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There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union under the House of Stuart since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, Great Britain merged with the Kingdom of Ireland (also previously in personal union with Great Britain) to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After most of Ireland left the union on 6 December 1922, its name was amended on 12 April 1927 to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Royal coat of arms
of the United Kingdom
Royal Arms
The Royal Arms since the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, featuring the arms of England in both the first and fourth quarters, Scotland in the second and Ireland in the third. In Scotland a separate version is used (shown right), whereby the Arms of Scotland take precedence.[1]

Contents

House of Stuart (1707–1714)Edit

Queen Anne had been Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland since 8 March 1702, and so became Queen of Great Britain upon the Union of England and Scotland.

Monarchs before 1707 See List of English monarchs, List of Scottish monarchs, and List of Irish monarchs.
Name
Reign
Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s)
Issue
Death Claim
Anne
1 May 1707

1 August 1714
(7 years, 92 days)
    6 February 1665
St James's Palace

Daughter of James II and VII
and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 pregnancies
no surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
Aged 49
Daughter of James II and VII (cognatic primogeniture / Bill of Rights 1689)

House of Hanover (1714–1901)Edit

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England, which excluded "Papists" (i.e. Roman Catholics) from the succession. In return for access to the English plantations in North America and the West Indies, the Hanoverian succession and the Union were ratified by the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

After the death of Anne with no living children, George Louis, the son of Sophia of Hanover—granddaughter of James I through his daughter Elizabeth—was the closest heir to the throne who was not Catholic.[2]

Name
Reign
Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s)
Issue
Death Claim Ref
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714

11 June 1727
(12 years, 314 days)
    28 May 1660
Leineschloss

Son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
Aged 67
Great-grandson of James VI and I (Act of Settlement / eldest son of Sophia of Hanover) [3]
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727

25 October 1760
(33 years, 136 days)
    30 October 1683
Herrenhausen

Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
22 August 1705
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
Aged 76
Son of George I [4]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760

29 January 1820
(59 years, 96 days)
    4 June 1738
Norfolk House

Son of Frederick, Prince of Wales
and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
Aged 81
Grandson of George II [5]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820

26 June 1830
(10 years, 148 days)
    12 August 1762
St James's Palace

Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
(2) Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
Aged 67
Son of George III [6]
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830

20 June 1837
(6 years, 359 days)
    21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace

Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 children
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
Aged 71
Son of George III [7]
Victoria
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837

22 January 1901

(63 years, 216 days)
    24 May 1819
Kensington Palace

Daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
Aged 81
Granddaughter of George III [8]

Houses of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1901–1917) and Windsor (1917–present)Edit

Due to his father Albert, Prince Consort, being of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward VII inaugurated a new royal house when he succeeded his mother Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover, in 1901. George V changed its name in 1917, during the First World War, because of wartime anti-German sentiment in the country. The house name Windsor has since been used.

Name
Reign
Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s)
Issue
Death Claim Ref
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901

6 May 1910

(9 years, 104 days)
    9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace

Son of Victoria
and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
Aged 68
Son of Victoria [9]
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910

20 January 1936
(25 years, 259 days)
    3 June 1865
Marlborough House

Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
Aged 70
Son of Edward VII [10]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936

11 December 1936 (abdicated)
(326 days)
    23 June 1894
White Lodge

Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
No children
28 May 1972
Neuilly-sur-Seine
Aged 77
Son of George V [11]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936

6 February 1952
(15 years, 57 days)
    14 December 1895
Sandringham House

Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 children
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
Aged 56
Son of George V [12]
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952

present
(65 years, 346 days)
    21 April 1926
Mayfair

Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Living
Age 91
Daughter of George VI [13]

Timeline of British monarchsEdit

Elizabeth IIGeorge VIEdward VIIIGeorge VEdward VIIQueen VictoriaWilliam IV of the United KingdomGeorge IV of the United KingdomGeorge III of the United KingdomGeorge II of Great BritainGeorge I of Great BritainAnne, Queen of Great BritainHouse of WindsorHouse of Saxe-Coburg and GothaHouse of HanoverHouse of Stuart 

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ "Symbols of the Monarchy. Coats of Arms. – The official website of The British Monarchy". Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  2. ^ For a family tree showing King George I's relationship to Queen Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree
  3. ^ "George I". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  4. ^ "George II". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  5. ^ "George III". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  6. ^ "George IV". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  7. ^ "William IV". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  8. ^ "Victoria". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  9. ^ "Edward VII". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  10. ^ "George V". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  11. ^ "Edward VIII". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  12. ^ "George VI". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 27 October 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  13. ^ "Her Majesty The Queen". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 

External linksEdit