The American Civil War Portal
The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a sectional rebellion against the United States of America by the Confederate States, formed of eleven southern states' governments which moved to secede from the Union after the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States. The Union's victory was eventually achieved by leveraging advantages in population, manufacturing and logistics and through a strategic naval blockade denying the Confederacy access to the world's markets.
In many ways, the conflict's central issues – the enslavement of African Americans, the role of constitutional federal government, and the rights of states – are still not completely resolved. Not surprisingly, the Confederate army's surrender at Appomattox on April 9, 1865 did little to change many Americans' attitudes toward the potential powers of central government. The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution in the years immediately following the war did not change the racial prejudice prevalent among Americans of the day; and the process of Reconstruction did not heal the deeply personal wounds inflicted by four brutal years of war and more than 970,000 casualties – 3 percent of the population, including approximately 560,000 deaths. As a result, controversies affected by the war's unresolved social, political, economic and racial tensions continue to shape contemporary American thought. The causes of the war, the reasons for the outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of much discussion even today.
The Battle of Corydon
was a minor engagement that took place July 9, 1863, just south of Corydon
, which had been the original capital of Indiana
until 1825, and was the seat
of Harrison county
. The attack occurred during Morgan's Raid
in the American Civil War
as a force of 2,500 cavalry invaded the North
in support of the Tullahoma Campaign
. It was the only pitched battle
of the Civil War that occurred in Indiana, and no battle has occurred within Indiana
Although the short battle cost the cavalry twice as many casualties as the outnumbered militia units, the battle resulted in a Confederate victory, which enabled Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan to secure supplies and money before continuing his raid through Indiana and into Ohio. The delay, however, proved critical in helping the pursuing Union army overtake and later capture Morgan and his forces.
Grand Parade of the States
Though no major battles were fought in New Jersey
, the state provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union
during the American Civil War
. Soldiers and volunteers from New Jersey played an important part in the war, including Philip Kearny
and George B. McClellan
, who led the Army of the Potomac
early in the Civil War and unsuccessfully ran for President of the United States
in 1864 against his former commander-in-chief, Abraham Lincoln
The Quaker population of New Jersey was especially intolerant of slavery. However, New Jersey ended up becoming the last of the northern states to abolish slavery by enacting legislation which caused the slow abolishment of slavery. Though New Jersey passed an act for the gradual abolition of slavery in 1804, it wasn't until 1830 that most blacks were free in the state. However, by the close of the Civil War, about a dozen African-Americans in New Jersey were still apprenticed freedmen. New Jersey at first refused to ratify the Constitutional Amendments that banned slavery. New Jersey was a major part of the extensive Underground Railroad system.
John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
(November 13, 1809 – July 12, 1870) was a flag officer of the United States Navy
during the American Civil War
. He headed the Union Navy
department during the American Civil War
and designed several different kinds of guns and cannons that were considered part of the reason the Union
won the war. For these achievements, Dahlgren became known as the "father of American naval ordnance"; the Naval station
in Dahlgren, Virginia
, Dahlgren Hall at the United States Naval Academy
in Annapolis, Maryland
, and several ships
were named for him, as was Dahlgren, Illinois
He joined the United States Navy in 1826 as a midshipman and was promoted to the coastal survey in 1834. By 1847, he was an ordnance officer, and at the Washington Navy Yard began to improve and systematize the procurement and supply system for weapons. Under his command, the Navy established its own foundry, and its first product was the Boat Howitzer, which was designed to be used on both ship and in landings. But it is his cast iron muzzle loading cannon which came to bear his name (the Dahlgren gun) and be his most famous contribution. By 1856, the Dahlgren gun had become the standard armament of the United States Navy. His system of boat howitzers was used by the navy well into the 1890s, with some examples used in ceremonial purposes into the 20th Century. However, fatefully, one of the "dahlgrens" exploded on being tested in 1860, causing Navy regulations to require the use of much lower levels of powder until 1864, well into the Civil War.