List of presidents of the Philippines

Malacañang Palace in Manila is the official residence of the President.[note 1] Built in 1750, it has become a prominent symbol of and metonym for the office.
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Under the present Constitution of the Philippines, the president of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and serves as the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces.[4] The president is directly elected by qualified voters of the population to a six-year term and must be "a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election". Any person who has served as president for more than six years is barred from running for the position again. Upon an incumbent president's death, permanent disability, resignation, or removal from office, the vice president assumes the post.[5]

Sixteen people have been sworn into office as president. Following the ratification of the Malolos Constitution in 1899, Emilio Aguinaldo became the inaugural president of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.[6][note 2] He held that office until 1901 when he was captured by United States forces during the Philippine–American War (1899–1902).[4] The American colonization of the Philippines abolished the First Republic,[7] which led to an American governor-general exercising executive power.[8]

In 1935, the United States, pursuant to its promise of full Philippine sovereignty,[9] established the Commonwealth of the Philippines following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution, which also restored the presidency. The first national presidential election was held,[note 3] and Manuel L. Quezon (1935–44) was elected to a six-year term, with no provision for re-election,[12] as the second Philippine president and the first Commonwealth president.[note 2] In 1940, however, the Constitution was amended to allow re-election but shortened the term to four years.[4] A change in government occurred three years later when the Second Philippine Republic was organized with the enactment of the 1943 Constitution, which Japan imposed after it occupied the Philippines in 1942 during World War II.[13] José P. Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Japanese-sponsored government;[14] his de facto presidency,[15] not legally recognized until the 1960s,[16] overlapped with that of the president of the Commonwealth, which went into exile. The Second Republic was dissolved after Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945; the Commonwealth was restored in the Philippines in the same year with Sergio Osmeña (1944–46) as president.[4]

Manuel Roxas (1946–1948) followed Picar when he won the first post-war election in 1946. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth ended on July 4 of that year. The Third Republic was ushered in and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was Ferdinand Marcos (1965–86),[4] who performed a self-coup by imposing martial law in 1972.[17] The dictatorship saw the birth of Marcos' New Society and the Fourth Republic. His tenure lasted until 1986 when he was deposed in the People Power Revolution. The current constitution came into effect in 1987, marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic.[4]

Of the individuals elected as president, three died in office: two of natural causes (Manuel L. Quezon[18] and Manuel Roxas[19]) and one in a plane crash (Ramon Magsaysay, 1953–57[20]). The longest-serving president is Ferdinand Marcos with 20 years and 57 days in office; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. The shortest is Sergio Osmeña, who spent 1 year and 300 days in office.

Two women have held the office: Corazon Aquino (1986–92), who ascended to the presidency upon the successful People Power Revolution of 1986, and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001–10), who, as Vice President, ascended to the presidency upon Estrada's resignation and was elected to a full six-year term in 2004.

PresidentsEdit

The colors indicate the political party affiliation of each individual.

Key
Party English name Abbreviation
Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas Association for Service to the New Philippines KALIBAPI
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan New Society Movement KBL
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses LAMMP
Lakas ng Tao–Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino–Christian Muslim Democrats People Power–Partner of the Free Filipino–Christian Muslim Democrats Lakas–Kampi–CMD
Lakas ng Tao–National Union of Christian Democrats People Power–National Union of Christian Democrats Lakas–NUCD
Liberal Party Liberal
Nacionalista Party Nationalist Party Nacionalista
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power PDP–Laban
United Nationalist Democratic Organization UNIDO
Non-partisan N/A
# Portrait President Term of service Party Election Vice President Period
1   Emilio Aguinaldo January 23, 1899–March 23, 1901[1] (2 years, 59 days) Nonpartisan 1899 None[2] First Republic
American Governor-Generals, appointed by the President of the United States, governed the Philippines as an Insular Area.
2   Manuel L. Quezon November 15, 1935–August 1, 1944[3] (8 years, 260 days) Nacionalista 1935 Sergio Osmeña Commonwealth
1941
3   Jose P. Laurel October 14, 1943–August 17, 1945 (1 year, 307 days) KALIBAPI 1943 None[2] Second Republic
4   Sergio Osmeña August 1, 1944–May 28, 1946 (1 year, 300 days) Nacionalista 1941 Vacant[4] Commonwealth
5   Manuel Roxas May 28, 1946–April 15, 1948[3] (1 year, 323 days) Liberal[5] 1946 Elpidio Quirino
Third Republic
Vacant April 15–17, 1948 (2 days) Vacant[4]
6   Elpidio Quirino April 17, 1948–December 30, 1953 (5 years, 257 days) Liberal[6]
1949 Fernando Lopez[7]
7   Ramon Magsaysay December 30, 1953–March 17, 1957[3] (3 years, 77 days) Nacionalista 1953 Carlos P. Garcia
8   Carlos P. Garcia March 18, 1957–December 30, 1961 (4 years, 287 days) Nacionalista Vacant[4]
1957 Diosdado Macapagal
9   Diosdado Macapagal December 30, 1961–December 30, 1965 (4 years, 0 days) Liberal 1961 Emmanuel Pelaez
10   Ferdinand Marcos December 30, 1965–February 25, 1986[8] (20 years, 57 days) Nacionalista 1965 Fernando Lopez
1969
None[2] Martial law
KBL
1981 Fourth Republic
11   Corazon Aquino February 25, 1986–June 30, 1992 (6 years, 126 days) UNIDO[9] 1986 Salvador Laurel[9]
Fifth Republic
Independent
12   Fidel V. Ramos June 30, 1992–June 30, 1998 (6 years, 0 days) Lakas 1992 Joseph Estrada[10]
13   Joseph Estrada June 30, 1998–January 20, 2001[11] (2 years, 204 days) LAMMP 1998 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
14   Gloria Macapagal Arroyo January 20, 2001–June 30, 2010 (9 years, 161 days) Lakas[12] Vacant
Teofisto Guingona Jr.
2004 Noli de Castro
15   Benigno Aquino III June 30, 2010–June 30, 2016 (6 years, 0 days) Liberal 2010 Jejomar Binay[13]
16   Rodrigo Duterte June 30, 2016–present (4 years, 40 days) PDP–Laban 2016 Leni Robredo
  1. a Term started with the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic, and ended when Aguinaldo was captured by US forces in Palanan, Isabela, during the Philippine–American War.
  2. a b c The constitution in force didn't provide for a vice president.
  3. a b c Died in office
  4. a b c The constitution in force didn't provide a mechanism for appointment of a vice president in times of vacancy.
  5. a Roxas and Quirino ran as candidates of the "Liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party", this "Liberal wing" later seceded and formed the Liberal Party in 1947.
  6. a The Liberal Party was split into two wings for the 1949 election. Quirino headed primary wing, while Jose Avelino headed the other.
  7. a Lopez won the 1949 vice presidential election as nominee of the Liberal Party. He was later named as vice presidential nominee of the Democratic Party for the 1953 election, but when their presidential candidate Carlos P. Romulo withdrew, he also withdrew to run for a Senate seat instead.
  8. a Marcos was deposed in the People Power Revolution.
  9. a b UNIDO was dissolved in 1987. Aquino nominally was an independent for the rest of her term, while Laurel was an independent, then became the standard bearer of the resurrected Nacionalista Party.
  10. a Estrada was the candidate of the Nationalist People's Coalition in the 1992 vice presidential election, then founded the Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino as his presidential vehicle in 1998.
  11. a Estrada was ruled to have resigned by the Supreme Court during the Second EDSA Revolution.
  12. a Arroyo won the 1998 vice presidential and 2004 presidential election as the nominee of Lakas-NUCD-UMDP. This merged with the Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (KAMPI), the party Arroyo founded, in 2009, to form Lakas Kampi CMD.
  13. a Binay won the 2010 vice presidential election as nominee of the PDP–Laban, but left the party to become an independent, then founded the United Nationalist Alliance in the run-up to the 2013 Senate election.

TimelineEdit

Rodrigo DuterteBenigno Aquino IIIGloria Macapagal ArroyoJoseph EstradaFidel RamosCorazon AquinoFerdinand MarcosDiosdado MacapagalCarlos P. GarciaRamon MagsaysayElpidio QuirinoManuel RoxasSergio OsmeñaJosé P. LaurelManuel L. QuezonEmilio Aguinaldo

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The President has three official residences, with the Malacañang Palace Complex as the principal abode and workplace.[1] The other two are Mansion House in Baguio, the official summer residence,[2] and Malacañang sa Sugbo (Malacañang of Cebu), the official residence in Cebu.[3]
  2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Order was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Emilio Aguinaldo, the official first president, was elected by the Malolos Congress and not by popular vote.[10][11]

Subnotes

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ortiguero, Romsanne (October 22, 2014). "TRAVEL Inside Malacañang Complex, 3 places to visit for a charming date with history". News5. TV5. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  2. ^ "Mansion House". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  3. ^ Sisante, Jam (August 6, 2010). "Malacañang sa Sugbo still the president's official residence in Cebu". GMA News and Public Affairs. GMA Network. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Cite error: The named reference execbranch was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference 1987con was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 8
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference FirstRep was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Agoncillo281 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference commonwealth was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference PAguinaldo1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference PAguinaldo2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference 1941election was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference RicardoJose was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Staff writer(s); no by-line. (September 3, 1945). "The Philippines: End of a Puppet". Time. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference dejurefacto was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2ndrepog was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference martiallaw was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference QuezonDeath was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference RoxasDeath was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference MagsaysayDeath2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

Works citedEdit

External linksEdit