The 1740s decade ran from January 1, 1740, to December 31, 1749.
- February 20 – The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the town of Newton as Wilmington, North Carolina, named for Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington and patron of Royal Governor Gabriel Johnston.
- April 8 – War of the Austrian Succession: The Royal Navy captures the Spanish ship of the line Princesa off Cape Finisterre, and takes her into British service.
- May 31 – Frederick II comes to power in Prussia, upon the death of his father, Frederick William I.
- June 26 – War of Jenkins' Ear – Siege of Fort Mose: A Spanish column of 300 regular troops, free Black militia and Indian auxiliaries storms Britain's strategically crucial position of Fort Mose, Florida.
- July 11 – Pogrom: Jews are expelled from Little Russia.
- August 1 – The song Rule, Britannia! is first performed at Cliveden, the country home of Frederick, Prince of Wales, in England.
- August 17 – Pope Benedict XIV succeeds Pope Clement XII, as the 247th pope.
- October 9–22 – Batavia Massacre: Troops of the Dutch East India Company massacre 5,000–10,000 Chinese Indonesians in Batavia.
- October 20 – Maria Theresa inherits the hereditary dominions of the Habsburg Monarchy (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and modern-day Belgium) under the terms of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. However, her succession to the Holy Roman Empire is contested widely because she is a woman.
- November – Hertford College, Oxford, is founded for the first time.
- November 6 – Samuel Richardson's popular and influential epistolary novel, Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded, is published in London.
- December 16 – Frederick II of Prussia invades the Habsburg possession of Silesia, starting the War of the Austrian Succession.
- By an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, alien immigrants (including Huguenots and Jews) in the colonies receive British nationality.
- Enfield, North Carolina, is founded.
- Adam Smith enters Balliol College, Oxford.
- George Whitefield founds the Bethesda Orphanage near Savannah, Georgia.
- Spain begins construction on Fort Matanzas in the Matanzas Inlet, approximately 15 miles (24 km) south of St. Augustine, Florida.
- The University of Pennsylvania is officially established.
- April – The New York Slave Insurrection, a plot to set fire to New York City, is discovered.
- April 10 – An Austrian army is defeated by Prussian troops of Frederick the Great in the Battle of Mollwitz.
- May – Vitus Bering sets out from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, to map the coasts of Siberia and Alaska.
- May – Spain wins an impressive victory over Great Britain in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias.
- June 25 – Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned Queen Regnant of Hungary in Bratislava.
- July 8 – Jonathan Edwards repeats his Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God sermon at Enfield, Connecticut.
- July 15 – Alexei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska, and sends some men aboard his ship ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.
- August 4–5 – War of Jenkins' Ear – Invasion of Cuba: British Admiral Edward Vernon captures Guantánamo Bay in Cuba, which he renames Cumberland Bay, but which his forces are forced to abandon on December 9.
- August 10 – Raja Marthanda Varma of Travancore defeats the Dutch East India Company in the Battle of Colachel, ending the Dutch colonial rule in India.
- November 25–26 – Franco-Bavarian troops commanded by Maurice of Saxony storm Prague.
- December 6 – Elizabeth of Russia becomes czarina, after a palace coup.
- December 19 – Vitus Bering dies during his expedition, east of Siberia.
- December 25 – Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale, Centigrade, the predecessor of the Celsius scale.
- Stemmatographia by Hristofor Zhefarovich, regarded as the first Serbian and Bulgarian secular printed book, is printed in Vienna.
- The population of China reaches c. 143 million.
- The Royal Order of Scotland is founded.
- January – The House of Commons of Great Britain votes on the alleged rigging of the Chippenham by-election. It becomes a motion of no confidence, which leads to the resignation of Robert Walpole.
- January 9 – Robert Walpole is made Earl of Orford, and resigns as First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer, effectively ending his period as Prime Minister of Great Britain. On his formally relinquishing office five days later, he will have served 20 years and 314 days as Prime Minister, the longest single term ever, and also longer than the accumulated terms of any other British Prime Minister.
- January 14 – Death of Edmond Halley; James Bradley succeeds him as Astronomer Royal in Great Britain.
- January 24 – Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
- February – Henry Fielding publishes his picaresque novel Joseph Andrews anonymously in London.
- February 12 – John Carteret, 2nd Lord Carteret becomes Secretary of State for the Northern Department in Great Britain.
- February 16 – Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain.
- April 13 – George Frideric Handel's oratorio The Messiah is first performed, in Dublin, Ireland.
- May 17 – Frederick the Great's army defeats the Austrians in Chotusitz.
- May 24 – War of the Austrian Succession: French forces defeat the Austrians in the Battle of Sahay.
- June – Christian Goldbach formulates Goldbach's conjecture.
- June 11 – Peace of Breslau: Austria cedes Silesia to Prussia.
- June 20 – Izmir, formerly the ancient Greek city of Smyrna, is destroyed by fire.
- July 7 – War of Jenkins' Ear: Battle of Bloody Marsh – British troops repel those of Spain (under Montiano), in the Province of Georgia.
- July 14 – William Pulteney is created 1st Earl of Bath in Great Britain.
- September – Construction starts on the Foundling Hospital in London.
- November 13 – The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters is founded.
- December 2 – The Pennsylvania Journal first appears in the United States.
- The Kingdom of Prussia captures Jihlava.
- The Lopukhina Conspiracy arises at the Russian court.
- In Peru, Juan Santos takes the name Atahualpa II, and begins an ill-fated rebellion against Spanish rule.
- The Afghan tribes unite as a monarchy.
- Daniel le Pelley succeeds Nicolas le Pelley, as Seigneur of Sark.
- Molde, Norway, becomes a city.
- Eisenach, Germany builds its Stadtschloss (city castle).
- Spain completes the construction of Fort Matanzas in the Matanzas Inlet, approximately 15 miles (24 km) south of St. Augustine, Florida.
- The University of Erlangen is founded in Bavaria.
- Anders Celsius publishes his proposal for a centigrade temperature scale originated in 1741.
- Colin Maclaurin publishes his Treatise on Fluxions.
- Charles Jervas's English translation of Don Quixote is published posthumously. Through a printer's error, the translator's name is printed as 'Charles Jarvis', leading the book to forever be known as the Jarvis translation. It is acclaimed as the most faithful English rendering of the novel made up to this time.
- The Roman Catholic church decrees that Roman ceremonial practice in Latin (not in Chinese) is to be the law for Chinese missions.
- February 21 – George Frideric Handel's oratorio, Samson, premieres in London.
- March 2 – A British expeditionary fleet under Sir Charles Knowles is defeated by the Spanish in the Battle of La Guaira.
- May 10 – In New France, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville ends his final term (multiple times over 43 years) as Governor of colonial French Louisiana, which he helped colonize; he is succeeded by the Marquis de Vaudreuil (for the next 10 years) and returns to France.
- May 30 – The Dalecarlian rebellion (1743) breaks out in Sweden.
- June 27 (June 16 O.S.) – War of the Austrian Succession – Battle of Dettingen in Bavaria: British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Hesse, defeat a French army under the duc de Noailles; King George II of Great Britain (and Elector of Brunswick) leads his own troops, the last British king to do so.
- August 7 – Russia and Sweden sign the Treaty of Åbo.
- August 27 – Henry Pelham becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain.
- September 11 – Natalia Lopukhina is flogged in front of the Twelve Collegia building in Saint Petersburg.
- September 13 – The Treaty of Worms is signed between Great Britain, Austria and Sardinia.
- November 5 – Coordinated scientific observations of the transit of Mercury are organized by Joseph-Nicolas Delisle.
- Capodimonte porcelain is first manufactured, in Naples.
- Probable date – The last wolf in Scotland is shot, in Killiecrankie.
- January 24 – The Dagohoy rebellion in the Philippines begins, with the killing of Father Giuseppe Lamberti.
- February – Violent storms frustrated planned French Invasion of Britain.
- February 22–23 – Battle of Toulon: The British fleet is defeated by a joint Franco-Spanish fleet.
- March 1 (approximately) – The Great Comet of 1744, one of the brightest ever seen, reaches perihelion.
- March 15 – France declares war on Great Britain.
- April – The Female Spectator (a monthly) is founded by Eliza Haywood in England, the first periodical written for women by a woman.
- April 2 – The First Rules of Golf are drawn up at Leith, for the first golf competition.
- April 20 – Battle of Villafranca (1744): A joint French and Spanish force defeats Britain and Sardinia.
- June 28 – Catherine the Great is received into the Russian Orthodox Church.
- July 19 – Battle of Casteldelfino: France defeats the Kingdom of Sardinia.
- July 29 – Nader Shah lays siege to the Ottoman citadel of Kars.
- August 12 – Battle of Velletri in the Kingdom of Naples: Spanish-Neapolitan forces defeat those of the Archduchy of Austria.
- September 16 – Prague surrenders to the Prussians, commanded by Frederick the Great.
- September 30 – Battle of Madonna dell'Olmo: France and Spain defeat the Kingdom of Sardinia.
- The third French and Indian War, known as King George's War, breaks out at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia.
- The First Saudi State is founded by Muhammad bin Saud.
- Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, sequel to Tommy Thumb's Song Book, containing the oldest version of many well-known and popular rhymes, is published in London.
- May 11 – War of the Austrian Succession – Battle of Fontenoy: French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army, including the Black Watch.
- June 4 – Battle of Hohenfriedberg: Frederick the Great destroys the Austrian army.
- June 16 – King George's War: The British capture Cape Breton Island in North America from the French.
- July 9 – War of the Austrian Succession – Battle of Melle: The French are victorious in an engagement against the Pragmatic Allies.
- July 26 – The first recorded women's cricket match takes place in Surrey, England.
- August 19 – The Jacobite rising of 1745 begins at Glenfinnan, Scotland, where Charles Edward Stuart raises his standard.
- September 1 – Catherine the Great marries Peter III of Russia, in Saint Petersburg.
- September 11 – Jacobite rising of 1745: Jacobites enter Edinburgh; six days later, Charles Edward Stuart proclaims his father James Francis Edward Stuart, as James VIII of Scotland.
- September 12 – Francis I is elected Holy Roman Emperor with the support of his wife, Maria Theresa. He is the successor of Charles VII Albert of Bavaria, an enemy of the House of Habsburg, who died on January 20 of this year.
- September 14 – Madame de Pompadour is officially presented, at the court of Louis XV of France.
- September 16 – Jacobite rising of 1745 – "Canter of Coltbrigg": The British 13th and 14th Dragoons flee the Jacobites, near Edinburgh.
- September 21 – Battle of Prestonpans: British Government forces are defeated by the Jacobites in Scotland.
- December 4 – Jacobite rising of 1745: The Scottish Jacobite army reaches as far south as Derby in England, causing panic in London; two days later it begins to retreat.
- December 18 – Jacobite rising of 1745 – Clifton Moor Skirmish: The Jacobites are victorious, in the last action between two military forces on English soil.
- December 23 – Jacobite rising of 1745 – Battle of Inverurie: The Jacobites are victorious over British royal troops.
- December 25 – The Treaty of Dresden gives Prussia full possession of Silesia.
- December 28 – For 5 days, fire destroys buildings in Istanbul.
- January 8 – The Young Pretender Charles Edward Stuart occupies Stirling.
- January 17 – Battle of Falkirk Muir: British Government forces are defeated by Jacobite forces.
- April 16 – The Battle of Culloden in Scotland, the final pitched battle fought on British soil, brings an end to the Jacobite rising of 1745.
- June 16 – Battle of Piacenza: Austrian forces defeat French and Spanish troops.
- June 18 – Samuel Johnson is contracted to write his A Dictionary of the English Language.
- June 29 – Catherine of Ricci (b. 1522) is canonized.
- August 1 – The wearing of the kilt is banned in Scotland by the Dress Act (Note: the actual effective date of the Dress Act was August 1, 1747, not 1746).
- August 18 – Two of the four rebellious Scottish lords, Earl of Kilmarnock and Lord Balmerinoch, are beheaded in the Tower of London (Lord Lovat is executed in 1747).
- September 20 – Bonnie Prince Charlie flees to the Isle of Skye from Arisaig, after the unsuccessful Jacobite rising of 1745, marked by the Prince's Cairn on the banks of Loch nan Uamh.
- October 11 – War of the Austrian Succession – Battle of Rocoux: The French army defeat the allied Austrian, British, Hanoveran and Dutch army in Rocourt.
- October 22 – The College of New Jersey is founded (it becomes Princeton University in 1896).
- October 28 – An earthquake demolishes Lima and Callao, in Peru.
- Eva Ekeblad reports her discovery, of how to make flour and alcohol from potatoes, to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
- The town of Vilkovo (Odes'ka oblast', Ukraine) is founded.
- Royal Colony of North Carolina Governor Gabriel Johnston moves to the province's largest and most prosperous city of New Bern. As a result, New Bern replaces Edenton as the capital of North Carolina (a title it holds until Raleigh is established in 1792).
- Charles Batteux's Les beaux-arts réduits à un même principe is published in Paris, putting forward for the first time the idea of "les beaux arts": "the fine arts".
- January 31 – The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Lock Hospital.
- February 11 – King George's War: A combined French and Indian force, commanded by Captain Nicolas Antoine II Coulon de Villiers, attacks and defeats British troops at Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia.
- April 9 – The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat is beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason (the last man to be executed in this way in Britain).
- May 14 – War of the Austrian Succession – First battle of Cape Finisterre: The British Navy defeats a French fleet.
- June 9 – Emperor Momozono ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Emperor Sakuramachi.
- June 24–October 14 – The English ships Dobbs galley and California, under Captains William Moore and Francis Smith, explore Hudson Bay, discovering there is no Northwest Passage by this route.
- July 2 – War of the Austrian Succession – Battle of Lauffeld: France defeats the combined armies of Hanover, Great Britain and the Netherlands.
- October 25 – War of the Austrian Succession – Second battle of Cape Finisterre: The British Navy again defeats a French fleet.
- November 9 – Rioters in Amsterdam demand governmental reform.
- November 17–19 – The Knowles Riot breaks out in Boston, Massachusetts, protesting impressment into the British Royal Navy, .
- November 22 – Prince William IV of Orange becomes stadtholder of all the United Provinces.
- James Lind's experiment begins to prove that citrus fruits prevent scurvy.
- War of the Austrian Succession: Spanish troops invade and occupy the coastal towns of Beaufort and Brunswick in the Royal Colony of North Carolina, during what becomes known as the Spanish Alarm. They are later driven out by the local militia.
- Samuel Johnson begins work on A Dictionary of the English Language in London.
- January 12 – Ahmad Shah Durrani captures Lahore.
- January 27 – A fire at the prison and barracks at Kinsale, in Ireland, kills 54 of the prisoners of war housed there. An estimated 500 prisoners are safely conducted to another prison.
- February 7 – The San Gabriel mission project begins with the founding of the first Roman Catholic missions further northward in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in what is now central Texas. On orders of the Viceroy, Juan Francisco de Güemes, Friar Mariano Marti establish the San Francisco Xavier mission at a location on the San Gabriel River in what is now Milam County. The mission, located near what is now the town of San Gabriel and northeast of the future site of Austin, Texas, is attacked by 60 Apache Indians on May 2, and San Xavier is abandoned after a few years.
- March 11 – In battle near Manupur (15 kilometres (9.3 mi) northwest of Sirhind), Mughal forces under Prince Ahmad Shah Bahadur are victorious against Ahmad Shah Durrani.
- March 25 – A fire in the City of London starts at Change Alley in Cornhill and continues for two days. Dr. Samuel Johnson later writes, "The conflagration of a city, with all its turmoil and concominant distress, is one of the most dreadful spectacles which this world can afford to human eyes". Another history notes more than a century later that "the fire led to a great increase in the practice of fire insurance", after the blaze causes more than £1,000,000 worth of damage.
- April 15 – The Siege of the Dutch fortress of Maastricht is started by French under the command of Maurice de Saxe as part of the War of the Austrian Succession. The fortress falls on May 7 after a little more than three weeks.
- April 24 – A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle (now Aachen), with the intent to conclude the War of the Austrian Succession. The treaty is signed on October 18.
- May 10 – As word arrives that the Dutch Republic has agreed to return control of Maastricht to France, the French Army's leader of the siege, Count Löwendal, marches through the opened city gates with his troops and accepts its surrender.
- June 1 –
- A fire in Moscow kills 482 people and destroys 5,000 buildings.
- José de Escandón is designated by the Viceroy of New Spain as the first Royal Governor of Nuevo Santander. The area covered by the Viceroyalty's new province is now part of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, and the part of the U.S. state of Texas south of the Guadalupe River (including San Antonio and Corpus Christi).
- July 29 – Royal Navy Admiral Edward Boscawen arrives at the coast of southeastern India with 28 ships, to defend Fort St. David from attacks by armies of French India. Historian Francis Grose later writes that Boscawen had brought the largest fleet "ever seen together in the East Indies", with nine ships of the line, two frigates, a sloop, and two tenders"  and 14 ships of the British East India Company. Altogether, Boscaven has 3,580 sailors under his command. He then launches an offensive to destroy the French fort at Pondicherry and drive France from the subcontinent.
- August 26 – The first Lutheran Church body in America is founded at a conference in Philadelphia, organized by German-born evangelist Henry Muhlenberg and attended by pastors of orthodox and pious Lutheran communities. The two groups agree to create a common liturgy to govern public worship.
- August – The Camberwell beauty butterfly is named after specimens found at Camberwell in London.
- September 24 – Shah Rukh becomes ruler of Greater Khorasan.
- October 12 – War of Jenkins' Ear – Battle of Havana: a British Caribbean squadron engage a Spanish squadron based near Havana.
- October 18 – War of the Austrian Succession: The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war. Great Britain obtains Madras, in India, from France, in exchange for the fortress of Louisbourg in Canada.
- November 22 – The Electorate of Hanover (now occupied by most of the northwestern German state of Niedersachsen or Lower Saxony) issues a decree banishing all adherents of the Moravian Church. 
- December 4 – Austria and Spain sign a second treaty to settle the War of the Austrian Succession, and Austria agrees to remove its troops from Modena and Genoa.
- Leonhard Euler publishes Introductio in analysin infinitorum, an introduction to pure analytical mathematics, in Berlin.
- Montesquieu publishes De l'esprit des lois.
- Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock publishes the first three cantos of his epic poem Der Messias in hexameters (anonymously), in Bremer Beiträge (Leipzig).
- Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh.
- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences makes Eva Ekeblad its first female member.
- Construction of the Sveaborg fortification begins near Helsinki.
- The ruins of Pompeii are rediscovered.
- Louis XV of France breaks his promise to eliminate the income tax, after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the war. The Parlement of Paris protests, so he reduces the tax to 5%.
- January 3
- January 21 – The Teatro Filarmonico, the main opera theater in Verona, Italy, is destroyed by fire. It is rebuilt in 1754.
- February – The second part of John Cleland's erotic novel Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure) is published in London. The author is released from debtors' prison in March.
- February 28 – Henry Fielding's comic novel The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling is published in London. Also this year, Fielding becomes magistrate at Bow Street, and first enlists the help of the Bow Street Runners, an early police force (eight men at first).
- March 6 – A "corpse riot" breaks out in Glasgow after a body disappears from a churchyard in the Gorbals district. Suspicion falls on anatomy students at the Glasgow Infirmary "had raised a dead body from the grave and carried it to the college" for dissection. The city guard intervenes after a mob of protesters begin breaking windows at random buildings, but groups of citizens begin to make regular patrols of church graveyards 
- March 17 – At London's Covent Garden, composer George Frideric Handel conducts the first performance of his new oratorio, Solomon. More than 250 years later, an instrumental from Solomon, "The Arrival of the Queen of Sheba"; will be featured in the 2012 London Summer Olympics opening ceremony.
- April 27 – The first official performance of Handel's Music for the Royal Fireworks in London finishes early, due to the outbreak of fire. The piece has been composed by Handel to commemorate the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748.
- May 19 – King George II of Great Britain grants the Ohio Company 200,000 acres (81,000 ha) of land (312½ square miles or 810 km2) of land north of the Ohio River, encompassing most of the modern U.S. state of Ohio and part of West Virginia. The grant is conditioned on the Company being able to attract 100 European families every year, for seven years, to move to the area occupied by Indian tribes, and to build a fort to protect them 
- June 4 – A fire in Glasgow leaves 200 families homeless.
- June 6 – The Conspiracy of the Slaves, which was to have taken place on June 29, is revealed in Malta.
- July 9 – The British naval fort at Halifax is founded on mainland Nova Scotia as a defense against the New France Fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, less than 100 miles (160 km) away.
- August 2 – Irish-born trader George Croghan, unaware of the recent British grant of land in the Ohio River valley to the Ohio Company, purchases 200,000 acres of much of the same land from the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, dealing directly with "the three most important Iroquois chiefs resident in that area, in return for an immense quantity of Indian goods." The deal takes place at the Iroquois capital of Onondaga, near present-day Syracuse, New York.
- August 3
- The Battle of Ambur is fought in south India as the Second Carnatic War begins between the French-supported troops of Chanda Sahib of the Mughal Empire and the British-supported defenders of the Arcot State, led by its 77-year old Nawab, Anwaruddin Khan. After marching outside of the walls of Arcot to confront Chanda Sahib and Joseph Dupleix's 4,000 troops, Anwaruddin Khan's numerically superior force is routed and he is killed in the battle.
- French explorer Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville, commissioned by New France to explore the Ohio Territory claimed by both France and Britain, buries the first of six engraved lead markers claiming the land for King Louis XV of France. The first plate is buried on the banks of the Allegheny River, near a rock with petroglyphs, in what is now Venango County, Pennsylvania.
- August 7 – Mary Musgrove Bosomworth, a woman of mixed British and Creek Indian ancestry, presents herself as Coosaponakeesa, Queen of the Creek Indians and marches with 200 Creek Indians into the town of Savannah, Georgia. During her confrontation with British colonial authorities, she and her husband Thomas Bosomworth demand payment of "nearly twenty-five thousand dollars" in compensation for property taken from the Creek Indians, before the British authorities determine that she doesn't have the authority to speak for the tribe. 
- August 15 – Four Russian sailors— Aleksei Inkov, Khrisanf Inkov, Stepan Sharapov and Fedor Verigin— are rescued after having been marooned on the Arctic Ocean island of Edgeøya for more than six years. They are the only survivors of a crew of 14 whose koch had been blown off course in May 1743 and then broken up by ice. The four are returned home on September 28.
- August 19 – At a ceremony in San Antonio, Texas (then a part of the New Spain province of Nuevo Santander), four Apache chiefs and Spanish colonial officials and missionaries literally "bury the hatchet", placing weapons of war into a pit and covering it as a symbol that the Apaches and the Spaniards will fight no further war against each other.
- September 5 – A delegation of 33 members of the Catawba Indian nation and 73 from the Cherokee nation arrive in Charleston, South Carolina, to discuss a peace treaty with South Carolina's provincial governor, James Glen.
- September 23 – Grand Chief Jean-Baptiste Cope, of the Miꞌkmaq Indian nation in Canada, declares war against the British Empire  after the building of the fort at Halifax, Nova Scotia and begins hostilities by taking 20 British hostages at Canso.
- September 28 – Three Russian survivors of the shipwreck on Edgeøya return to their homeland after more than six years, as the ship Nikolai i Andrei brings them to the port of Archangelsk. A fourth survivor, Fedor Veriginare, died of scurvy during the six-week voyage home.
- October 2 – Edward Cornwallis, the British Governor of Nova Scotia, commands his militia and local citizens "to annoy, distress, take or destroy the Savage commonly called Micmac, wherever they are found" and promises a reward of ten guineas (21 British shillings) for every Mi'kmaq scalp brought in.
- October 4 – What is later described as "the least examined yet most influential"  of clerical reforms, by the Spanish Bourbon monarchs of the 17th century, begins when King Ferdinand VI of Spain approves a royal cédula, removing control of the Roman Catholic parishes of Latin America from religious orders. Henceforward, jurisdiction over parishioners in the archdioceses of Lima, Mexico City and Bogotá is with the secular clergy.
- October 16 – At Falmouth, a part of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay that would later be the site of Portland, Maine, a peace treaty is signed between representatives of Massachusetts Bay and 19 sagamores and tribal chiefs of the Wabanaki Confederacy (encompassing the Penobscot, Kennebec, Odanak and Wôlinak tribes of the Abenaki Indians), temporarily settling territorial disputes in Maine during King George's War.
- October 19 – Two months after Pierre Céloron begins his inspection of the Ohio territory on behalf of France, Christopher Gist starts his survey of the lands along the right bank of the Ohio River on behalf of the British grant to the Ohio Company.
- November 9 – Battle of Penfui on Timor: A large Topass army is defeated by a numerically inferior Dutch East India Company.
- November 12 – In response to the increasing number of starving people moving into Paris from rural parts of France, King Louis XV issues an ordinance that "all the beggars and vagabonds who shall be found either in the streets of Paris, or in churches or church doorways, or in the countryside around Paris, of whatever age or sex, shall be arrested and conducted into prisons, to stay there as long as shall be necessary."
- November 24 – The Province of South Carolina House of Assembly votes to free African-American slave Caesar Norman, and to grant him a lifetime pension of 100 British pounds per year, in return for Caesar's agreement to share the secret of his antidote for poisonous snake venom. Caesar then makes public his herbal cure of juice from Plantago major (the common plantain) and Marrubium vulgare (horehound), combined with "a leaf of good tobacco moistened with rum".
- December 1 – Sultan Azim ud-Din I, recently forced to flee to the Manila after being driven from the throne of Sultanate of Sulu elsewhere in the Philippine Islands, announces his intention to convert from Sunni Islam to become baptized as a Christian within the Roman Catholic Church. He changes his name to Fernando after being baptized.
- December 5 – French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau premieres his new opera, Zoroastre, at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal in Paris, but the first version is not a success. After five years of rewriting, Rameau will revive Zoroastre on January 19, 1756 and the opera will continue to be performed more than two centuries later.
- December 7 – Father Junípero Serra begins his missionary work in the New World, 100 days after departing on a voyage from Spain and a day after his arrival at Veracruz in Mexico. During the period from 1769 to 1782, Serra will be the founder of nine missions in the Province of Las Californias, including the sites around which future California cities will be built, including Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá in 1769 and Mission San Francisco de Asís in 1776.
- December 30 – Mir Sayyid Muhammad, a grandson of the Shah Suleiman of Persia, overthrows Shahrokh Shah to become the Shah of Persia, and briefly restores the Safavid dynasty as Suleiman II; his reign ends less than three months later, on March 20, when Kurdish tribesmen restore Shahrokh to the throne.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 308. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- "image: Bird's eye view of Batavia showing the massacre of the Chinese". Archived from the original on September 21, 2009. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1988). The Encyclopædia of Oxford. London: Macmillan. p. 182. ISBN 0-333-39917-X.
- "Historical Events for Year 1741 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- "A dozen Downing Street departures". BBC News. 2007-05-09. Archived from the original on August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 309. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p50
- Giscombe, C. S. (Winter 2012). "Precarious Creatures". The Kenyon Review. Gambier, Ohio: Kenyon College. 34 (NS) (1): 157–175. JSTOR 41304743.
I looked it up later and found out that it's generally conceded that they were all dead by the 1680s. But a story persists that a fellow named MacQueen killed the last wolf in Scotland - and, implicitly, in all Britain - after that, in 1743. (Henry Shoemaker mentions the story in the section of Extinct Pennsylvania Animals that concerns wolves.)
- Rules of Golf 1744 Scottish Golf History accessed 10 Feb 2017 http://www.scottishgolfhistory.org/origin-of-golf-terms/rules-of-golf/
- Instructions, golf club rules and competitions History of Golf accessed 10 Feb 2017 History of golf
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 310–311. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 217–218. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Unless the Battle of Graveney Marsh (1940) is counted.
- Van den Heuvel, Danielle (Spring 2012). "The Multiple Identities of Early Modern Dutch Fishwives". Signs. University of Chicago Press. 37 (3): 587–594. doi:10.1086/662705. JSTOR 10.1086/662705.
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