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From left, clockwise: The Battle of Fort Sumter in 1861 starts the American Civil War between the Confederate States and the United States; federal and public land is provided to U.S. citizens for ownership in the Homestead Acts; a significant battle of the American Civil War takes place in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in 1863; The Emancipation Proclamation issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln ordered the freedom of all slaves from the Confederate States; Confederate General in Chief Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union Army General in Chief Ulysses S. Grant effectively ending the American Civil War; U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre in 1865; an American white supremacist hate group called the Ku Klux Klan is formed in 1865; a rivalry between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia sets off the Austro-Prussian War.

The 1860s was the ten-year period from the years 1860 to 1869.

Millennium: 2nd millennium

The abolition of Slavery in the United States led to the breakdown of the Atlantic slave trade, which was already suffering from the abolition of slavery in most of Europe in the late 1820s and 1830s. In the United States, civil war between the Confederate States of America and the Union states led to massive deaths and the destruction of cities such as Chambersburg, Pennsylvania; Richmond, Virginia; and Atlanta, Georgia. Sherman's March to the Sea was one of the first times America experienced total war, and advancements in military technology, such as iron and steel warships, and the development and initial deployment of early machine guns added to the destruction. After the American Civil War, turmoil continued in the Reconstruction era, with the rise of white supremacist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan and the issue of granting Civil Rights to Freedmen.

Politics and warsEdit

Emperor Maximilian being executed (1867), marking the end of the Second Mexican Empire


Internal conflictsEdit

Prominent political eventsEdit

Assassinations and attemptsEdit

Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:

Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre, from left to right, are assassin John Wilkes Booth, Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, Clara Harris, and Henry Rathbone

Science and technologyEdit

Alfred Nobel invents dynamite in Sweden, patenting it in 1867


Popular cultureEdit


Literature and artsEdit



  • The Victorian era and its culture largely thrived from 1860 until 1901.
  • The culture of the Victorian era comes to America and remains in place until around the turn of the 20th century, where the year it ends is disputed as to whether it ended with the rise of progressivism in 1896 or with the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.

Miscellaneous trendsEdit


World leadersEdit


Famous and infamous personalitiesEdit


  1. ^ "American Civil War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  2. ^ Medical Advances Timeline

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit