally handicapped, had a goitre and was exhibited for money.
- Syrian Gazelle Boy (1946) – A boy aged around 10 was reported to have been found in the midst of a herd of gazelles in the Syrian desert in the 1950s, and was only rescued with the help of an Iraqi army jeep, because he could run at speeds of up to 50 km/h. However, it was a hoax, as are the other gazelle-boy cases.
- Amala and Kamala – Claimed to have been found in 1920 by missionaries near Midnapore, Calcutta region, India, later proved to be a hoax to gain charity for Rev. Singh's orphanage.:104–113 Scholars from Japan and France launched a new inquiry about Amala and Kamala, and validated the discoveries and conclusions done by Serge Aroles 20 years before: the story was a hoax.
- Ramu, Lucknow, India, (1954) – A girl taken by a wolf as a baby, and raised in the jungle until the age of seven. Aroles made inquiries on the scene and classifies this as another hoax.
- The bear-girl of Krupina, Slovakia (1767):48–9 – Serge Aroles found no traces of her in the Krupina archives.
Legend, fiction, and popular cultureEdit
Myths, legends, and fiction have depicted feral children reared by wild animals such as wolves, apes, monkeys, and bears. Famous examples include Romulus and Remus, Ibn Tufail’s Hayy, Ibn al-Nafis’ Kamil, Rudyard Kipling’s Mowgli, Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan, George of the Jungle and the legends of Atalanta and Enkidu.
Roman legend has it that Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Rhea Silvia and Mars, were suckled by a she-wolf. Rhea Silvia was a priestess, and when it was found that she had been pregnant and had children, King Amulius, who had usurped his brother's throne, ordered her to be buried alive and for the children to be killed. The servant who was given the order set them in a basket on the Tiber river instead, and the children were taken by Tiberinus, the river god, to the shore where a she-wolf found them and raised them until they were discovered as toddlers by a shepherd named Faustulus. He and his wife Acca Larentia, who had always wanted a child but never had one, raised the twins, who would later feature prominently in the events leading up to the founding of Rome (named after Romulus, who eventually killed Remus in a fight over whether the city should be founded on the Palatine Hill or the Aventine Hill).
Legendary and fictional children are often depicted as growing up with relatively normal human intelligence and skills and an innate sense of culture or civilization, coupled with a healthy dose of survival instincts. Their integration into human society is made to seem relatively easy. One notable exception is Mowgli, for whom living with humans proved to be extremely difficult.
The subject is treated with a certain amount of realism in François Truffaut’s 1970 film L’Enfant Sauvage (UK: The Wild Boy, US: The Wild Child), where a scientist's efforts in trying to rehabilitate a feral boy meet with great difficulty.
References and notesEdit
- Mihai, Andrei (December 1, 2014). "Mind Blowing Cases of Children Raised by Animals". ZME Science. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- David Birdsong (1999). Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Routledge. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-135-67489-2.
- Susan Curtiss (10 May 2014). Genie: A Psycholinguistic Study of a Modern-Day Wild Child. Elsevier Science. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-4832-1761-1.
- Bettelheim, Bruno (March 1959). "Feral Children and Autistic Children" (PDF). American Journal of Sociology. 64 (5): 455–467. doi:10.1086/222541. JSTOR 2773433.
- "Feral children". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- Hattenstone, Simon (13 April 2013). "Was Marina Chapman really brought up by monkeys?". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Raised by monkeys, strugging to be human". New Vision. 17 February 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Child of the wild still spurns life as a human". Mail and Guardian. 21 November 1997. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Raised in the wild: tales of survival". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- Rauber, August Antinous (1888). Homo sapiens ferus: oder, die Bustände der verwilderten und ihre bedeutung für wissenschaft, politik und schule. Leipzig: Julius Bregse.
- Chamberlain, Alexander F. (1896). The Child and Childhood in Folk-Thought. Macmillan and Co. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
- Fantini, Alvino. Language Acquisition of a Bilingual Child: A Sociolinguistic Perspective (To Age Ten). United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters, 1985.
- Lupine Lore by Walter Tarello
- Macdonald, Fiona. "Feral: The children raised by wolves". Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- Channel Ukraine. "Oxana Malaya on Ukrainian TV show".
- Grice, Elizabeth (2006-07-17). "Cry of an infant savage". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- У героини публикации «фактов» оксаны малой, которая выросла в… Собачьей конуре, нашлись родной брат и маленькая племянница, тоже оксана – 2003 follow-up article in Fakty i kommentarii (in Ukrainian).
- "Siberian boy, 7, raised by dogs after parents abandoned him". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- Osborn, Andrew (August 4, 2004). "Siberian boy, 7, raised by dogs after parents abandoned him". The Independent. Retrieved 2013-05-20.
- Channel Ukraine. "Raised by Dogs. Ukrainian TV show".
- News, A. B. C. (2006-01-06). "'Dog Boy' of Chile Rescued". ABC News. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- "Modern day Feral children". Sociologychis. 2016-05-12. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- "Wolf boy is welcomed home by mother after years in the wild". Daily Telegraph. London. 2002-04-14. Retrieved 2014-07-02.
- Aroles, Serge (2007). L'énigme des enfants-loups : une certitude biologique mais un déni des archives, 1304-1954. Paris: Publibook. ISBN 2-7483-3909-6.
- Tulp, Nicolaas (1652). "IX. Iuvenis Balans". Observationes medicae. IV. Ghent: Apud Ludovicum Elzevirium. pp. 311–13.
- Fagge, Nick (2009-11-06). "Boy raised by sheep for 8 years". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- Hussain, Fida (2017-04-08). "Raised by animals". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- Zak M, Pojken som levde med strutsar, Opal Förlag, 2003.
- Zak M, "Möte med Hadaras son", Västsahara, nr. 3-4/2001 (in swedish).
- Aroles, Serge. Marie-Angélique : Haut Mississippi, 1712-Paris, 1775 : survie et résurection d'une enfant perdue dix années en forêt. Terre-éd. ISBN 2915587019. ISBN 9782915587012.
- Hecquet. Histoire d'une jeune fille sauvage trouvée dans les bois à l'âge de dix ans. Gallimard. ISBN 2072729831.
- , "Hany Istók legendája" (Legend of Hany Istók)
- Brian Haughton. "The Unsolved Mystery of Kaspar Hauser – Wild Child of Europe". Mysterious People. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- Dash, Mike Borderlands: The Ultimate Exploration of the Unknown; Overlook Press, 2000, ISBN 0-87951-724-7.
- "'Wild Cambodia jungle-girl' found". BBC News. 2007-01-19. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- Watts, Jonathan (2007-01-23). "Wild child?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- "Boy found in Uzbekistan after eight years of animal existence". Russian News & Information Agency. 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- Ruhani Kaur,, Lhendup G Bhutia. "Mizoram's Wild Flower". Open Magazine. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- Vicente Pizarro, Los ultimos dias de Vicente Cau Cau, el nino lobo chileno, The Clinic, 2 de enero de 2010 (in spanish).
- Herodotus. "The History of Herodotus". George Rawlinson (translator). Retrieved November 29, 2009.
- Bertillion, L. D. (1937). Dobie, J. Frank, ed. "The Lobo Girl of Devil's River". Straight Texas. Texas Folklore Society. XIII: 79–85.
- Clark, E. V. (2016). First Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press. p. 413.
- Cole, W. E. (1968). Social Foundations of education. American Book Company. p. 115.
- "A case study into social isolation – Anna's story". The Thoughts and Ramblings of a Mad Man. 2011-10-21. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
- Reynolds & Fletcher-Janzen 2004, p. 428.
- James, Susan Donaldson (May 7, 2008). "Wild Child 'Genie': A Tortured Life". ABCnews.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- "Secret of the Wild Child". NOVA. Season 22. Episode 2. PBS. March 4, 1997. OCLC 57894649. PBS (United States), BBC (United Kingdom). Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- Dunning, Brian. "Skeptoid #567: Feral Children". Skeptoid. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- DeGregory, Lane (2008-08-04). "The Girl in the Window". St. Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- DeGregory, Lane; Melissa Lyttle. "The Girl in the Window". Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- DeGregory, Lane (2008-08-10). "The Girl in the Window: Authorities Had Discovered the Rarest and Most Pitiable of Creatures: A Feral Child". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 2008-08-17. (Registration required (help)).
- Cockcroft, Lucy (2008-02-28). "Russian 'bird-boy' discovered in aviary". Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-09-27.
- Tony Halpin; Jenny Booth (May 27, 2009). "Feral girl in Siberian city of Chita was brought up by cats and dogs". Times. London.
- "Russian Police Find Feral Girl In Siberia". Planet Ark. 2009-05-28.
- Stewart, Will (2012-06-02). "Every hour could have become his last": Social services rescue neglected toddler found being raised by GOATS". Mirror Online. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
- "Les aveux de Misha Defonseca".
- Deal, Bama Lutes (2005-04-01). "Chapter 2: Feral Children and Wranitzky's Pantomime-Ballet Das Waldmädchen (1796)" (PDF). The Origin and Performance History of Carl Maria von Weber's Das Waldmädchen (1800). Florida State University. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
- Suzuki, Kotaro; Vauclair, Jacques (2016). De quelques mythes en psychologie : Enfants-loups, singes parlants et jumeaux fantômes (in French). Le Seuil. ISBN 9782021103663.
- "Naked man deepens mystery of jungle girl". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- Plutarch. "Romulus". John Dryden (translator). Retrieved November 29, 2009.
- Gillain, Anne (2013). François Truffaut : The Lost Secret. Translated by Fox, Alistair,. Indiana University Press (Ind.). p. 215. ISBN 9780253008459. OCLC 897470428.
- For the first opportune critical approach based on archives : Serge Aroles (2007). L'Enigme des enfants-loups [The Enigma of wolf-children]. ISBN 2-7483-3909-6.
- Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology (2nd ed.). Gale Group. 2001.
- Kenneth B. Kidd and Elijah Worrell (2004). Making American Boys: Boyology and the Feral Tale. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4295-8.
- John McCrone (1993). The Myth of Irrationality – The Science of the Mind from Plato to Star Trek. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-57284-X.
- Michael Newton (2002). Savage Boys and Wild Girls: A History of Feral Children. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21460-6.
- James Luchte (2012). Of the Feral Children. London: Createspace. ISBN 1479294888.