1690 (MDCXC) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1690th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 690th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1690, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2443|
|Balinese saka calendar||1611–1612|
|English Regnal year||2 Will. & Mar. – 3 Will. & Mar.|
|Chinese calendar||己巳年 (Earth Snake)|
4386 or 4326
— to —
庚午年 (Metal Horse)
4387 or 4327
|- Vikram Samvat||1746–1747|
|- Shaka Samvat||1611–1612|
|- Kali Yuga||4790–4791|
|Japanese calendar||Genroku 3|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||222 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2232–2233|
1816 or 1435 or 663
— to —
1817 or 1436 or 664
- January 6 – Joseph, son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of the Romans.
- January 7 – The first recorded full peal is rung, at St Sepulchre-without-Newgate in the City of London, marking a new era in change ringing.
- January 14 – The clarinet is said to have been invented in Nuremberg, Germany.
- February 3 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony issues the first paper money in North America.
- May 20 – England passes the Act of Grace, forgiving followers of the deposed James II.
- June 14 – King William III of England (William of Orange) lands in Ireland, to confront James II.
- June 8 – Siddi general Yadi Sakat razes the Mazagon Fort in Mumbai.
- July 10 – Battle of Beachy Head (also known as the Battle of Bévéziers): The Anglo-Dutch navy is defeated by the French, giving rise to fears of a Jacobite invasion of England.
- July 11 – Battle of the Boyne, north of Dublin: King William III of England (William of Orange) defeats the deposed James II, who returns to exile in France. The rebellion in Ireland continues for a further year until the Orange army gains full control.
- July 26 – A French landing party raids and burns Teignmouth in Devon, England. However, with the loss of James II's position in Ireland, any plans for a real invasion are soon shelved, and Teignmouth is the last French attack on England.
- August 24 – In India, the fort and trading settlement of Sutanuti (which later becomes Calcutta) is founded on the Hooghly River by the English East India Company, following the signing of an Anglo-Moghul treaty.
- September 25 – The only issue of Publick Occurrences is published in Boston, Massachusetts, before being suppressed by the colonial authorities.
- October 6–12 – Massachusetts Puritans, led by Sir William Phips, besiege the city of Quebec; the siege ends in failure.
- October 8 – Great Turkish War: The Ottomans recapture Belgrade.
- November 17 – Barclays is founded in London, England.
- December – The planet Uranus is first sighted and recorded, by John Flamsteed, who mistakenly catalogues it as the star 34 Tauri.
- December 29 – An earthquake hits Ancona, in the Papal States of Italy.
- Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III Carnojevic leads the first of the two Great Serbian Migrations into the Habsburg Empire, following Ottoman atrocities in Kosovo.
- The Hearth Tax is abolished in Scotland, one year after its abolition in England and Wales.
- French physicist Denis Papin, while in Leipzig and having observed the mechanical power of atmospheric pressure on his 'digester', builds a working model of a reciprocating steam engine for pumping water, the first of its kind, though not efficient.
- Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiter's atmosphere.
- The Barrage Vauban, a defensive work in the city of Strasbourg (in present-day France), is completed.
- Possible year of the disappearance of the western part of the island of Buise, in St. Peter's Flood.
- January 22 – Nicolas Lancret, French painter (d. 1743)
- February 1 – Francesco Maria Veracini, Italian composer (d. 1768)
- February 3 – Richard Rawlinson, English minister, antiquarian (d. 1755)
- February 17 – Samuel Phillips (reverend), colonial American minister, 1st Pastor of the South Church in Andover (d. 1771)
- March 18 – Christian Goldbach, Prussian mathematician (d. 1764)
- April 22 – John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, English statesman (d. 1763)
- September 12 – Peter Dens, Belgian Catholic theologian (d. 1775)
- October 28 – Peder Tordenskjold, Norwegian naval hero (d. 1720)
- October 29 – Martin Folkes, English antiquarian (d. 1754)
- November 24 – Charles Theodore Pachelbel, German composer (d. 1750)
- November 29 – Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst, father of Catherine II of Russia (d. 1747)
- December 1 – Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke, Lord Chancellor of England (d. 1764)
- December 22 – Meidingu Pamheiba, King of Manipur (d. 1751)
- date unknown – Thomas Carter, Irish politician (d. 1763)
- January 3 – Hillel ben Naphtali Zevi, Lithuanian rabbi (b. 1615)
- February 6 – Jan van Buken, Flemish painter (b. 1635)
- February 7 – Sir William Morice, 1st Baronet, English royalist statesman (b. c. 1628)
- February 9 – John Louis, Count of Nassau-Ottweiler (b. 1625)
- February 22 – Charles Le Brun, French artist (b. 1619)
- February 23 – Elizabeth Walker, English pharmacist (b. 1623)
- March 18 – Sir William Portman, 6th Baronet, English politician (b. 1643)
- April 16 – Gesina ter Borch, Dutch Golden Age painter (b. 1633)
- April 18 – Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, Austrian-born general of the Holy Roman Empire (b. 1643)
- April 20 – Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria (b. 1660)
- April 21 – Jacob de Graeff, member of the De Graeff-family from the Dutch Golden Age (b. 1642)
- April 25 – David Teniers the Younger, Flemish artist (b. 1610)
- April 28 – Étienne Le Hongre, French sculptor (b. 1628)
- May 9
- May 21 – John Eliot, English Puritan missionary (b. 1604)
- May 26 – Samuel Lincoln, American colonial ancestor of Abraham Lincoln (b. 1622)
- May 27 – Giovanni Legrenzi, Italian composer (b. 1626)
- July 1
- July 21
- August 10 – Johannes Spilberg, Dutch painter (b. 1619)
- August 20 – Alexander von Bournonville, Flemish noble and general (b. 1616)
- September 2 – Philip William, Elector Palatine, German-born ruler (b. 1615)
- September 5 – Gottfried Welsch, German physician (b. 1618)
- October 3 – Robert Barclay, Scottish writer (b. c. 1648)
- October 7 – Jacques Savary, successful French merchant (b. 1622)
- October 9 – Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (b. 1663)
- October 15 – Juan de Valdés Leal, Spanish painter and etcher (b. 1622)
- October 17 – Margaret Mary Alacoque, French mystic (b. 1647)
- October 20 – Sir Henry Felton, 2nd Baronet, English Member of Parliament (b. 1619)
- October 23
- October 25 – Cornelius Hazart, Dutch Jesuit priest, polemical author (b. 1617)
- October 30 – Hieronymus van Beverningh, Dutch diplomat and politician (b. 1614)
- November 3 – Nicholas Delves, English politician (b. 1618)
- November 17 – Charles de Sainte-Maure, duc de Montausier, French soldier (b. 1610)
- December 16 – Louise Elisabeth of Courland, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg (b. 1646)
- Rice, Albert R. (1992). The Baroque Clarinet. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 17, 40–42. ISBN 0198161883.
- (the battle took place on June 30, according to the "old style" Julian calendar in use at this time by the English)
- (the battle took place on July 1, according to the "old style" Julian calendar in use at this time by the English. This is equivalent to 11 July in the "new style" Gregorian calendar, although today it is commemorated on July 12).
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 285. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- "Parades and Marches - Chronology 2: Historical Dates and Events". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved January 28, 2010.
- Yves Barde (2006). Vauban: ingénieur et homme de guerre (in French). Éd. de l'Armançon. p. 91. ISBN 978-2-84479-085-9.