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Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a United States Army major general, physician, and public official. He served as the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Military Governor of Cuba, and Governor General of the Philippines. He began his military career as an army doctor on the frontier, where he received the Medal of Honor. During the Spanish–American War, he commanded the Rough Riders, with Theodore Roosevelt as his second-in-command. Wood was bypassed for a major command in World War I, but then became a prominent Republican Party leader and a leading candidate for the 1920 presidential nomination.

Leonard Wood
Leonard Wood, administrator, soldier, and citizen (1920) (14579077497).jpg
From 1920's Leonard Wood, Administrator, Soldier, and Citizen
Governor-General of the Philippines
In office
October 14, 1921 – August 7, 1927
Preceded byCharles Yeater
Succeeded byEugene A. Gilmore
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
In office
April 22, 1910 – April 21, 1914
Preceded byFranklin Bell
Succeeded byWilliam W. Wotherspoon
Governor of Moro Province
In office
July 25, 1903 – April 16, 1906
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byTasker H. Bliss
Governor-General of Cuba
In office
December 23, 1899 – May 20, 1902
Preceded byJohn R. Brooke
Succeeded byTomás Estrada Palma (President)
Personal details
Born(1860-10-09)October 9, 1860
Winchester, New Hampshire
DiedAugust 7, 1927(1927-08-07) (aged 66)
Boston, Massachusetts
Resting placeArlington National Cemetery
Political partyRepublican
Louise Condit Smith
(m. 1890; his death 1927)
EducationHarvard University (MD)
Military service
AllegianceUnited States
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Years of service1886–1921
RankMajor General
CommandsChief of Staff of the United States Army
Sixth Corps Area
10th Division
89th Division
Southern Department
Department of the East
Philippines Division
1st United States Volunteer Cavalry
Battles/warsApache Wars
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War
World War I
AwardsMedal of Honor
Army Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Honor (Grand Cross) (France)

Born in Winchester, New Hampshire, Wood became an army surgeon after earning a Doctor of Medicine degree from Harvard Medical School. He received the Medal of Honor for his role in the Apache Wars and became the personal physician to the President of the United States. At the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Wood and Roosevelt organized the Rough Riders, a volunteer cavalry regiment. Wood was promoted to the rank of brigadier general during the war and fought in the Battle of San Juan Hill and other engagements. After the war, Wood served as the Military Governor of Cuba, where he instituted improvements to medical and sanitary conditions. President William Howard Taft made Wood the Army Chief of Staff in 1910, and Wood held that position until 1914. Several Republican leaders supported Wood for the role of commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, but the Woodrow Wilson administration selected John J. Pershing.

After Roosevelt's death in 1919, many of Roosevelt's former supporters backed Wood for the presidential nomination at the 1920 Republican National Convention. Wood received the most votes on the first four ballots of the convention, but the Republicans nominated Warren G. Harding for president. Wood retired from the army in 1921 and was appointed Governor General of the Philippines later that year. He held that position until his death in 1927.

Biographer Jack Lane sums up his importance:

Wood played a significant role in shaping many of the United States's major developments in the early twentieth century: progressivism, expansionism and colonialism, military reform, preparedness and American intervention in World War I, and the election of 1920. He was particularly representative of an era that valued moral and physical strength. Although admired by his generation for his honesty, forthrightness, and his intense and vigorous approach to life, he fell short of greatness.[1]

Early life and educationEdit

Wood was born in Winchester, New Hampshire on October 9, 1860, one of three children born to Dr. Charles Jewett Wood (1829–1880) and Caroline E. (Hagar) Wood (1836–1910).[2]:7–8 His family was of English descent, and Wood was descended from four Mayflower passengers including William White, Francis Cooke, Stephen Hopkins and Richard Warren.[3] He served as Governor General of the Mayflower Society from 1915 to 1921.[3]

Wood was raised in Pocasset, Massachusetts and educated by a private tutor, then attended Pierce Academy in Middleborough, Massachusetts.[2]:8 Wood tried unsuccesfully for an appointment to the United States Naval Academy and considered going to sea on an Arctic expedition or as a commercial fisherman.[2]:8–9 In 1880, his sister Barbara died, followed soon after by the death of his father.[2]:8 Wood's mother was able to support herself and Wood's brother Jacob by taking in boarders, while Wood moved away to further his education and obtain a profession.[2]:8–10 With the assistance of a relative, Wood was introduced to wealthy businessman H. H. Hunnewell, a philanthropist who had provided college tuition for other promising young men.[2]:10 Hunnewell agreed to fund Wood's education at Harvard Medical School, and Wood began attending courses in October 1880.[2]:10–11 According to Hunnewell, who considered his financial support to young men attending college loans and not grants, but did not attempt to obtain repayment, Wood was the only beneficiary who ever attempted to pay him back.[2]:10 Wood worked diligently and consistently improved his class standing to the point where he earned a scholarship that provided additional financial support for his studies.[2]:12–13

In 1884, Wood received his MD degree.[4] He interned at Boston City Hospital, but was fired near the end of the year for exceeding his authority by conducting surgical procedures without supervision.[2]:14–15 He then took over the struggling Boston office of a classmate who had been hired by the Southern Pacific Railway.[2]:15 Wood practiced medicine in late 1884 and into the following year, but business was not steady and he did not have a reliable income.[2]:15–16 In 1885, he completed the examinations for a commission in the Army Medical Corps, attracted to the military by the possibilities for immediate employment and a regular salary.[2]:15–16 He finished second of 59 applicants, but there was only one vacancy, so Wood was not immediately offered a commission.[2]:16


Start of careerEdit

In June 1885, Wood was contracted by the U.S. Army to act as an assistant surgeon without rank, and he was posted to the Department of Arizona.[5] In January 1886, Wood was nominated by the president for appointment in the U.S. Army as assistant surgeon with the rank of first lieutenant.[6] His appointment was among several that were not immediately confirmed by the United States Senate,[7] so he continued as a contract surgeon and was stationed with the 4th Cavalry at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Wood participated in the last campaign against Geronimo in the summer of 1886.[2]:27

Medal of Honor actionEdit

In 1898, Wood was awarded the Medal of Honor for his 1886 actions during the Geronimo campaign, including carrying dispatches 100 miles through hostile territory and commanding a detachment of the 8th Infantry Tegiment whose officers had been killed in hand-to-hand combat against the Apache.[2]:31–32 Nelson A. Miles, the overall commander of the expedition, and Henry Ware Lawton, Wood's commander in the field, recommended Wood for a brevet promotion or a Medal of Honor and lobbied persistently for 12 years until the medal was approved.[2]:45 [8]:31–36

Citation for Medal of Honor
The President of the United States of America, in the name of Congress, takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor to Assistant Surgeon Leonard Wood, United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in the Summer of 1886, in action in the Apache Campaigns in Arizona Territory. Assistant Surgeon Wood voluntarily carried dispatches through a region infested with hostile Indians, making a journey of 70 miles in one night and walking 30 miles the next day. Also for several weeks, while in close pursuit of Geronimo's band and constantly expecting an encounter, commanded a detachment of Infantry, which was then without an officer, and to the command of which he was assigned upon his own request.

Awarded for Actions During: Indian Campaigns Service: Army Unit: 4th U.S. Cavalry Date of Issue: April 8, 1898[9][a]

Early military careerEdit

In late July 1886, Wood's appointment was confirmed and he received his commission as a first lieutenant.[7] In February 1887, he was appointed acting captain and temporary medical director of the Department of Arizona during the illness of his superior.[16][17] At the end of 1887, Wood's medical duties took him to Fort Lowell, Arizona Territory, followed by duty at Fort Selden, Fort Stanton, and Fort Wingate, New Mexico.[18] In 1888, Wood was assigned to surgeon's duties at Fort McDowell, Arizona.[19] In 1889, Wood was reassigned to the Presidio of San Francisco.[20]

Wood was promoted to captain in 1891.[8]:29 In 1892, he was part of a contingent of Presidio soldiers that traveled to Benicia Barracks to assist units of the California National Guard during the conduct of their annual training encampment.[21] While at Fort McPherson in Atlanta in 1893, Wood enrolled in graduate school at Georgia Tech, then known as the Georgia School of Technology, and organized the school's 1893 football team.[22] Wood was the team's coach and played left guard, leading Georgia Tech to a 2–1–1 record, including a 28–6 victory over the University of Georgia.[23]

Spanish–American WarEdit

Wood was personal physician to Presidents Grover Cleveland and William McKinley through 1898.[24] During his White House service, Wood developed a friendship with Theodore Roosevelt, then Assistant Secretary of the Navy.[24] At the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Wood and Roosevelt organized the 1st Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, popularly known as the Rough Riders.[24] Wood successfully commanded the regiment during the Battle of Las Guasimas.[25] When the brigade commander, Samuel B. M. Young, became ill, Wood received a field promotion to brigadier general of volunteers.[2]:93–105 He assumed command of 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, Fifth Army Corps (which included the Rough Riders) and led the brigade to a famous victory at Kettle Hill and San Juan Heights.[2]:93–105

General Joe Wheeler with the command group of the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment—Col Wood is 2nd from right with Lt Col Roosevelt far right.

After San Juan, Wood led the 2nd Cavalry Brigade for the rest of the war.[26] He stayed in Cuba afterward and was appointed military governor of Santiago later in 1898, then served as governor of Cuba from 1899 to 1901.[26] In that capacity, he relied on his medical experience to institute improvements to the medical and sanitary conditions.[26] He introduced numerous reforms similar to those of the Progressive Movement in the U.S.[1] He was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army shortly before moving to his next assignment.[8]:29

He visited the United Kingdom in late 1902, including a visit to the Military College at Sandhurst.[27]

Philippine–American WarEdit

Leonard Wood and son Osborne C. Wood, circa 1920.

In 1903, he proceeded to the Philippines, where he served as governor of Moro Province until 1906, then commanded the Philippine Division from 1906 to 1908.[28] He was promoted to major general in 1903 despite significant opposition,[29] He received criticism for his handling of the 1906 First Battle of Bud Dajo, where hundreds of women and children were killed.[26]

Army Chief of StaffEdit

John Singer Sargent, Leonard Wood, Maverick in the Making, 1903, National Portrait Gallery

Wood was named Army Chief of Staff in 1910 by President William Howard Taft, whom he had met while both were in the Philippines; he remains the only medical officer to have ever held that position.[30] As Chief of Staff, Wood implemented several programs, among which were the forerunner of the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program, and the Preparedness Movement, a campaign for universal military training and wartime conscription.[31] The Preparedness Movement led to implementation of the Selective Service System shortly before World War I.[31] As chief of staff, Wood reorganized the general staff into three divisions - Mobile Army, Coast Artillery, and War College - each headed by an assistant chief of staff.[32] The result was more streamlined planning and decision making, which facilitated operations and training as the army began to prepare for U.S. entry into the war.[32]

Post-Chief of StaffEdit

Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood in later years

In 1914, Wood completed his term as chief of staff and was succeeded by William Wotherspoon.[33] As commander of the army's Eastern Department, Wood was a strong advocate of the Preparedness Movement, led by Republicans, which alienated him from the isolationist and pacifist President Wilson.[34] Wood made speeches and wrote articles to advocate preparedness and in 1915 a collection of these works were published as a pro-preparedness book, The Military Obligation of Citizenship.[35] He served as a member of Harvard University's board of overseers from 1917 to 1923.[4]

World War IEdit

With the U.S. entry into World War I in April 1917, the most likely choice to lead American forces in France was Major General Frederick Funston.[36] Funston died of a heart attack in February 1917, leaving President Woodrow Wilson to choose from among the Army's six other major generals.[36] Wood was recommended by several prominent Republicans, including Henry Cabot Lodge.[36] Despite this support, Wood's prior criticism of the Wilson administration led Secretary of War Newton Baker to recommend John J. Pershing, the most junior of the serving major generals and a Republican, but one who had been less vocal than Wood.[36] During the war Wood was relegated to stateside roles, including command of the Southern Department in 1917.[28] He then commanded the 89th and 10th Divisions, which he organized and trained at Camp Funston, Kansas.[15]:371 While on an inspection tour of the Western Front in January 1918, Wood was slightly injured by shrapnel from a US mortar round that exploded during a test.[15]:371 Wood received the Army Distinguished Service Medal and the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor from France to recognize his superior service during the war.[37] After the war, Wood was appointed to command the Sixth Corps Area, which he led from 1919 to 1921.[28]

Republican politicsEdit

After having considered a candidacy in 1916, in 1920 Wood was a serious contender for the Republican nomination.[38] The major candidates were Senator Hiram Johnson of California, a progressive who opposed U.S. involvement in the League of Nations; Governor Frank Orren Lowden of Illinois, who supported women's suffrage and Prohibition, and opposed U.S. entry into the League of Nations; and Wood, whose military career made him the personification of competence and ties to Theodore Roosevelt earned him the backing of many of Roosevelt's former supporters, including William Cooper Procter.[38] Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio was a dark horse candidate, running as a favorite son in order to maintain his hold on Ohio's Republican Party and secure his reelection to the Senate.[38] At the convention, Wood led on the first four ballots, was second on the fifth, tied with Lowden on the sixth, and led again on the seventh.[38] With none of the three front runners able to obtain a majority, support for Harding started to grow and he won the nomination on the tenth ballot.[38] Delegates nominated Calvin Coolidge for vice president, and the Harding-Coolidge ticket went on to win the general election.[38]

Governor General of the PhilippinesEdit

Wood retired from the U.S. Army in 1921, after which he was chosen to serve as provost of the University of Pennsylvania.[39] The college granted him a leave of absence before he assumed the position, enabling him to carry out a one-year appointment as appointed as Governor General of the Philippines.[40] In 1922 he decided to remain in the Philippines, so he resigned the provost's position.[39]

His tenure was characterized by marked tension between him and key Filipino officials.[41] In his first year, Wood vetoed 16 measures passed by the Philippine Legislature, an act denounced by critics as a "misuse of the veto power," citing that his predecessor, Francis Burton Harrison, only vetoed 5 measures.[42]

The tension became more heightened by 1923, precipitated by the issue regarding Wood's interference in the case of Ray Conley, a Manila Police detective who was accused of immorality and misconduct in office.[41] Interior Secretary Jose P. Laurel sought Conley's removal from service due to probable cause but Wood ordered Laurel to reinstate Conley to the police force.[41] In protest, Laurel tendered his resignation.[43] The Filipino members of the Wood cabinet, including the Council of State, tendered their resignations as well in support of Laurel and in protest of Wood's handling of government affairs in the country. These events, the "Cabinet Crisis of 1923," strained relations between the U.S. colonial government under Wood and the Filipino leaders which lasted until his death in 1927.[41]

Later life and deathEdit

Wood died in Boston on August 7, 1927 after undergoing surgery for a recurrent brain tumor.[15]:371 He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[44]

Wood had initially been diagnosed in 1910 with a benign meningioma, which was successfully resected by Harvey Cushing.[45] Wood made a full recovery, but the tumor later recurred.[45] The successful removal of Wood's first brain tumor represented an important milestone, indicating to the public the advances that had been made in the nascent field of neurosurgery, and extending Wood's life by almost two decades.[46] His brain is held at the Yale University School of Medicine as part of an historic collection of Harvey Cushing's patients' preserved brains.[45]


Louise Adriana Condit Smith Wood (1918)

Wood was serving in Monterey, California in 1888 when he met Louise Adriana Condit Smith (1869–1943), who was vacationing with her uncle and legal guardian, Supreme Court Justice Stephen Johnson Field.[25]:19 They married in Washington, DC on November 18, 1890 with the entire Supreme Court in attendance.[2]:7–10 [47] The Woods were the parents of three children, Leonard, Jr., Osborne, and Luisita (Louise).[48]

Leonard Wood Jr. (1892-1931) was a Cornell University graduate who attained the rank of captain while serving in the Army during World War I, but was plagued by financial difficulties and ill health afterwards.[49]

Osborne Cutler Wood (1897-1950) left Harvard University to serve in World War I, and attained the rank of lieutenant colonel after the war.[50] After leaving the Army he relocated to New Mexico, where he was commissioned as a brigadier general and appointed as adjutant general of the New Mexico National Guard.[50]

Louise Barbara Wood (1900-1960) served with Anne Morgan's American Friends in France relief organization during World War I.[51] Louise Wood took an interest in preserving her father's legacy.[52] In 1952, she attended the opening of a park in Cuba which included a plaque commemorating her father's Spanish-American War service and the shack in which Walter Reed conducted the research that proved mosquitoes are the cause of malaria.[52]


In 1925 Mrs. Dorothy Wade, wife of the head doctor of the Culion leper colony and fundraiser Perry Burgess created a charitable committee that after Wood's death became the Leonard Wood Memorial for the Eradication of Leprosy.[53] The Wood Memorial supported leper colonies in Culion and Cebu, held the first international conference on leprosy in Manila in 1931, and helped support the International Leprosy Foundation.[53] A statue of Wood was erected at Culion in 1931.[54]

Camp Leonard Wood in Missouri, now Fort Leonard Wood, was named in his honor when it was created in 1940.[55]

One of the U.S. Navy's World War II-era Harris-class attack transports, the USS Leonard Wood (APA-12), was named for Wood.[56]

Numerous streets are named after Wood, including roads in Baguio City and Zamboanga City, Philippines.[39] An elementary school in Mandaue, Philippines (inside the Eversley Childs Sanitarium compound) was also named after him.[57]

Wood was a Freemason; Leonard Wood Lodge No. 105 under the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippines was named in his honor.[58]

In popular cultureEdit


Dates of rankEdit

Insignia Rank Date Component
  Assistant surgeon 5 January 1886 Regular Army
  Surgeon 5 January 1891 Regular Army
  Colonel 8 May 1898 Volunteers
  Brigadier general 8 July 1898 Volunteers
  Major general 7 December 1898 Volunteers
  Brigadier general 13 April 1899 Volunteers
  Major general 5 December 1899 Volunteers
  Brigadier general 1 June 1901
(Reverted to permanent rank with date of rank 4 February 1901.)
Regular Army
  Major general 8 August 1903 Regular Army
  Major general October 15, 1921 Retired list

Head coaching recordEdit

Year Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl/playoffs
Georgia Tech (Independent) (1893)
1893 Georgia Tech 2–1–1
Georgia Tech: 2–1–1
Total: 2–1–1

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ In 1916, James Hay, a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, included in military legislation a provision that attempted to revoke Wood's Medal of Honor, arguing that he was ineligible as a contract surgeon at the time of the actions for which he received the medal.[10] With Wood a possible Republican presidential candidate in 1916, the attempt to revoke his award was seen by Wood's supporters as retaliation by Hay for former Secretary of War Lindley Miller Garrison's refusal to remove the Wood as Chief of Staff of the Army at the start of Democrat Woodrow Wilson's presidential administration.[10] The bill's supporters argued they were responding to lobbying by the Medal of Honor Legion and other interested parties that advocated revoking many Medals of Honor they believed had been improperly awarded.[11] Wood was arguably eligibile based on records showing that when he received his commission as a first lieutenant in July 1886, its effective date was January 1, 1886, before the period of the actions for which he received the award.[7][8]:32 [12] The countering view rested on an Adjutant General of the Army opinion that civilians were ineligible and at the time of his cited action, Wood was a civilian, so his award was not lawful.[13] The Judge Advocate General of the Army had also previously ruled that "a medal of honor could not legally . . . be awarded to a person for alleged distinguished service rendered while serving in the field as an acting assistant surgeon."[13][14] In addition, Wood had received his award for distinguished service under arduous conditions, but not heroism while in actual combat, which was a requirement for eligibility.[2]:46 A panel headed by Nelson Miles, who had originally recommended Wood for the Medal of Honor, reviewed the disputed awards, including Wood's.[13] In keeping with the Adjutant General and Judge Advocate General opinions, Wood's Medal of Honor could have been rescinded, as the Miles board did for 911 others, including Dr. Mary Edwards Walker and "Buffalo Bill" Cody.[15] Instead, the panel recommended that Wood retain his award, which one historian has called a "a clear conflict of interest" on Miles' part.[13]


  1. ^ a b Lane, Jack C. (2000). "Biography: Wood, Leonard". American National Biography. New York, NY: Oxford University OPress. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u McCallum, Jack (2006). Leonard Wood: Rough Rider, Surgeon, Architect of American Imperialism. New York, NY: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-5699-7 – via Google Books.
  3. ^ a b "Notable Descendants". The Mayflower Plymouth, MA: Greater Society of Mayflower Desendants. 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Historical Register of Harvard University, 1636-1936. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. 1937. p. 471.
  5. ^ "The Army: Leonard Wood". Leavenworth Times. Leavenworth, KS. June 26, 1885. p. 4 – via
  6. ^ "Nominations: The President sent the following nominations to the Senate today". National Republican. Washington, DC. January 26, 1886. p. 3 – via
  7. ^ a b c "Long-Pending Promotions Confirmed". The Critic. Washington, DC. July 28, 1886. p. 1 – via
  8. ^ a b c d U.S. Senate Committee on Military Affairs (1904). Nomination of Brig. Gen. Leonard Wood to be a Major-General, United States Army. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
  9. ^ "Medal of Honor Citation, Leonard Wood". Hall of Valor Project. Springfield, VA: Military Times. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Army Bill Joker Aims to Rob Wood of Honor Medal". The New York Times. New York, NY. May 20, 1916. p. 1 – via
  11. ^ Pullen, John J. (2017). A Shower of Stars: The Medal of Honor and the 27th Maine. Lanham, MD: Stackpole Books. pp. 153–155. ISBN 978-0-8117-6635-7.
  12. ^ Woodbury, Frank, ed. (August 21, 1886). "Appointments: To Be Assistant Surgeons, with the Rank of First-Lieutenant". The Medical Times and Register. Vol. 16. Philadelphia, PA: The Medical Publishing Company. p. 876 – via HathiTrust.
  13. ^ a b c d Mears, Dwight S. (2018). "The Army Rewrites Its Award History". The Medal of Honor: The Evolution of America's Highest Military Decoration. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. p. 58. ISBN 9780700626656. JSTOR j.ctv5j021d.8. OCLC 1032014828.
  14. ^ United States House of Representatives (1915). House Reports (Public). 1. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 86.
  15. ^ a b c d Willbanks, James H. (2011). America's Heroes: Medal of Honor Recipients from the Civil War to Afghanistan. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-5988-4394-1 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ "Gen. Miles Latest Batch of Army Orders". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA. February 17, 1887. p. 2 – via
  17. ^ "The Army and Navy". The Critic. Washington, DC. March 1, 1887. p. 2 – via
  18. ^ "Fort Leavenworth News: Leonard Wood". Leavenworth Times. Leavenworth, KS. November 15, 1887. p. 1 – via
  19. ^ "Army Notes: Leonard Wood". Leavenworth, KS. August 8, 1888. p. 1 – via
  20. ^ "Army Orders: Leonard Wood". Garden City Daily Herald. Garden City, KS. June 19, 1889. p. 4 – via
  21. ^ "Military Notes". The San Francisco Call. San Francisco, CA. August 5, 1892. p. 5 – via
  22. ^ Norris, Steven (May 26, 2016). "Remembering Georgia Tech's Heroes". Georgia Tech News. Atlanta, GA.
  23. ^ Byrd, Joseph (Spring 1992). "From Civil War Battlefields to the Moon: Leonard Wood". Tech Topics. Georgia Tech Alumni Association. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2007-03-12.
  24. ^ a b c Wall, James T. (2008). Wall Street and the Fruited Plain: Money, Expansion, and Politics in the Gilded Age. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-7618-4124-1 – via Google Books.
  25. ^ a b Lane, Jack C. (2009). Armed Progressive: General Leonard Wood. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-8032-2658-6.
  26. ^ a b c d Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO. p. 578. ISBN 978-1-8510-9951-1 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ "Naval & Military Intelligence: Gen. Leonard Wood". The Times. London, England. November 1, 1902. p. 9 – via
  28. ^ a b c Bell, William Gardner (1999). Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff, 1775-1995. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-16-049769-8 – via Google Books.
  29. ^ Evidence in Wood Case: Major Runcie Tells of Magazine Article Attacking General Brooke, published November 28, 1903, in the Daily Star (via Google News)
  30. ^ Cox, Hank H. (2018). The General Who Wore Six Stars: The Inside Story of John C. H. Lee. Lincoln, NE: Potomac Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-6123-4963-3 – via Google Books.
  31. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer (2006). World War I: A Student Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO. p. 1661. ISBN 978-1-8510-9879-8.
  32. ^ a b Venzon, Anne Cipriano (1995). The United States in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Garland Publishing, Inc. p. 702. ISBN 978-0-8240-7055-7.
  33. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer; Arnold, James R.; Wiener, Roberta, eds. (2011). The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO. p. 881. ISBN 978-1-8510-9697-8 – via Google Books.
  34. ^ Weiss, Elaine F. (2008). Fruits of Victory: The Woman's Land Army of America in the Great War. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-6123-4399-0 – via Google Books.
  35. ^ Clifford, John Garry (2015). The Citizen Soldiers: The Plattsburg Training Camp Movement, 1913-1920. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8131-5443-5 – via Google Books.
  36. ^ a b c d Peck, Garrett (2018). The Great War in America: World War I and Its Aftermath. New York, NY: Pegasus Books. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-1-6817-7944-7 – via Google Books.
  37. ^ a b c d e f "Leonard Wood, Loyal Son of America". The Outlook. Vol. 146. New York, NY: Outlook Publishing Company. 1927. p. 140 – via Google Books.
  38. ^ a b c d e f Morello, John A. (2001). Selling the President, 1920. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 38–43. ISBN 978-0-2759-7030-7 – via Google Books.
  39. ^ a b c Ocampo, Ambeth R. (January 17, 2014). "A brain preserved in Yale". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Makati, Philippines.
  40. ^ Jones, O. Garfield (September 28, 1921). "What Wood and Forbes Have Done In The Philippines". The Outlook. 129: 133–135. Retrieved 2009-07-30. Also see Robb, Walter (November 30, 1921). "Wood Facing His Task". The Outlook. 129: 512–513. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  41. ^ a b c d Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Quezon City, Philippines: Rex Printing Company, Inc. p. 185. ISBN 978-9-7123-3934-9 – via Google Books.
  42. ^ Onorato, Michael (2005). "Leonard Wood: His First Year as Governor-General" (PDF). Asian Studies. 41 (2): 57.
  43. ^ Cruz, Isagani (May 12, 2000). "The Cabinet Crisis of 1923". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  44. ^ Parzych, Cynthia (2015). Historical Tours: Arlington National Cemetery. Guilford, CT: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-4930-1750-8 – via Google Books.
  45. ^ a b c Dodson, Helen (September 16, 2010). "Brain collection commemorates physician's contributions, kindness". YaleNews. New Haven, CT.
  46. ^ Lee, Joung H. (2009). Meningiomas: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome. Springer. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84882-910-7.
  47. ^ Wood, Eric Fisher (1920). Leonard Wood, Conservator of Americanism. New York, NY: George H. Doran Company. p. 22 – via Internet Archive.
  48. ^ "Greatest Ambitions Thwarted". Lincoln Star. Lincoln, NE. International News Service. August 7, 1927. p. 2 – via
  49. ^ "Leonard Wood Dies Penniless". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA. Associated Press. August 28, 1931. p. 2 – via
  50. ^ a b "Osborne C. Wood, Ex-Guard Chief, Dies In San Diego". Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, NM. Associated Press. February 1, 1950. p. 14 – via
  51. ^ "Death Notice, Miss Louise B. Wood". The Evening Sun. Baltimore, MD. Associated Press. November 28, 1960. p. 4 – via
  52. ^ a b "Leonard Wood Daughter to See Cuba Open Park". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, IL. Reuters. December 4, 1952. p. Part 3, Page 10 – via
  53. ^ a b "Biography, Perry Burgess". History of Leprosy. Tokyo, Japan: International Leprosy Association and Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation. 2000. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  54. ^ Dimen, Yoshke (2013). "Culion, Palawan: To the 'Island of No Return' and Back". The Poor Manila, Philippines: WanderGeneration, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  55. ^ Cayton, Andrew R. L.; Sisson, Richard; Zacher, Chris, eds. (2007). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 1800. ISBN 978-0-2530-0349-2.
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Additional sourcesEdit

  • Bacevich, A. J. Diplomat in Khaki: Major General Frank Ross McCoy and American Foreign Policy, 1898–1949 (1989), biography of Wood's principal aide.
  • Eisenhower, John S.D. Teddy Roosevelt and Leonard Wood: Partners in Command (University of Missouri Press, 2014).
  • Hagedorn, Hermann, Leonard Wood, a Biography (2 vols., 1931), detailed authorized biography
  • Pruitt II, James Herman. "Leonard Wood and the American Empire" (PhD dissertation Texas A&M University, 2011); online; bibliography on pp 296–315.

External linksEdit