Arthur MacArthur Jr.
Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur Jr. (June 2, 1845 – September 5, 1912) was a United States Army general. He became the military Governor-General of the American-occupied Philippines in 1900 but his term ended a year later due to clashes with the civilian governor, future-U.S. President William Howard Taft.
His son, Douglas MacArthur, was one of only five men promoted to the five-star rank of General of the Army during World War II. In addition to their both being promoted to the rank of general officer, Arthur MacArthur Jr. and Douglas MacArthur also share the distinction of having been the first father and son to each be awarded a Medal of Honor.
MacArthur was born in Chicopee Falls, then part of Springfield, Massachusetts. His father was Arthur MacArthur, Sr., a Scottish-born American lawyer, judge and politician who served as the fourth Governor of Wisconsin (albeit for only four days), a Wisconsin Circuit Court Judge in Milwaukee, and an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia.
His mother was Aurelia Belcher (1819–1864), the daughter of a wealthy industrialist, Benjamin B. Belcher. From his parents' marriage, he had one brother, Frank. After his mother's death in 1864, his father remarried to Mary E. Willcut.
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On August 4, 1862, his father secured a commission for him as a first lieutenant and appointed as adjutant of the 24th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment, seeing action at Chickamauga, Stones River, Chattanooga, the Atlanta Campaign and Franklin.
At the Battle of Missionary Ridge on November 25, 1863, during the Chattanooga Campaign, the 18-year-old MacArthur inspired his regiment during a largely uncoordinated and spontaneous frontal assault of Union forces against entrenched Confederate forces on a hilltop. During the charge the regimental flags were carried in front, so that every flag-bearer was constantly a target, causing immense casualty among them. MacArthur seized the flag from a fallen comrade and planted the regimental flag on the crest of Missionary Ridge at a particularly critical moment, shouting "On Wisconsin." For these actions, he was awarded the Medal of Honor. He was brevetted colonel in the Union Army the following year. Only 19 years old at the time, he became nationally recognized as "The Boy Colonel" (not to be confused with Henry K. Burgwyn, known as the "Boy Colonel of the Confederacy").
On January 25, 1864, he was promoted to major and about a year and a half later, on May 18, 1865, to lieutenant colonel – shortly before he was mustered out of service on June 10, 1865. In recognition of his gallantry in action he received brevets (honorary promotions) to lieutenant colonel and colonel dated March 15, 1865.
With the conclusion of the Civil War in June 1865, MacArthur resigned his commission and began the study of law. After just a few months, however, he decided this was not a good fit for him, so he resumed his career with the Army. He was recommissioned on February 23, 1866, as a second lieutenant in the Regular Army's 17th Infantry Regiment, with a promotion the following day to first lieutenant. Because of his outstanding record of performance during the Civil War, he was promoted in September of that year to captain. However, he would remain a captain for the following two decades, as promotion was slow in the small peacetime army.
In 1884, MacArthur became the post commander of Fort Selden, in New Mexico. The following year, he took part in the campaign against Geronimo. In 1889, he was promoted to Assistant Adjutant General of the Army with the rank of major, and was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1897.
Following the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, MacArthur was serving as the adjutant general of the Third Army Corps in Georgia. In June 1898 he was brevetted to brigadier general in the volunteer army. He was appointed as commanding general of the 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Eighth Army Corps and led it to victory at the Battle of Manila on August 12, 1898. He was promoted to major general on August 13, 1898.
Philippine–American War (1899-1902)Edit
He led the 2nd Division of Eighth Corps during the Philippine–American War at the Battle of Manila (1899), the Malolos campaign and the Northern Offensive. When the American occupation of the Philippines turned from conventional battles to guerrilla warfare, MacArthur commanded the Department of Northern Luzon. In January 1900, he was appointed Brigadier General in the Regular Army and was appointed military governor of the Philippines with command of Eighth Corps, replacing General Elwell S. Otis.
He authorized the expedition, under General Frederick Funston, that resulted in the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo. MacArthur persuaded the captured Aguinaldo to cease fighting and to swear allegiance to the United States. He was promoted to major general in the Regular Army on February 5, 1901.
During the war, President William McKinley relieved Major General Elwell S. Otis of command and replaced him with MacArthur giving him the title of Military Governor of the Philippines on May 6, 1900. However, William Howard Taft was appointed to head the Philippine Commission by President William McKinley and arrived to Manila in June 1900 to effect the transition from military to civil government. MacArthur firmly opposed the timing of direct involvement by the Philippine Commission as he did not believe the Philippines was ready for civil rule yet. Both Taft and MacArthur, in separate correspondences, informed Secretary of War, Elihu Root, of the contention between each other and their differing views on the future of the Philippines. On February 27, 1901, shortly after promoting MacArthur to the rank of major general, Secretary Root informed Major General Adna R. Chaffee that he would succeed MacArthur as military governor in the Philippines. However, Chaffee would be subordinate to William Howard Taft, who would be appointed as Civilian Governor.
On June 21, 1901, Root's War Department informed MacArthur that Chaffee was to replace him as military head in the Philippines with the change to take place on July 4, 1901. Taft decided, "four, possibly five and two small parts of others", of the 27 organized provinces across the Philippines (16 additional provinces remained unorganized at the end of 1900), "in which armed insurrection continues, will remain under the executive jurisdiction of the military governor and commanding general". The contentiousness between Taft and MacArthur seemed all too apparent as Taft stated publicly that neither his approach of municipal code nor the provincial government act under both Otis and MacArthur would form a perfect government, "though it was possible to make the former much more complete than the latter". Taft further distanced himself and work by characterizing prior military efforts as "two experiments in municipal government under the administrations of General Otis and General MacArthur before the [Philippine] Commission began its legislative work".
Return to the United StatesEdit
In the several years that followed, he was assigned to serve at various times as commander of the Department of the Colorado, the Lakes, the East, and eventually the Pacific Division. When the Russo-Japanese War exploded in early 1904, eight American officers were promptly sent to the Manchurian front as observers. Chafing at the bit at his headquarters in Fort Mason, San Francisco, MacArthur requested that he also be assigned as a military observer upon hearing of the outbreak of war between Russia and Japan in 1904. He finally secured the appointment, but arrived in Manchuria in mid-March, 1905, just after the major fighting had ended with the Japanese triumph at the Battle of Mukden. When the Portsmouth Peace Conference was convened in August, MacArthur was sent to Tokyo as military attaché to the American legation.
During Secretary of War William Howard Taft's 1905 trip to Japan, Taft also met with Major General MacArthur as he was the United States military attaché to Japan, in Yokohama (likely at the Oriental Palace Hotel where MacArthur and his wife, Mrs. "Pinky" MacArthur, were staying During the course of this meeting, it was decided 1st Lieutenant Douglas MacArthur would replace Captain Paul W. West as Major General MacArthur's aide-de-camp and accompany him on a 'reconnaissance mission' to various Asian countries from November 1, 1905, through late June 1906 traveling over 20,000 miles, per 1st Lieutenant Douglas MacArthur vouchers.
On July 17, 1906, MacArthur, Mrs. MacArthur, and Douglas MacArthur sailed from Yokohama and arrived at San Francisco to resume his post at Fort Mason as Commander of the Pacific Division. As the commander of the Pacific Division, he was promoted to lieutenant general in September 1906, but though now the highest-ranking officer, was not elevated to chief of staff then or later. Brigadier General J. Franklin Bell had been made the chief of staff while MacArthur was in Asia on April 14, 1906, with BG Bell not being promoted to major general until 3 January 1907.
In early 1907, MacArthur, after 47 years of devoted and distinguished service, was told by Taft's War Department that he had been passed over for chief of staff of the Army. Instead of chief of staff, he was offered command of the Eastern department. MacArthur refused Taft's offer of commanding the Eastern department, stating that it would mean a humiliating reduction in authority for him. MacArthur proposed that the War Department either accept his retirement or assign him to some "special duty" which would not be an affront to his honor. Shortly thereafter, MacArthur received orders to 'proceed to Milwaukee, there to perform such duties as may hereafter be assigned', but no further duties were given to him. Taft was inaugurated as President of the United States in March 1909, and MacArthur retired quietly from the Army on June 2, 1909.
MacArthur never did realize his dream of commanding the entire Army. He was one of the last officers on active duty in the Army who had served in the Civil War.
MacArthur was elected a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS) in 1868 and was assigned insignia number 648. On May 6, 1908, he was elected commander of the Wisconsin Commandery of MOLLUS. He was elected as the Order's senior vice commander in chief on October 18, 1911, and became the Order's commander in chief upon the death of Rear Admiral George W. Melville on March 17, 1912. He held the office until his own death six months later.
- Arthur MacArthur III (1876–1923), a captain in the Navy who was awarded the Navy Cross in World War I.
- Malcolm MacArthur (1878–1883), who died young of measles.
- Douglas MacArthur (1880–1964), who was born at the Arsenal Barracks in Little Rock, Arkansas
On September 5, 1912, while addressing a reunion of the 24th Wisconsin veterans in Milwaukee, MacArthur was suddenly and fatally stricken by an apoplectic attack (now known as a stroke). As MacArthur recounted "one of the most remarkable scouting expeditions of the war", he told his men, "Your indomitable courage...", then halted his speech with the words, "Comrades, I am too weak to go on". He sat back down and collapsed, dying moments later. A young medical intern, serving as a waiter at the banquet, pronounced him dead on the platform.
Both Mrs. MacArthur and Mr. Charles King, a retired officer and close friend of MacArthur, carried out MacArthur's final wishes to not be dressed [buried] in his uniform and for the funeral service to be 'utterly devoid' of military display. Except for MacArthur's two sons, the only active military officer present at the funeral was a solitary colonel from a nearby fort. Finally, per MacArthur's final wishes, he was interred in a cemetery in Milwaukee rather than in Arlington National Cemetery. He was originally buried in Milwaukee on Monday, September 7, 1912, but was moved to Section 2 Gravesite 856-A of Arlington National Cemetery in 1926. He is buried among other members of the family there, while his son Douglas chose to be buried in Norfolk, Virginia, the hometown of his mother, Mary Pinkney Hardy, and the site of the Hardy family home Riveredge.
The Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States prepared and printed a eulogy praising MacArthur's military record and extolling "his fervent patriotism, his unshaken loyalty, his silent and soldierly acceptance of conditions little looked for in view of his great services and exalted rank".
For some reason, Mrs. MacArthur was only granted a pension of merely $1,200.00/per year after MacArthur died September 5, 1912, whereas the widows of all other lieutenant generals were receiving $2,500.00/per year. Mr. James Flanders, a Milwaukee attorney and lifetime friend of MacArthur, led a long but successful fight to get Mrs. MacArthur's pension raised to the amount equal to the widows of other lieutenant generals. William Howard Taft was President of the United States at that time (March 1909 - March 1913), Elihu Root was a Senator for New York at that time (March 1909 - March 1915), and the Bureau of Pensions administered pensions for military personnel from 1832 to 1930. The Bureau of Pensions had two duties: (1) assess and either approve or deny claims, and (2) pay approved benefits. During that same time period, the Bureau's workload was significantly being reduced due to the death of many Civil War pensioners in the early 1900s.
Awards and honorsEdit
- Medal of Honor
- Civil War Campaign Medal
- Indian Campaign Medal
- Spanish Campaign Medal
- Philippine Campaign Medal
Medal of Honor citationEdit
Rank and Organization:
- First Lieutenant, and Adjutant, 24th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25, 1863. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Birth: Springfield, Mass. Date of issue: June 30, 1890.
Just over eight decades later (1864–1945), his son, Douglas MacArthur, would also gain fame for leading U.S. forces to victory in the Philippines. Arthur MacArthur Jr. and Douglas MacArthur were the first father and son ever to each be awarded a Medal of Honor. To date, the only other father and son to be given this honor are former President Theodore Roosevelt and his son, Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
Fort MacArthur, which protected the San Pedro, California, harbor from 1914 until 1974, was named after General Arthur MacArthur. Camp MacArthur, a World War I training camp in Waco, Texas, was also named for the General.
One of MacArthur's fellow officers in the 24th Wisconsin was future United States Senator John L. Mitchell, the father of controversial Army aviator Major General Billy Mitchell. MacArthur's son, General Douglas MacArthur, was a member of the younger Mitchell's court martial in 1925.
The actor Tom Palmer (1912-1997) played Arthur MacArthur Jr. in the 1959 episode, "The Little Trooper", of the syndicated television anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. Child actor Bryan Russell (1952-2016) played Arthur's four-year-old son, Douglas, the subject of the title of the episode, set at Fort Selden in the New Mexico Territory. Leonard Bremen (1915-1986) was cast as played Trooper Norkul, who takes a protective interest in young Douglas.
Dates of rankEdit
|First Lieutenant||24th Wisconsin||August 24, 1862|
|Major||24th Wisconsin||January 25, 1864|
|Brevet Colonel||Volunteers||March 13, 1865|
|Lieutenant Colonel||24th Wisconsin||May 18, 1865|
|Second Lieutenant||Regular Army||February 23, 1866|
|First Lieutenant||Regular Army||February 24, 1866|
|Captain||Regular Army||July 28, 1866|
|Major||Regular Army||July 21, 1889|
|Lieutenant Colonel||Regular Army||May 26, 1896|
|Brigadier General||Volunteers||May 27, 1898|
|Major General||Volunteers||August 28, 1898|
|Brigadier General||Regular Army||January 2, 1900|
|Major General||Regular Army||February 5, 1901|
|Lieutenant General||Regular Army||September 15, 1906|
- First Lieutenant, 24th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Union Army – August 4, 1862
- Major, 24th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Union Army – January 25, 1864
- Brevet Lieutenant Colonel and Brevet Colonel – March 13, 1865
- Lieutenant Colonel, 24th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Union Army – May 18, 1865
- Mustered out of Volunteer service – June 10, 1865
- Colonel, 24th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Union Army – June 13, 1865 (Commissioned but not mustered)
- Second Lieutenant – February 23, 1866
- First Lieutenant – February 24, 1866
- Captain – July 28, 1866
- Major – July 1, 1889
- Lieutenant Colonel – May 26, 1896
- Brigadier General of Volunteers – May 27, 1898
- Major General of Volunteers – August 13, 1898
- Brigadier General (Regular Army) – January 2, 1900
- Major General – February 5, 1901
- Lieutenant General – September 15, 1906
In popular cultureEdit
- MacArthur was a character in the alternate history novel 1901 by Robert Conroy (1995).
- MacArthur was portrayed by James Paolleli in the Filipino film, El Presidente (2012).
- MacArthur was portrayed by Miguel Faustmann in the Filipino film, Heneral Luna (2015), and its sequel, Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral (2018).
- "McArthur, Arthur 1815 - 1896". Wisconsin Historical Society. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014.
- Perret, Geoffrey (1996). Old Soldiers Never Die: The Life of Douglas MacArthur. New York City: Random House, Inc. p. 3. ISBN 9780679428824.
- Wurts, John S. (1945). Pedigrees of the Barons (1942). Brookfield publishing Company. p. 438. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- Young, Kenneth R. (1994). The General's General: The Life and Times of Arthur Macarthur. Westview Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780813321950. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- Marble, John Emerson (1943). The New England Historical and Genealogical Register. New England Historic Genealogical Society. p. 343. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- MacArthur 1964, pp. 13–14.
- James 1970, p. 35.
- James 1970, pp. 36–37
- James 1970, pp. 36–39.
- James 1970, p. 38
- Taft, William Howard (1901). Report of the Philippine Commission to the Secretary of War (1899 - 1900) (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 282. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- James 1970, pp. 38, 40
- James 1970, p. 41
- James 1970, pp. 91.
- James 1970, pp. 91–93.
- James 1970, pp. 40–41, 87, 94.
- James 1970, pp. 41–42
- James 1970, p. 42
- James 1970, p. 25.
- James 1970, p. 24.
- "From Turbulence to Tranquility: The Little Rock Arsenal Part 2". MacArthur Museum of Arkansas Military History. Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- "General Arthur MacArthur Jr". The Gazette Times, Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA: 7. September 10, 1912. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- "MacArthur Drops Dead As He Talks", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 6, 1912, p. 1
- James 1970, pp. 42–43.
- James 1970, p. 43
- "Widow of General in Need of Pension". The Washington Times: 12. January 5, 1913. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- Americancivilwar.com (2010). "Civil War Medal of Honor citations". Americancivilwar.com. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- Congressional Medal of Honor Society (2010). "MacArthur, Arthur Jr". Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina: Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- "Medal of Honor recipients: Civil War (M-Z)". Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, DC: United States Army Center of Military History. May 21, 2010. Archived from the original on June 4, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- "Camp MacArthur". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- "The Little Trooper on Death Valley Days". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
- Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 1789–1903. Francis B. Heitman. 1903. Volume 1. pg. 652.
- James, D. Clayton (1970). The Years of MacArthur. 1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-10948-5. OCLC 60070186.
- MacArthur, Douglas (1964). Reminiscences of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. Annapolis: Bluejacket Books. ISBN 1-55750-483-0. OCLC 220661276.
- Young, Kenneth Ray (1994). The General's General: The Life and Times of Arthur MacArthur. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2195-6.
- Mary Pinkney Hardy MacArthur, Wife Of Union General Arthur MacArthur, Jr.
- "Civil War Medal of Honor recipients (M-Z)". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. August 3, 2009. Archived from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Photograph on the cover of the New York Tribune, Memorial Day". May 30, 1909. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- Arlington National Cemetery