Open main menu

Governor-General of the Philippines

The Governor-General of the Philippines (Spanish: Gobernador-General de Filipinas; Filipino: Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas; Japanese: フィリピン総督 (Firipin sōtoku);) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and the United States (1898–1946), and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945). They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power.

Governor-General of the Philippines
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
ResidenceFort San Pedro (1565–1572)
Palacio del Gobernador (1572–1863)
Malacañang Palace (1863–1945)
Mansion House (1942–1945)
Appointer
Viceroy of New Spain
Monarch of Spain
Monarch of Great Britain
President of the United States
Emperor of Japan
PrecursorVarious,
the barangay system
Formation27 April 1565
First holderMiguel López de Legazpi
(under Spain)
Dawsonne Drake
(under Great Britain)
Wesley Merritt
(under the United States)
Masaharu Homma
(under Japan)
Final holderDiego de los Ríos
(under Spain)
Dawsonne Drake
(under Great Britain)
Frank Murphy
(under the United States)
Tomoyuki Yamashita
(under Japan)
Abolished6 October 1945
Succession President of the Philippines

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence from the American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino "President of the Philippine Commonwealth", as the chief executive of the Philippines, taking over many of the duties of the Governor-General. The former American Governor-General then became known as the High Commissioner to the Philippines.

Contents

Under New Spain (1565–1761)Edit

From 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565–1821, The governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes and governed on behalf of the Monarch of Spain to govern the Captaincy General of the Philippines. When there was a vacancy (e.g. death, or during the transitional period between governors), the Real Audiencia in Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members.

After 1821, the country was no longer under the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) and administrative affairs formerly handled by New Spain were transferred to Madrid and placed directly under the Spanish Crown.

  Ad interim   Real Audiencia

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
1   Miguel López de Legazpi April 27, 1565 August 20, 1572  
Philip II
(25 July 1554 – 13 September 1598)
2   Guido de Lavezaris August 20, 1572 August 25, 1575
3   Francisco de Sande August 25, 1575 April 1580
4   Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa April 1580 March 10, 1583
5   Diego Ronquillo March 10, 1583 May 16, 1584
6   Santiago de Vera May 16, 1584 May 1590
7   Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas June 1, 1590 October 25, 1593
8   Pedro de Rojas October 1593 December 3, 1593
9   Luís Pérez Dasmariñas December 3, 1593 July 14, 1596
10   Francisco de Tello de Guzmán July 14, 1596 May 1602
 
Philip III
(13 September 1598 – 31 March 1621)
11   Pedro Bravo de Acuña May 1602 June 24, 1606
12   Cristóbal Téllez de Almanza
(Real Audiencia)
June 24, 1606 June 15, 1608
13   Rodrigo de Vivero y Aberrucia June 15, 1608 April 1609
14   Juan de Silva April 1609 April 19, 1616
15   Andrés Alcaraz
(Real Audiencia)
April 19, 1616 July 3, 1618
16   Alonso Fajardo de Entenza July 3, 1618 July 1624
 
Philip IV
(31 March 1621 – 17 September 1665)
17   Jeronimo de Silva
(Real Audiencia)
July 1624 June 1625
18   Fernándo de Silva July 1624 June 29, 1626
19   Juan Niño de Tabora June 29, 1626 July 22, 1632
20   Lorenzo de Olaza y Lecubarri
(Real Audiencia)
July 22, 1632 1633
21   Juan Cerezo de Salamanca August 29, 1633 June 25, 1635
22   Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera June 25, 1635 August 11, 1644
23   Diego Fajardo Chacón August 11, 1644 July 25, 1653
24   Sabiniano Manrique de Lara July 25, 1653 September 8, 1663
25   Diego de Salcedo September 8, 1663 September 28, 1668
 
Charles II
(17 September 1665 – 1 November 1700)
26   Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz September 28, 1668 September 24, 1669
27   Manuel de León September 24, 1669 September 21, 1677
28   Francisco Coloma y Maceda
(Real Audiencia)
April 11, 1677 September 25, 1677
29   Francisco Sotomayor y Mansilla
(Real Audiencia)
September 21, 1677 September 28, 1678
30   Juan de Vargas y Hurtado September 28, 1678 August 24, 1684
31   Gabriel de Curuzealegui y Arriola August 24, 1684 April 1689
32   Alonso de Avila Fuertes
(Real Audiencia)
April 1689 July 1690
33   Fausto Cruzat y Gongora July 25, 1690 December 8, 1701
 
Philip V

November 1700 – 15 January 1724

34   Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri December 8, 1701 August 25, 1709
35   Martín de Urzúa y Arizmendi, count of Lizárraga August 25, 1709 February 4, 1715
36   José Torralba
(Real Audiencia)
February 4, 1715 August 9, 1717
37   Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda August 9, 1717 October 11, 1719
-   Archbishop Francisco de la Cuesta
(acting)
October 11, 1719 August 6, 1721
38   Toribio José Cosio y Campo August 6, 1721 August 14, 1729
 
Louis I

(15 January – 31 August 1724)

 
Philip V

(6 September 1724 – 9 July 1746)

39   Fernándo Valdés y Tamon August 14, 1729 July 1739
40   Gaspar de la Torre y Ayala July 1739 September 21, 1745
-   Archbishop Juan Arrechederra
(acting)
September 21, 1745 July 20, 1750
  Ferdinand VI

(9 July 1746 – 10 August 1759)

41   Francisco José de Ovando, 1st Marquis of Brindisi July 20, 1750 July 26, 1754
42   Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban July 26, 1754 May 31, 1759
-   Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
(acting)
June 1759 May 31, 1761
 
Charles III

(10 August 1759 – 14 December 1788)

-   Archbishop Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra
(acting)
July 1761 October 6, 1762  
Charles III

British Occupation of Manila (1761–1764)Edit

After the Battle of Manila on 1762, on a terrible loss, the Philippines was occupied by 2 Governors-General of the United Kingdom or the British Empire.

Great Britain occupied Manila and the naval port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years' War.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
43   Simón de Anda y Salazar
(Provisional Government in Bacolor, Pampanga)
October 6, 1762 February 10, 1764  
Charles III
44   Dawsonne Drake November 2, 1762 May 31, 1764  
George III

Under New Spain (1764–1821)Edit

After the British Government replaced their incumbent Governor-General of the Philippines and they have given the nation to Spain one more time, Spanish Governor-General Francisco Javier de la Torre ascended to the Seat.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
45   Francisco Javier de la Torre March 17, 1764 July 6, 1765  
Charles III
46   José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez July 6, 1765 July 1770
(43)   Simón de Anda y Salazar July 1770 October 30, 1776
47   Pedro de Sarrio October 30, 1776 July 1778
48   José Basco y Vargas July 1778 September 22, 1787
(47)   Pedro de Sarrio September 22, 1787 July 1, 1788
49   Félix Berenguer de Marquina July 1, 1788 September 1, 1793
 
Charles IV
50   Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León September 1, 1793 August 7, 1806
51  
 
 
Mariano Fernández de Folgueras August 7, 1806 March 4, 1810
 
Ferdinand VII
 
Joseph Bonaparte
52  | Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar March 4, 1810 September 4, 1813
53   José Gardoqui Jaraveitia September 4, 1813 December 10, 1816
 
Ferdinand VII
(51)   Mariano Fernández de Folgueras December 10, 1816 September 15, 1821

Direct Spanish control (1821–1898)Edit

After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist. The Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Crown.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
(51)   Mariano Fernández de Folgueras September 16, 1821 October 30, 1822  
Ferdinand VII
54   Juan Antonio Martínez October 30, 1822 October 14, 1825
55   Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca October 14, 1825 December 23, 1830
56   Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo December 23, 1830 March 1, 1835
 
Isabella II
57   Gabriel de Torres March 1, 1835 April 23, 1835
58   Joaquín de Crame April 23, 1835 September 9, 1835
59   Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y Varona September 9, 1835 August 27, 1837
60   Andrés García Camba August 27, 1837 December 29, 1838
61   Luis Lardizábal December 29, 1838 February 14, 1841
62   Marcelino de Oraá February 14, 1841 June 17, 1843
63   Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre June 17, 1843 July 16, 1844
64   Narciso Clavería, 1st Count of Manila July 16, 1844 December 26, 1849
65   Antonio María Blanco December 26, 1849 July 29, 1850
66   Antonio de Urbistondo y Eguía July 29, 1850 December 20, 1853
67   Ramón Montero y Blandino December 20, 1853 February 2, 1854
68   Manuel Pavía, 1st Marquis of Novaliches February 2, 1854 October 28, 1854
(67)   Ramón Montero y Blandino October 28, 1854 November 20, 1854
69   Manuel Crespo y Cebrían November 20, 1854 December 5, 1856
(67)   Ramón Montero y Blandino December 5, 1856 March 9, 1857
70   Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero March 9, 1857 January 12, 1860
71   Ramón María Solano y Llanderal January 12, 1860 August 29, 1860
72   Juan Herrera Dávila August 29, 1860 February 2, 1861
73   José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y González February 2, 1861 July 7, 1862
74   Salvador Valdés July 7, 1862 July 9, 1862
75   Rafaél de Echagüe y Bermingham July 9, 1862 March 24, 1865
76   Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez March 24, 1865 April 25, 1865
77   Juan de Lara e Irigoyen April 25, 1865 July 13, 1866
78   José Laureano de Sanz y Posse July 13, 1866 September 21, 1866
79   Juan Antonio Osorio September 21, 1866 September 27, 1866
(76)   Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez September 27, 1866 October 26, 1866
80   José de la Gándara y Navarro October 26, 1866 June 7, 1869
No Monarch
81   Manuel Maldonado June 7, 1869 June 23, 1869
82   Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada June 23, 1869 April 4, 1871
 
Amadeo I
(December 16, 1870 – February 11, 1873)
83   Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutíerrez April 4, 1871 January 8, 1873
84   Manuel MacCrohon January 8, 1873 January 24, 1873
85   Juan Alaminos y Vivar January 24, 1873 March 17, 1874
No Monarch
-   Manuel Blanco Valderrama
(acting)
March 17, 1874 June 18, 1874
86   José Malcampo y Monje June 18, 1874 February 28, 1877
 
Alfonso XII
(December 29, 1874 – November 25, 1885)
87   Domingo Moriones y Murillo February 28, 1877 March 20, 1880
88   Rafael Rodríguez Arias March 20, 1880 April 15, 1880
89   Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 15, 1880 March 10, 1883
-   Emilio Molíns 1st term,
(acting)
March 10, 1883 April 7, 1883
90   Joaquín Jovellar April 7, 1883 April 1, 1885
-   Emilio Molíns 2nd term,
(acting)
April 1, 1885 April 4, 1885
91   Emilio Terrero y Perinat April 4, 1885 April 25, 1888
 
Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886)
-   Antonio Moltó y Díaz Berrio
(acting)
April 25, 1888 June 4, 1888
-   Federico Lobatón y Prieto
(acting)
June 4, 1888 June 5, 1888
92   Valeriano Wéyler June 5, 1888 November 17, 1891
93   Eulogio Despujol November 17, 1891 March 1, 1893
-   Federico Ochando
(acting)
March 1, 1893 May 4, 1893
94   Ramón Blanco, 1st Marquis of Peña Plata May 4, 1893 December 13, 1896
-   Camilo de Polavieja, 1st Marquis of Polavieja
(acting)
December 13, 1896 April 15, 1897
-   José de Lachambre
(acting)
April 15, 1897 April 23, 1897
95   Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 23, 1897 April 11, 1898
96   Basilio Augustín[1] April 11, 1898 July 24, 1898
-   Fermín Jáudenes[1]
(acting)
July 24, 1898 August 13, 1898
-   Francisco Rizzo[1]
(acting)
August 13, 1898 September 1898
-   Diego de los Rios[1]
(acting)
September 1898 June 3, 1899

United States Military Government (1898–1902)Edit

The city of Manila was captured by American expeditionary forces on 13 August 1898.[2] On 14 August 1898 the terms of the Spanish capitulation were signed. From this date, American government in the Philippines begins.[3] General Wesley Merritt, in accordance with the instructions of the United States President, issued a proclamation announcing the establishment of United States military rule.[4]

During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.

# Picture Name From Until President
1   Wesley Merritt August 14, 1898[5] August 30, 1898[6]  
William McKinley
2   Elwell S. Otis August 28, 1898 May 5, 1900
3   Arthur MacArthur, Jr. May 5, 1900[7] July 4, 1901
4   Adna Chaffee [8] July 4, 1901 July 4, 1902

Insular Government (1901–1935)Edit

On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president of the Second Philippine Commission who had the title of Civil Governor, a position appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the country still resisting the American rule, concurrent with Civil Governor, William Howard Taft.[9] Disagreements between the two were not uncommon.[10] The following year, on July 4, 1902, Taft became the sole executive authority.[8] Chaffee remained as commander of Philippine Division until September 30, 1902.[11]

After his retirement as Civil Governor, Governor Taft was appointed Secretary of War and he secured for his successor the adoption by Congress[12] of the title Governor-General of the Philippine Islands thereby "reviving the high designation used during the last period of Spanish rule and placing the office on a parity of dignity with that of other colonial empires of first importance".[13] The term "insular" (from insulam, the Latin word for island)[14] refers to U.S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district. All insular areas were under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department.[15][16]

# Picture Name From Until President
1   William Howard Taft July 4, 1901 February 1, 1904  
William McKinley
To September 1901
 
Theodore Roosevelt
From September 1901
2   Luke Edward Wright February 1, 1904 November 3, 1905
 
Theodore Roosevelt
3   Henry Clay Ide November 3, 1905 September 19, 1906
4   James Francis Smith September 20, 1906 November 11, 1909
5   William Cameron Forbes November 11, 1909 September 1, 1913  
William Howard Taft
-   Newton W. Gilbert
(Acting Governor-General)
September 1, 1913 October 6, 1913  
Woodrow Wilson
6   Francis Burton Harrison October 6, 1913 March 5, 1921
-   Charles Yeater
(Acting Governor-General)
March 5, 1921 October 14, 1921  
Warren G. Harding
To September 1923
 
Calvin Coolidge
From September 1923
7   Leonard Wood October 14, 1921 August 7, 1927
-   Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
August 7, 1927 December 27, 1927
 
Calvin Coolidge
8   Henry L. Stimson December 27, 1927 February 23, 1929
-   Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
February 23, 1929 July 8, 1929  
Herbert Hoover
9   Dwight F. Davis July 8, 1929 January 9, 1932
-   George C. Butte
(Acting Governor-General)
January 9, 1932 February 29, 1932
10   Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. February 29, 1932 July 15, 1933
11   Frank Murphy July 15, 1933 November 14, 1935
Became High Commissioner to the Philippines
 
Franklin D. Roosevelt

High Commissioner to the Philippines (1935–42 and 1945–46)Edit

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence. The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the country's chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the last governor-general, as the first high commissioner. The High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioner's Residence, now the Embassy of the United States in Manila.

After the Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines.

# Picture Name From Until President
1   Frank Murphy November 14, 1935 April 26, 1937  
Franklin D. Roosevelt
2   Paul V. McNutt April 26, 1937 July 12, 1939
3   Francis Bowes Sayre, Sr. April 12, 1939 October 12, 1942
4   Paul V. McNutt September 14, 1945 July 4, 1946
Following Philippine independence became
1st U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines
 
Harry S Truman
- Lee Thompson July

1946

1958
Thomas

Thompson

Japanese military governors (1942–1945)Edit

In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II. The next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic.[17]

# Picture Name From Until Emperor
1   Masaharu Homma January 3, 1942 June 8, 1942  
Emperor Hirohito
2   Shizuichi Tanaka June 8, 1942 May 28, 1943
3   Shigenori Kuroda May 28, 1943 September 26, 1944
4   Tomoyuki Yamashita September 26, 1944 September 2, 1945

Acting Governor

# Picture Name From  Until
1   Lee Thompson(1908-1976/1977) September 2, 1942 July 2, 1946
2   Johnny Watson

(1870- 1960)

1946 ??????
3   O.B. Davidson

(1898-1980)

1948/1949 1950
4   Daniel Louis Manas

(1888-1960)

1950 1952

On September 2, 1945, the Governor-General position of the Philippines has now been abolished and the Philippines' independence had been proclaimed helped by the United States on the 4th of July 1946 on the presidency of Manuel Roxas. The 4th President of the Philippines.

TimelinesEdit

1750–1800Edit

 

1800–1850Edit

 

1850–1898Edit

 

1898–1946Edit

 

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Peterson 2007, p. 11.
  2. ^ David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311
  3. ^ David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311
  4. ^ David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311
  5. ^ Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. p. 116.
  6. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish–American and Philippine–American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  7. ^ Pershing, John J. (2013). My Life Before the World War, 1860--1917: A Memoir. University Press of Kentucky. p. 547. ISBN 0-8131-4199-0.
  8. ^ a b Elliott (1917), p. 509
  9. ^ Elliott (1917), p. 4
  10. ^ Tanner (1901), p. 383
  11. ^ Philippine Academy of Social Sciences (1967). Philippine social sciences and humanities review. pp. 40.
  12. ^ Act of Congress of February 6, 1905 entitled: "An Act To amend an Act approved July first, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An Act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes," and to amend an Act approved March eighth, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An Act temporarily to provide revenue for the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes" and to amend an Act March second, nineteen hundred and three, entitled "An Act to establish a standard of value and to provide for a coinage system in the Philippine Islands," and to provide for the more efficient administration of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes." Section 8 thereof provided that "the civil governor of the Philippine Islands shall hereafter be known as the governor-general of the Philippine Islands.
  13. ^ David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311
  14. ^ "Island - from English to Latin". Google Translate. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  15. ^ "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations" Archived 2012-09-25 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Department of the Interior.
  16. ^ "Insular". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  17. ^ Cahoon (2000)

ReferencesEdit