1857 (MDCCCLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1857th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 857th year of the 2nd millennium, the 57th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1857, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2610|
|Balinese saka calendar||1778–1779|
|British Regnal year||20 Vict. 1 – 21 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||丙辰年 (Fire Dragon)|
4553 or 4493
— to —
丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
4554 or 4494
|- Vikram Samvat||1913–1914|
|- Shaka Samvat||1778–1779|
|- Kali Yuga||4957–4958|
|Japanese calendar||Ansei 4|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||55 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2399–2400|
1983 or 1602 or 830
— to —
1984 or 1603 or 831
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1857.|
- January 1 – The biggest Estonian newspaper, Postimees, is established by Johann Voldemar Jannsen.
- January 7 – The partly French-owned London General Omnibus Company begins operating.
- January 9 – The 7.9 Mw Fort Tejon earthquake shakes Central and Southern California, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent).
- January 24 – The University of Calcutta is established in Calcutta, as the first multidisciplinary modern university in South Asia. The University of Bombay is also established in Bombay, British India, this year.
- February 3 – The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, D.C., becoming the first school for the advanced education of the deaf.
- February 5 – The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States is promulgated.
- March 3
- France and the United Kingdom formally declare war on China, in the Second Opium War.
- The largest slave auction in United States history is held, dubbed The Weeping Time. Over a 2-day period (starting March 2), Pierce M. Butler sells 436 men, women, children, and infants, all of whom are kept in stalls meant for horses at a racetrack in Savannah, Georgia, for weeks beforehand.
- March 4 – James Buchanan is sworn in, as the 15th President of the United States.
- March 6 – Dred Scott v. Sandford: The Supreme Court of the United States rules that Blacks are not citizens and slaves can not sue for freedom, driving the country further towards the American Civil War (the ruling is not overturned until the 14th Amendment is adopted, in 1868).
- March 12 – Elizabeth Blackwell opens a hospital, the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children.
- March 14 – Youssef Bey Karam is assigned, by the people of Ehden and Bsharri, to be the region's ruler.
- March 23 – Elisha Otis' first elevator is installed (at 488 Broadway, New York City).
- April 4 – The Anglo-Persian War ends.
- April 18 – The Spirits' Book (Le Livre des Esprits), one of the Five Fundamental Works of Spiritism, is published by French educator Allan Kardec.
- May 5–October 17– The Art Treasures of Great Britain exhibition is held in Manchester, one of the largest such displays of all time.
- May 10 – Indian Rebellion of 1857: The 3rd Light Cavalry of the British East India Company's army rebels against its British officers, thus beginning the rebellion.
- May 11 – Indian Rebellion of 1857: Indian combatants capture Delhi from the British East India Company.
- June 6 – Sophia of Nassau marries the future King Oscar II of Sweden–Norway.
- June 12 – American mercenary William Walker is overthrown as ruler of Nicaragua, by Honduran general Florencio Xatruch.
- June 22 – The Victoria and Albert Museum in London is officially opened by Queen Victoria.
- June 26 – At a ceremony in London, Queen Victoria awards the first 66 Victoria Crosses to British troops, for actions during the Crimean War.
- July 1–November 19 – Indian Rebellion of 1857: Siege of Lucknow.
- July 15 – Indian Rebellion of 1857: The second massacre at Kanpur takes place.
- July 18
- August 20 – The Dunbar wrecks near the entrance to Sydney Harbour, Australia, with the loss of 121 lives.
- August 28 – The Matrimonial Causes Act makes divorce without parliamentary approval legal in the United Kingdom.
- September – The Panic of 1857 begins: Speculation in U.S. railroad shares, and the collapse on August 24 of the New York City branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company, following widespread embezzlement, trigger a financial crisis which will extend to Europe.
- September 11 – The Mountain Meadows massacre occurs in Utah.
- September 12 – The SS Central America sinks off the coast of North Carolina, with the loss of 425 lives.
- September 20 – In India, British forces recapture Delhi, compelling the surrender of Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor.
- October 13 – Panic of 1857: New York banks close, and do not reopen until December 12.
- October 24 – Sheffield F.C., the world's first association football team, is founded in Sheffield, England.
- November 1 – The Indus Valley Region (i.e., Pakistan Region) is incorporated into Southern Asia as part of British India, for the next 90 years.
- November 30 – President of Mexico Ignacio Comonfort is succeeded by Félix María Zuloaga.
- December – The Reform War in Mexico begins.
- December 16 – The 7.0 Mw Basilicata earthquake shakes the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Southern Italy) with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing about 10,000 people.
- December 20 – Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria issues a decree, Es ist Mein Wille, which leads to the demolition of the city walls of Vienna, allowing the construction of the Ringstraße.
- December 31 – Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa as the capital of Canada.
- The first commercial tea plantation in the British Raj is opened in the Mulnicherra Estate in Sylhet.
- The Mormons abandon Las Vegas.
- Kuala Lumpur, the future capital of Malaysia, is founded as a tin mining settlement.
- La Tène culture artifacts are discovered in Switzerland, by Hansli Kopp.
- Illinois State University, the first public university in Illinois, is established in Normal, Illinois.
- American politician William Daniel proposes the Local Option for Prohibition.
- American composer James Lord Pierpont composed "Jingle Bells", originally entitled "The One Horse Open Sleigh".
- January 2 – Uryū Sotokichi, Japanese admiral (d. 1937)
- January 4 – Émile Courtet, French caricaturist, animator (d. 1938)
- January 11 – William Gentles, U.S. Army private, known for killing Crazy Horse (d. 1878)
- January 12
- January 13 – Anastasios Papoulas, Greek general (d. 1935)
- January 18 – Otto von Below, German general (d. 1944)
- January 26 – The 12th Dalai Lama of Tibet (d. 1875)
- January 31 – George Jackson Churchward, British chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western Railway(d. 1933)
- February 1 – Lucy Wheelock, American early childhood education pioneer within the kindergarten movement (d. 1946)
- February 13 – Almanzo James Wilder, American writer (d. 1949)
- February 22
- March 6 – George Dayton, American businessman, founder of Target Corporation (d. 1938)
- March 7
- March 13
- March 15 – Christian Michelsen, 1st Prime Minister of Norway (d. 1925)
- March 21 – Hunter Liggett, American general (d. 1935)
- March 22 – Paul Doumer, President of France (d. 1932)
- March 26 – Théodore Tuffier, French surgeon (d. 1929)
- March 27 – Karl Pearson, English statistician (d. 1936)
- March 30 – Léon Charles Thévenin, French telegraph engineer (d. 1926)
- April 5 – Alexander of Battenberg, first Prince of Bulgaria (d. 1893)
- April 14
- April 21 – Elisabet Anrep-Nordin, Swedish pedagogue (d. 1947)
- April 22 – Paul Dresser, American songwriter (d. 1906)
- April 23 – Ruggero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (d. 1919)
- April 30 – Walter Simon, German philanthropist (d. 1920)
- May 7 – William A. MacCorkle, Governor of West Virginia (d. 1930)
- May 13 – Ronald Ross, English physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1932)
- May 15 – Williamina Fleming, Scottish astronomer (d. 1911)
- May 19 – John Jacob Abel, American pharmacologist (d. 1938)
- May 24 – Richard Mansfield, Anglo-American stage actor (d. 1907)
- May 27 – Theodor Curtius, German chemist (d. 1928)
- May 28
- May 31 – Pope Pius XI (d. 1939)
- June 2
- June 8 – Lawrence Marston, American actor, playwright, and film director (d. 1939)
- June 10 – Caroline Louise Dudley (later Mrs. Leslie Carter), American stage actress (d. 1937)
- June 12 – Kate Lester, English stage & silent screen actress (d. 1924)
- June 20 – Mary Gage Day, American physician (d. 1935)
- June 30 – Friedrich von Ingenohl, German admiral (d. 1933)
- July 1 – Martha Hughes Cannon, American politician (d. 1932)
- July 5 – Clara Zetkin, German-born Marxist theorist, activist and women's rights advocate (d. 1933)
- July 11 – Alfred Binet, French psychologist (Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales) (d. 1911)
- July 14 – Vittorio Ranuzzi de' Bianchi, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1927)
- July 19 – Eugen Bamberger, German chemist (d. 1932)
- July 22 – Shams-ul-haq Azeemabadi, Indian Islamic scholar (d. 1911)
- July 23 – Carl Meinhof, German linguist (d. 1944)
- July 24
- July 25 – Nat C. Goodwin, American actor (d. 1919)
- July 28 – Ballington Booth, Salvation Army officer, co-founder of Volunteers of America (d. 1940)
- July 30
- August 8 – Henry Fairfield Osborn, American geologist, paleontologist and eugenist (d. 1935)
- August 12 – Ernestine von Kirchsberg, Austrian painter (d. 1924)
- August 14 – Max Wagenknecht, German composer (d. 1922)
- August 15 – Albert Ballin, German shipping magnate, owner of the Hamburg America Line (d. 1918)
- August 27 – Oskar von Hutier, German general (d. 1934)
- August 30 – Alexandra Gripenberg, Finnish women's rights activist, politician (d. 1913)
- September 5 – Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Russian scientist, inventor (d. 1935)
- September 8 – Georg Michaelis, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1936)
- September 13
- September 14 – Julia Platt, American embryologist, politician (d. 1935)
- September 15 – William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States and 10th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1930)
- September 18 – John Hessin Clarke, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1945)
- September 20 – Antoine de Mitry, French general (d. 1924)
- September 28 – Lewis Bayly, British admiral (d. 1938)
- October 2
- October 5 – Peadar Mac Fhionnlaoich, Irish language writer (d. 1942)
- October 15 – Joseph Rucker Lamar, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1916)
- October 24 – Ned Williamson, American baseball player (d. 1894)
- October 27 – Ernst Trygger, 19th Prime Minister of Sweden (d. 1943)
- November 3 – Mikhail Alekseyev, Russian general (d. 1918)
- November 5
- November 9 – Dorothea Rhodes Lummis Moore, American physician (d. 1942)
- November 14 – Mihail Savov, Bulgarian general (d. 1928)
- November 17 – George Marchant, English-born inventor, manufacturer and philanthropist (d. 1941)
- November 24 – Miklós Kovács Hungarian Slovene writer (d. 1937)
- November 26 – Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss linguist (d. 1913)
- November 27 – Charles Scott Sherrington, English physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1952)
- November 28 – King Alfonso XII of Spain (d. 1885)
- November 29 – Theodor Escherich, German pediatrician (d. 1911)
- December 3
- December 4 – Julia Evelyn Ditto Young, American poet and novelist (d. 1915)
- Constantin Coandă, 26th Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1932)
- Ella Hepworth Dixon, American author and editor (d. 1932)
- Zübeyde Hanım, mother of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (d. 1923)
- Louise Markscheffel, American dramatic, musical and literary critic (d. 1911)
- Marguerite Merington, English-born American author (d. 1951)
- January 27 – Dorothea Lieven, Baltic-German diplomat in Russian services (b. 1785)
- February 10 – David Thompson, British-Canadian explorer (b. 1770)
- February 15 – Mikhail Glinka, Russian composer (b. 1804)
- February 16 – Elisha Kane, American explorer of the Arctic regions (b. 1820)
- March 11 – Manuel José Quintana, Spanish poet (b. 1772)
- April 8 – Mangal Pandey, Indian soldier (b. 1827)
- May 2 – Alfred de Musset, French poet (b. 1810)
- May 11 – Eugène François Vidocq, French criminal, private detective (b. 1775)
- May 13 – Parley P. Pratt, early American Latter Day Saint movement leader (murdered) (b. 1807)
- May 23 – Augustin-Louis Cauchy, French mathematician (b. 1789)
- May 29 – Agustina de Aragón, Spanish heroine (b. 1786)
- June 30 – Alcide d'Orbigny, French naturalist (b. 1802)
- July 4 – Henry Montgomery Lawrence, British soldier, statesman (b. 1806)
- July 15 – Carl Czerny, Austrian composer (b. 1791)
- July 19 – Stefano Franscini, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1796)
- July 29 – Charles Lucien Bonaparte, French naturalist, ornithologist (b. 1803)
- August 3 – Eugène Sue, French novelist (b. 1804)
- August 29 – Stephen Cassin, United States Navy officer (b. 1783)
- September 3 – John McLoughlin, Canadian trapper (b. 1784)
- September 5 – Auguste Comte, French philosopher (b. 1798)
- November 12
- November 26 – Joseph von Eichendorff, German poet (b. 1788)
- December 3 – Christian Daniel Rauch, German sculptor (b. 1777)
- December 15 – Sir George Cayley, English aviation pioneer (b. 1773)
- December 27 – Lucien Baudens, French military surgeon (b. 1804)
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Día de la Constitución Mexicana (5 de Febrero)". Guia de San Miguel. 2001. Archived from the original on August 11, 2003. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "The Weeping Time". Africans in America. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Youssef KARAM, I b. May 1823 d. 7 Apr 1889: Ehden Family Tree". www.ehdenfamilytree.org.
- Exhibition of art treasures of the United Kingdom, held at Manchester in 1857: report of the Executive Committee. George Simms. 1859.
- Gossett, William Patrick (1986). The lost ships of the Royal Navy, 1793–1900. Mansell. p. 114. ISBN 0-7201-1816-6.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 277–278. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Nasir, Tasnuba; Shamsuddoha, Mohammad (June 2011). "Tea Productions, Consumptions and Exports: Bangladesh Perspective" (PDF). International Journal of Educational Research and Technology. 2 (1): 68–73.