House of Oldenburg
The House of Oldenburg is a European dynasty of North German origin and with links to Denmark since the 15th century. It has branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Iceland, Greece, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Schleswig, Holstein, and Oldenburg. The current Queen of Denmark and King of Norway, the former King of Greece, the late consort of the monarch of the United Kingdom, as well as the first 11 persons (and 15 of the first 16) in the line of succession to the British throne, are all patrilineal members of the Glücksburg branch of this house.
|House of Oldenburg|
|Founder||Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg|
|Current head||Christoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein|
Russia:Nicholas II (1894–1917)
Sweden:Charles XIII (1809–18)
Greece:Constantine II (1964–1973)
Oldenburg:Friedrich August II (1900–18)
Saxe-Lauenburg:Christian IX (1863–64)
Schleswig and Holstein:Christian IX (1863–64)
Russia:February Revolution, 1917
Greece:1974 Greek republic referendum, 1974
Oldenburg:German Revolution, 1918
Saxe-Lauenburg:Second Schleswig War, 1864
Schleswig and Holstein:Second Schleswig War, 1864
The dynasty rose to prominence when Count Christian I of Oldenburg was elected as King of Denmark in 1448, of Norway in 1450 and of Sweden in 1457. The house has occupied the Danish throne ever since.
Marriages of medieval counts of Oldenburg had paved the way for their heirs to become kings of various Scandinavian kingdoms. Through marriage with a descendant of King Valdemar I of Sweden and of King Eric IV of Denmark, a claim to Sweden and Denmark was staked, since 1350.
At that time, its competitors were the successors of Margaret I of Denmark. In the 15th century, the Oldenburg heir of that claim married Hedwig of Schauenburg, a descendant of Euphemia of Sweden and Norway and also a descendant of Eric V of Denmark and Abel of Denmark. Since descendants better situated in genealogical charts died out, their son Christian (the abovementioned) became the king of all three kingdoms of the whole Kalmar Union. The House of Mecklenburg was its chief competitor regarding the Northern thrones, and other aspirants included the Duke of Lauenburg. Different Oldenburgine branches have reigned in several countries. The House of Oldenburg was briefly poised to claim the British thrones through the marriage of Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark and Norway; however, due to the early deaths of all their children, the crown passed to the House of Hanover.
- Kings of Denmark (1448–1863)
- Kings of Norway (1450–1814)
- Kings of Sweden (1457–64, 1497–1501 and 1520–21)
- Counts of Oldenburg (1101–1773)
- Dukes of Schleswig and Counts of Holstein (1460–1544)
- Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, ruling only part of the Duchies (1544–1721/1773)
- Dukes of Schleswig (1721–1864, ruling the entire Duchy)
- Dukes of Holstein (1773–1864, ruling the entire Duchy)
- Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, extinct in male line in 1931
- Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein (claimant in 1863, then titular dukes until 1931)
- Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein (titular dukes since 1931)
- Kings and queens of Denmark (since 1863)
- King of Iceland (1918–44)
- Kings of the Hellenes (1863–1924, 1935–73)
- Mountbatten-Windsor line: although Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his children and his sons' children are patrilineally descended from this branch, his male-line descendants bearing the style of "Royal Highness" are de jure members of the House of Windsor, by declaration of the British monarch.
- Kings of Norway (since 1905)
- Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp (1544–1739)
- Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov (commonly still called Romanov)
- Holstein-Gottorp (Swedish line), extinct
- Holstein-Gottorp (Grand ducal line)
- Dukes (later grand dukes) of Oldenburg (1774–1918)
The first Oldenburg king was Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426–1481)
Sweden's most prominent Oldenburg king was Gustav III (1746–1792)
Nicholas II (1868–1918) was the last Emperor of Russia
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Prince of Greece and Denmark (1921-2021)
Charles, Prince of Wales (*1948)
King Harald V of Norway (*1937)
Queen Margrethe II of Denmark (*1940)
Queen Sofía of Spain, Princess of Greece and Denmark (*1938)
- List of rulers of Oldenburg
- List of consorts of Oldenburg
- List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein (contains more information about the partitions of Schleswig and Holstein)
- List of members of the House of Oldenburg (male descendants of the Glücksburg branch)
- Family tree of Oldenburg monarchs of Denmark
- Oldenborg Dynasty Family Tree (in Czech)
- Genealogy of the House of Oldenburg from 1040 to the present day (in German)
- Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, for the minor branches of the House of Oldenburg
- Coat of arms of Oldenburg
- Armorial of the House of Oldenburg (in French)
- Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser, Band XVII, "Oldenburg". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2004, pp. 44-50 (in German). ISBN 9783798008335.
- Burke's Royal Families of the World, p. 60. ISBN 0-85011-023-8.
- Year: 1863; Quantity released: 101,000 coin; Weight: 28.893 gam; Composition: Silver 87.5%; Diameter: 39.5 mm - https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces23580.html
- Royal Styles and Titles – 1960 Letters Patent
- Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser, Band XVI, "Haus Holstein". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2001, pp. 44-50 (in German). ISBN 3-7980-0824-8.