The 1710s decade ran from January 1, 1710 to December 31, 1719.
- January 1 – In Germany, Cölln is merged with Alt-Berlin by Frederick I of Prussia to form Berlin.
- January 4 – Robert Balfour, 5th Lord Balfour of Burleigh, two days before he is due to be executed for murder, escapes from the Edinburgh Tolbooth by exchanging clothes with his sister.
- February 17 – Mauritius, a Dutch colony since 1638, is abandoned by the Dutch.
- February 28 (Swedish calendar) – Battle of Helsingborg: Fourteen thousand Danish invaders, under Jørgen Rantzau, are decisively defeated by an equally large Swedish army, under Magnus Stenbock.
- March 1 – The Sacheverell riots start in London with an attack on an elegant Presbyterian meeting-house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, followed by riots through the West End of London.
- March 6 – The ancient Roman Pillar of the Boatmen is found during the construction of a crypt under the nave of Notre-Dame de Paris.
- April 5 – Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine, is elected as the Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host and immediately issues the Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host.
- April 10 – The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of Anne, becomes effective.
- April 19 – Anne, Queen of Great Britain, meets the Four Mohawk Kings.
- May 6 – The South Sea Company begins.
- June – Protestant Swiss and German Palatines, under the leadership of Christoph von Graffenried, travel to Bath County in the Province of Carolina. The settlers displace the native town of Chattoka and found New Bern, named for von Graffenried's hometown of Bern, Switzerland.
- June 8 – The Tuscarora nation sends a petition to the Province of Pennsylvania, protesting the seizure of their lands and enslavement of their people, by citizens of the Province of Carolina.
- June 16 – Köprülüzade Numan Pasha becomes the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
- June 24 – In the Isle of Man, Manx coins become legal tender.
- July 27 – The Battle of Almenar takes place in the Iberian theatre of the War of the Spanish Succession.
- August 2 – British Royal Navy 90-gun ship HMS Vanguard is relaunched from Chatham; Vanguard sank in Chatham Dockyard in the Great Storm of 1703, but was raised in 1704 for rebuilding.
- August 20 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Saragossa: The Spanish-Bourbon army, commanded by the Marquis de Bay, is soundly defeated by the forces of the Habsburg Monarchy, under Guido Starhemberg and their allies.
- August 24 – Total eclipse of the sun is visible at .
- September 7 – In Jonathan Swift's satirical Gulliver's Travels, fictional Gulliver sets off on his fourth and final journey, a voyage to the Land of the Houyhnhnms.
- September 26 – Great Northern War – Capitulation of Livonia: the Swedish garrison in Riga surrenders, ending Swedish rule in modern Latvia.
- October – The start of the Mascate War (aka the War of the Peddlers) between two rival mercantile groups the Zillioto family and the Astrid family in colonial Brazil.
- October 4 – Great Northern War – the Battle of Køge Bay between Denmark and Norway has an indecisive outcome.
- October 5 – October 13 British forces under Francis Nicholson conduct the successful Siege of Port Royal against a French Acadian garrison and the Wabanaki Confederacy at the Acadian capital, Port Royal, marking the start of British control of what became Nova Scotia.
- October 10 – Great Northern War – Capitulation of Estonia: the Swedish garrison in Reval (Tallinn) surrenders, ending Swedish rule in Estonia.
- October 11 – The Battle of Rahon is fought between Sikhs and Mughal Empire.
- October 13 – Queen Anne's War – Siege of Port Royal: The French surrender, giving the British permanent possession of Nova Scotia.
- November 30 – The first visit to the Pacific islands of Palau is made by a Jesuit expedition led by Francisco Padilla; unfortunately, the ship is driven to Mindanao by a storm, leaving two priests stranded.
- December 8 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Brihuega: An outnumbered British force under James Stanhope is forced to surrender.
- December 10 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Villaviciosa: The indecisive battle between retreating Austrian-Dutch forces and a Franco-Spanish army is fought out.
- December 10 – The Battle of Lohgarh takes place between Sikh forces and the Mughal army.
- In Sweden, the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala is founded as the Collegium curiosorum.
- Explorer Juan Arias Diaz becomes the first non-Incan visitor to Choquequirao, an Inca site in Peru.
- John Smithwick begins brewing Smithwick's ale at Kilkenny, Ireland (St. Francis Abbey Brewery).
- Alexis Littré, in his treatise Diverses observations anatomiques,Littre, A (1710). "Diverses observations anatomiques". Hist Acad Roy Sci. 17: 30–31. is the first physician to suggest the possibility of performing a lumbar colostomy for an obstruction of the colon.
- Beijing becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Istanbul.
- Jacob Christoph Le Blon, working in Amsterdam, invents a three-color printing process with red, blue, and yellow plates, a precursor of the modern CMYK printing process.
- January – Cary's Rebellion: The Lords Proprietor appoint Edward Hyde to replace Thomas Cary, as the governor of the North Carolina portion of the Province of Carolina. Hyde's policies are deemed hostile to Quaker interests, leading former governor Cary and his Quaker allies to take up arms against the province.
- January 24 – The first performance of Francesco Gasparini's most famous opera Tamerlano takes place at the Teatro San Cassiano in Venice.
- February – French settlers at Fort Louis de la Mobile celebrate Mardi Gras in Mobile (Alabama), by parading a large papier-mache ox head on a cart (the first Mardi Gras parade in America).
- February 3 – Total lunar eclipse at 12:31 UT.
- February 24
- Thomas Cary, after declaring himself Governor of North Carolina, sails an armed brigantine up the Chowan River, to attack Governor Hyde's forces fortified at Colonel Thomas Pollock's plantation. The attack fails, and Cary's forces retreat.
- Premiere of Rinaldo by George Frideric Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage, at the Queen's Theatre, Haymarket..
- March 1 – The Spectator is founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in London.
- April 3 – Clipperton Island is rediscovered by Frenchmen Martin de Chassiron and Michel Du Bocage, who draw up the first map and claim the island for France. The island had been discovered by Alvaro Saavedra Cedrón in 1528.
- April 5 (Easter Sunday) – The central tower of Elgin Cathedral in northeast Scotland collapses.
- April 13 – The Treaty of the Lutsk, a secret agreement between the Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Protectorate of Moldavia is signed in Lutsk, Poland-Lithuania (modern-day Ukraine).
- April 17 – Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor dies, opening the way for the succession of his brother Charles VI. This complicates the ongoing War of the Spanish Succession as Charles is one of the two candidates for the Spanish throne, backed by the Grand Alliance.
- April 29 – A rabid wolf fatally injures two shepherds in Roncà, North Italy; it also attacks livestock.
- May – Alexander Pope publishes the poem An Essay on Criticism in London.
- May 25 – In Denmark, Helsingør is put under military blockade to prevent an outbreak of plague from spreading to Copenhagen; this year about one third of Helsingør's population is killed by the disease.
- June 18 – King Louis XIV becomes the longest-reigning monarch in the world, surpassing the almost 1028-year-old record set by Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal in 683. As of 2020, Louis XIV still holds this record
- July – Cary's Rebellion: Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood of Virginia dispatches a company of Royal Marines to assist Governor Hyde. After hearing of this, Cary's troops abandon all of their fortifications along the Pamlico River. Cary and many of his supporters are soon caught and sent to England as prisoners, ending Cary's Rebellion.
- July 11 – The town of São Paulo, Brazil, is elevated to city status.
- July 21 – The Treaty of the Pruth is signed between the Ottoman Empire and Russia, ending the Pruth River Campaign.
- July 29 – Total lunar eclipse at 17:50 UT.
- August 1 – The Dutch East India Company trading ship Zuytdorp leaves the Netherlands on an ill-fated voyage to Indonesia bearing a load of freshly minted silver coins. The wreck site remains unknown until the mid-20th century, on a remote part of the Western Australian coast between Kalbarri and Shark Bay.
- August 7 – Capture of the galleon San Joaquin: Spanish galleon San Joaquin in a treasure fleet sailing from Cartagena de Indias (modern-day Colombia) to Spain surrenders after an engagement with five British ships.
- August 9 – John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough with an army of 30,000 besieges Bouchain in the War of the Spanish Succession. The siege lasts 34 days and results in the last major victory for Churchill.
- August 11 – The first horse race is held at the newly founded Ascot Racecourse, which becomes one of the leading racecourses in England.
- August 13 – Tamachi Raisinhji becomes Jam Sahib (ruling prince) of Nawanagar State in Gujarat, India.
- August 14 – The inauguration of the newly built Cathedral of the Assumption takes place in Gozo, Malta.
- August 22 – The Quebec Expedition, a British attempt to attack Quebec as part of Queen Anne's War, fails when 8 of its ships are wrecked in the Saint Lawrence River and 850 soldiers drown.
- September 8 – The South Sea Company receives a Royal Charter in Britain.
- September 10 (also dated September 12) – John Lawson, Christoph von Graffenried, two African American slaves and two Native Americans leave on an exploration expedition from New Bern, North Carolina, and travel north by canoe up the Neuse River.
- September 14 (approximate date) – Tuscarora natives capture John Lawson, Christoph von Graffenried and their expeditionary party, and bring them to Catechna.
- September 16 (approximate date) – Tuscarora natives kill Lawson. von Graffenried and one African American slave are known to have been set free.
- September 18 – Bishop Bogusław Gosiewski sells the town of Maladzyechna in the Minsk Region of Belarus to the mighty Ogiński family.
- September 22 – The Tuscarora War begins when Tuscarora natives under the command of Chief Hancock raid settlements along the south bank of the Pamlico River, within the Province of Carolina (modern-day North Carolina), killing around 130 people.
- October 7 – HMS Feversham is wrecked on Scaterie Island, Nova Scotia with the loss of 102 lives.
- October 11 – 245 people are killed in a crush on the Guillotière bridge (fr) in Lyon, France, caused when a large crowd returning from a festival on the other side of the Rhône become trapped against an obstruction in the middle of the bridge caused by a collision between a carriage and a cart.
- October 14
- October 16 – Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts is established in Brussels.
- November 5 – The southwest spire of Southwell Minster in Nottinghamshire, England is struck by lightning, resulting in a fire that spreads to the nave and tower, destroying roofs, bells, clock and organ.
- November 7 – The Dutch East India Company ship Liefde runs aground and sinks off Out Skerries, Shetland, with the loss of all but one of her 300 crew.
- December 5 – Great Northern War: the Battle of Wismar results in a Danish victory over Swedish forces.
- December 7 – In the Parliament of Great Britain the Earl of Nottingham successfully proposes a "No Peace Without Spain" amendment.
- December 8 – The Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Comayagua in Honduras, one of the oldest cathedrals in Central America, is inaugurated.
- December 12 – A constitution is approved for the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna, which had been founded in 1690.
- December 13 – Wall Street in New York City becomes the city's first official slave market for the sale and rental of enslaved Africans and Indians.
- December 15 – The Old Pummerin, a massive bell cast from 208 captured cannons, is consecrated by Bishop Franz Ferdinand Freiherr von Rummel in preparation for its installation in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna (the Stephansdom).
- December 25 – The rebuilding of St Paul's Cathedral in London to a design by Sir Christopher Wren is declared complete by Parliament; Old St Paul's had been destroyed by the 1666 Great Fire of London.
- John Shore invents the tuning fork.
- Luigi Ferdinando Marsili shows that coral is an animal rather than a plant as previously thought.
- January 8 – Total eclipse of the sun visible from
- January 12 – The premiere of the opera Idoménée by André Campra takes place at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal in Paris.
- January 16 – A military engineering school is established in Moscow which is to become the A.F. Mozhaysky Military-Space Academy.
- January 26 – The Old Pummerin, a 18,161 kg bell newly installed in the Stephansdom, St. Stephen's Cathedral, in Vienna, is rung for the first time to mark the entry of Charles VI to Vienna from Frankfurt after his coronation as Emperor. It takes a quarter-hour for 16 men pulling on the bell rope to swing the heavy bell back-and-forth enough for the clapper to strike; the resulting forces endanger the tower so the architect orders that in future the bell be rung only by pulling its clapper.
- February 10 – Huilliche uprising of 1712: Huilliche people in Chile's Chiloé Archipelago rise up against Spanish encomenderos as vengeance for perceived injustices.
- February 30 – Sweden temporarily adjusts the Swedish Calendar back to the Julian calendar.
- Early March – Start of the Cassard expedition, a sea voyage by French Navy captain Jacques Cassard during which he ransacks Santiago in the Cape Verde Islands and pillages Montserrat, Antigua, Surinam, Berbice, Essequibo, St. Eustatius and Curaçao, returning to France with loot worth over nine million francs.
- March 3 – Scottish Episcopalians Act 1711 comes into effect, leading to incorporation of the Scottish Episcopal Church.
- March 15 – HMS Dragon, a 38-gun fourth rate frigate of the Royal Navy, is wrecked on Les Casquets, rocks to the west of Alderney.
- March 11 (February 30 Swedish Style) – Sweden temporarily adopts the rare February 30, as a day to adjust the Swedish Calendar back to the Julian calendar.
- March 30 – Anne, Queen of Great Britain administers the Royal touch (a ritual with the intent to cure illness) for the last time; 300 scrofulous people are touched, the last of whom is Samuel Johnson.
- April 6–7 – New York City's Slave Insurrection results in nine whites being killed, and 21 slaves and other blacks being convicted and executed.
- April 11 – Great Northern War: the Battle of Fladstrand takes place at sea near Fladstrand, Jylland, between Swedish and Danish forces.
- May 15 – Curuguaty in Paraguay is founded by Juan Gregorio de Bazán y Pedraza on the banks of the Curuguaty River.
- May 19 – Peter the Great moves the capital of Russia from Moscow to Saint Petersburg.
- May 22 – Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor is crowned King of Hungary.
- June 5 – Reus in Catalonia, Spain is given the title of imperial city by Elisabeth Christine, wife of Archduke Charles.
- June 10 – Kurtkulağı Caravanserai in Adana Province, Turkey, is restored and 50 soldiers are appointed to guard it.
- June 11 – Chatham, Barnstable County, Massachusetts is incorporated as a town.
- June 17 – The newly built St Ann's Church, Manchester is consecrated by the Bishop of Chester.
- July 8 – The Royal Navy 50-gun ship HMS Advice is launched at Deptford Dockyard.
- July 20 – Jesus College, Oxford, inherits the extensive library of its Principal Jonathan Edwards on his death.
- July 24
- July 31 – Great Northern War: a battle takes place in the Baltic Sea southeast of Rügen between Denmark and Sweden with inconclusive outcome.
- August 1 – The Stamp Act of 1712 is passed in the United Kingdom, imposing a tax on publishers, particularly of newspapers.
- August 11 – The Peace of Aarau is signed by Catholics and Protestants, ending the Toggenburg War and establishing Protestant dominance in Switzerland, while preserving the rights of Catholics.
- August 17 – Great Northern War: a battle takes place in the Baltic Sea south of Rügen, resulting in a victory for Denmark over Sweden.
- August 23 – The Royal Navy 60-gun ship HMS Rippon is launched at Deptford Dockyard.
- September – Composer George Frideric Handel re-locates to London with the permission of his patron, the future King George I of Great Britain.
- September 8 – A severe hurricane buffets Bermuda for eight hours, destroying most of the churches.
- October 3 – In Scotland a warrant is issued for the arrest of outlaw Rob Roy MacGregor by Sir James Stewart (Lord Advocate).
- October 31 – King Philip V of Spain establishes the Biblioteca Nacional de España as the Palace Public Library (Biblioteca Pública de Palacio) in Madrid.
- November 4 – The Bandbox Plot aims to kill British Lord Treasurer Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford but is foiled by Jonathan Swift (author of “Gulliver’s Travels”).
- November 22 – The first performance of George Frideric Handel's opera Il pastor fido takes place at the Queen's Theatre in the Haymarket, London.
- December 7 – The charter of Buchach Monastery in Ukraine, founded by Stefan Aleksander Potocki and his wife Joanna née Sieniawska, is signed in Lublin.
- December 9 – Sweden defeats Denmark and Saxony in the Battle of Gadebusch.
- December 20 – Great Northern War: the Battle of Gadebusch is Sweden's final great victory in the war, preventing the loss of the city of Stralsund to Danish and Saxon forces.
- December 27 – The premiere of the opera Callirhoé by André Cardinal Destouches takes place at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal in Paris.
- December 28 – Total eclipse of the sun visible from
- The first known working Newcomen steam engine is built by Thomas Newcomen with John Calley, to pump water out of mines in the Black Country of England, the first device to make practical use of the power of steam to produce mechanical work.
- After many years of settlement, the Town on Queen Anne's Creek is established as a courthouse for Chowan County, North Carolina. The town is renamed Edenton in 1720, and incorporated in 1722.
- The VOC Zuytdorp is wrecked off the coast of Western Australia.
- John Arbuthnot creates the character of John Bull to represent Britain.
- A translation of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer into Irish, made by John Richardson (1664–1747), is published.
- January 17 – Tuscarora War: Colonel James Moore leads the Carolina militia out of Albemarle County, North Carolina, in a second offensive against the Tuscarora. Heavy snows force the troops to take refuge in Fort Reading, on the Pamlico River.
- February 1 – Skirmish at Bender, Moldova: Charles XII of Sweden is defeated by the Ottoman Empire.
- February 4 – Tuscarora War: The Carolina militia under Colonel James Moore leaves Fort Reading, to continue the campaign against the Tuscarora.
- February 25 – Frederick William I of Prussia begins his reign.
- March 1 – Tuscarora War: Colonel James Moore's Carolina militia lays siege to the Tuscaroran stronghold of Fort Neoheroka, located a few miles up Contentnea Creek from Fort Hancock.
- March 20 – Tuscarora War: Colonel James Moore's Carolina militia launches a major offensive against Fort Neoheroka.
- March 23 – Tuscarora War: Fort Neoheroka falls to the Carolina militia, effectively ending the Tuscarora nation's military strength. Two Tuscaroran allies, the Machapunga and Coree tribes, continue offensive actions against North Carolina.
- March 27 – First Treaty of Utrecht between Great Britain and Spain: Philip V is accepted by Britain and Austria as king of Spain; Spain cedes Gibraltar and Menorca to Britain.
- April 11 – The Second Treaty of Utrecht between Great Britain and France ends the War of the Spanish Succession. France cedes Newfoundland, Acadia, Hudson Bay and St Kitts to Great Britain.
- April 14 – First performance, in London, of Joseph Addison's libertarian play Cato, a Tragedy, which will be influential on both sides of the Atlantic.
- April 19 – With no living male heirs, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, issues the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, to ensure one of his daughters will inherit the Habsburg lands.
- June 1 (approx.) – Tuscarora War: Colonel James Moore leads the Carolina militia into the Pamlico Peninsula to defeat the Machapunga and Coree tribes.
- June 23 – French residents of Acadia are given one year to declare allegiance to Great Britain, or leave Nova Scotia.
- July 13 – The Treaty of Portsmouth brings an end to Queen Anne's War.
- September 1 – Tuscarora War: The Carolina militia, led by Colonel James Moore, returns to South Carolina, after mixed success in the campaign against the Machapunga and Coree tribes.
- March 7 – The Treaty of Rastatt is signed between Austria and France, concluding the War of the Spanish Succession between them. Austria receives the Spanish territories in Italy (the Kingdom of Naples, Duchy of Milan and Kingdom of Sardinia), as well as the Southern Netherlands; and from France, Freiburg and Landau. The Austrian Habsburg Empire reaches its largest territorial extent yet, with Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor succeeding Philip V of Spain, as ruler in the ceded territories.
- May 19 – Anne, Queen of Great Britain, refuses to allow members of the House of Hanover to settle in Britain during her lifetime.
- July – Longitude prize: The Parliament of Great Britain votes "to offer a reward for such person or persons as shall discover the Longitude" (£10,000 for any method capable of determining a ship's longitude within 1 degree; £15,000, within 40 minutes, and £20,000 within ½ a degree).
- July 27 – The Imperial Russian Navy gains its first important victory against the Swedish Navy in the Battle of Gangut.
- August 1 – George, Elector of Hanover, becomes King George I of Great Britain and Ireland, on the death of Queen Anne.
- September 11 – War of the Spanish Succession: Barcelona is taken after a long siege, and Catalonia surrenders to Spanish and French Bourbon armies.
- December 9 – Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–1718): The Ottoman Empire declares war on the Republic of Venice.
- Archbishop Tenison's School, the world's earliest surviving mixed gender school, is established by Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Croydon, south of London, England.
- Louis Juchereau de St. Denis establishes Fort St. Jean Baptiste, at the site of present day Natchitoches, Louisiana (the first permanent European settlement in the Louisiana Territory, after Biloxi (1699) and Mobile, Alabama (1702) were separated).
- Worcester College, University of Oxford is founded (formerly Gloucester College, closed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries).
- Stockholm County is founded.
- The river Kander (Switzerland) is redirected into Lake Thun.
- January 13 – A fire in London, described by some as the worst since the 1666 blaze almost 50 years earlier, starts on Thames Street when fireworks prematurely explode "in the house of Mr. Walker, and oil man"; more than 100 houses are consumed in the blaze, which continues over to Tower Street before it is controlled.
- February 11 – Tuscarora War: The Tuscarora and their allies sign a peace treaty with the Province of Carolina, and agree to move to a reservation near Lake Mattamuskeet, effectively ending the Tuscarora War. Large numbers of Tuscarora subsequently move to New York.
- March 27 – Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, flees from Great Britain to France. His part in secret negotiations with France, leading to the Treaty of Utrecht, has cast suspicion on him in the eyes of the Whig government of Britain. He becomes secretary of state to the Pretender, James Edward Stuart.
- May 3 – A total solar eclipse is seen across southern England, Sweden and Finland (the last total eclipse visible in London for almost 900 years).
- July 20 – Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–18): The fall of Nauplion, the capital of the Venetian "Kingdom of the Morea", seals the fate of the Peloponnese Peninsula, which is soon completely retaken by the Ottomans.
- July 24 – 1715 Treasure Fleet: A Spanish treasure fleet of 12 ships, under General Don Juan Ubilla, leaves Havana, Cuba for Spain. Seven days later, 11 of them sink in a storm off the coast of Florida (some centuries later, treasure salvage is found from these wrecks).
- August 31 – Old Dock, Liverpool, England, the world's first enclosed commercial wet dock (Thomas Steers, engineer), opens.
- September – The first major Jacobite rising in Scotland against the rule of King George I of Great Britain breaks out. The Earl of Mar raises the standard of James Edward Stuart, and marches on Edinburgh. James, the son of the deposed King James VII, arrives from France.
- September 1 – King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years, leaving his throne to his great-grandson Louis XV, who will reign for 58 years. Regent for the new, five-year-old monarch is Philippe d'Orléans, nephew of Louis XIV.
- October – John Moore becomes a Peer of Ireland.
- November 13 – Jacobite rising in Scotland – Battle of Sheriffmuir: The forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain, led by John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, halt the Jacobite advance, although the action is inconclusive.
- November 14 – Battle of Preston: Government forces defeat the Jacobite incursion, at the conclusion of a five-day siege and action.
- November 15 – The Third Barrier Treaty is signed by Britain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic.
- November 28 – The application of the Nueva Planta decrees, in Majorca and the other Balearic Islands (formerly under the Crown of Aragon), bring them under the laws of the Crown of Castile.
- December 22 – James Edward Stuart rejoins Jacobite rebels in Scotland, but fails to rouse his army.
- December 24 – Swedish troops occupy Norway.
- Yamasee War: The Province of Carolina goes to war with the Yamasee Native Americans.
- Karlsruhe Palace is built, resulting in the town of Karlsruhe growing up around it.
- The ancient right to evaluate royal decrees publicly, before they are given the force of law by the Parliament of Paris, is restored.
- Filippo Juvarra starts working on the previously postponed construction of the church of Santa Christina in Turin.
- Filippo Juvarra starts rebuilding the church of San Filippo Neri, Turin, in which the roof had collapsed, during the siege of Turin, during the War of the Spanish Succession.
- Coffee is first grown in the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
- Around this year, a breech loading firearm is made for Philip V of Spain.
- January – The town of Crieff, Scotland, is burned to the ground by Jacobites returning from the Battle of Sheriffmuir.
- January 16 – The application of the Nueva Planta decrees to Catalonia make it subject to the laws of the Crown of Castile, and abolishes the Principality of Catalonia as a political entity, concluding the unification of Spain under Philip V.
- January 27 – The Tugaloo Massacre changes the course of the Yamasee War.
- February 10 – James Edward Stuart flees from Scotland to France with a handful of supporters, following the failure of the Jacobite rising of 1715.
- February 24 – Jacobite leaders James Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Derwentwater and William Gordon, 6th Viscount of Kenmure are executed in London.
- May – John Law founds the Banque Générale.
- May 26 – Two regular companies of field artillery, each 100 men strong, are raised at Woolwich, by Royal Warrant of King George I of Great Britain.
- May 28 – John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, suffers a paralytic stroke.
- July 5 – Prince Ernest Augustus is created Duke of York and Albany, in the peerage of Great Britain.
- July 8 – The Battle of Dynekilen: The Swedish fleet is defeated by a Danish–Norwegian fleet.
- July 8 – August 21 – Seventh Ottoman–Venetian War: The Ottoman Empire unsuccessfully lays siege to Corfu, the last bastion of the Republic of Venice in the Greek islands.
- August 4 – George Seton, 5th Earl of Winton, under sentence of death for his part in the Jacobite rising of 1715, escapes from the Tower of London and flees into exile on the continent.
- August 5 – Battle of Petrovaradin: 83,300 Austrian troops of Prince Eugene of Savoy defeat 150,000 Ottoman Turks under Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha (who is killed).
- August 24 – Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, returns from Italy.
- November 9 – Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales, gives birth to a stillborn son in London.
- December 4 – Fifty people are killed, and 150 houses burned, when a fire breaks out in Wapping, London. The blaze comes two days after a fire at the Spring Gardens at St. James's, London, which destroyed the French Chapel there and which was put out by several rescuers, including the future King George II.
- December 12 – Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, is demoted from his office as Secretary of State for the Northern Department in the British government, and replaced by James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope.
- English pirate Edward Teach (Blackbeard) is given command of a sloop in the Bahamas.
- Natchez, one of the oldest towns on the Mississippi River, is founded.
- Tsar Peter the Great of Russia studies with the physician Herman Boerhaave, at Leiden University.
- The Kangxi Dictionary is published, laying the foundation of most references to Han characters studied today.
- January 1 – Count Carl Gyllenborg, the Swedish ambassador to the Kingdom of Great Britain, is arrested in London, over a plot to assist the Pretender to the British throne, James Francis Edward Stuart.
- January 4 (December 24, 1716 Old Style) – Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic sign the Triple Alliance, in an attempt to maintain the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Britain having signed a preliminary alliance with France on November 28 (November 17, 1716).
- February – Following the treaty between France and Britain, James Stuart leaves France, and seeks refuge with Pope Clement XI.
- February 1 – The Silent Sejm, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, marks the beginning of the Russian Empire's increasing influence and control over the Commonwealth.
- February 26–March 6 – What is now the northeastern United States is paralyzed by a series of blizzards, that bury the region.
- March 2 – Dancer John Weaver performs in the first ballet in Britain, shown at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, The Loves of Mars and Venus.
- March 31 – Benjamin Hoadly, Bishop of Bangor, brings the Bangorian Controversy within the Church of England into the open by delivering a sermon to, and supposedly at the request of, King George I of Great Britain, on The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ with the text "My kingdom is not of this world" (John 18:36), concluding there is no Biblical justification for church government.
- April 26 – The Whydah Gally, flagship of "Black Sam" Bellamy, is wrecked in a storm off Wellfleet, Massachusetts. The Whydah sinks with a reputed 4 1⁄2 tons of treasure on board, and all but two of her crew are lost, including Bellamy.
- May 27 – Spain unites its South American colonies, as the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
- June 24 – The Premier Grand Lodge of England, the Modern and first Free-Masonic Grand Lodge (which merges with the Ancient Grand Lodge of England in 1813 to form the United Grand Lodge of England), is founded in London.
- July 17 – Water Music by George Frederick Handel is first performed, on a Thames barge in London,
- August 17 – The month-long Siege of Belgrade ends, with Prince Eugene of Savoy's Austrian troops capturing the city from the Ottoman Empire.
- August 22 – Spanish troops land on Sardinia beginning the Spanish conquest of Sardinia.
- September – The first known Druid revival ceremony is held by John Toland at Primrose Hill, in London, at the Autumnal Equinox, to found the Mother Grove, what will later become the Ancient Order of Druids.
- September 29 – Guatemala earthquake: A 7.4 magnitude earthquake strikes Antigua Guatemala, destroying much of the city, and making authorities consider moving the capital of Guatemala to a different location.
- Crews on two ships, commanded by Benjamin Hornigold and Edward Teach, attack and capture the British-built French Guineaman Concorde, in the eastern Caribbean. Hornigold soon accepts a British amnesty for all pirates, but Teach rejects it, and subsequently becomes known as Blackbeard.
- A rift between George I of Great Britain and his son the Prince of Wales leads to the latter being banished from the royal household.
- December – Blackbeard teams up with Stede Bonnet, but later takes his ship and demotes Bonnet to guest. The Queen Anne's Revenge and Revenge take several ships as prizes in the Caribbean. Blackbeard eventually adds two more ships to his party, and sails north to the North American coast.
- December 24–25 – Christmas flood: A disastrous flood hits the North Sea coast, between the Netherlands and Denmark; thousands die or lose their houses.
- 1717 Omani invasion of Bahrain.
- François-Marie Arouet is sentenced to imprisonment in the Bastille for eleven months, because of a satirical verse against the Régent of France and his infamous daughter Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, who at the time was hiding an illegitimate pregnancy and soon to give birth; Arouet will emerge with the pseudonym Voltaire, and the completed text of his first play, Œdipe.
- The Tatar invasions in Transylvania, devastate many towns, including Cavnic, Sighet and Dej.
- Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, wife of the British ambassador to Istanbul, has her son inoculated.
- The Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) is set up in Cádiz.
- Maharaja Pamheiba of Manipur is converted to Hinduism by Shantidas Goswami, and decrees it to be the official religion of his state.
- Most recent rupture of New Zealand's Alpine Fault, with an earthquake estimated to have had a magnitude between 7.8 and 8.1.
- The Charleville musket enters service in France.
- Thomas Fairchild, a nurseryman at Hoxton in the East End of London, becomes the first person to produce a successful scientific plant hybrid, Dianthus Caryophyllus barbatus, known as Fairchild's Mule.
- Murshid Quli Khan declares himself the first Nawab of the Bengal Subah. The Nawabs of Bengal will effectively function as near-sovereign rulers of Bengal while being nominally loyal to the Mughal Empire.
January – JuneEdit
- January – France declares war on Spain, leading to the 2-year War of the Quadruple Alliance.
- May – English pirate Blackbeard leads 400 sailors in four ships, to blockade the port of Charleston, South Carolina. The Queen Anne's Revenge and Adventure are both lost at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, a week later. Blackbeard allows Stede Bonnet to command the Revenge (which is renamed the Royal James) once again. Bonnet rescues 25 sailors abandoned by Blackbeard on a sandbar and continues his life of piracy.
- May 1 – San Antonio is founded by Father Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares with the construction of the initial Mission San Antonio de Valero.
- May 7 – The settlement of New Orleans is founded in New France.
- June – Blackbeard and Bonnet take refuge in Bath, North Carolina, where Governor Charles Eden pardons them and their crew.
- June 16 – The Treaty of Baden (1718) is signed, ending the Toggenburg War.
- July 21 – The Treaty of Passarowitz is signed.
- August 11 – Battle of Cape Passaro: a Spanish fleet is defeated by the British Royal Navy under Admiral George Byng, off Capo Passero, Sicily, a prelude to the War of the Quadruple Alliance.
- September – The Dzungar Khanate destroys a Qing army in the Battle of the Salween River.
- October – Stede Bonnet and his crew are captured near the mouth of the Cape Fear River and taken to Charleston, South Carolina, where they are tried for piracy. All but four are found guilty and sentenced to death.
- October 24 – Stede Bonnet escapes from prison.
- November 8 – 22 of Stede Bonnet's pirate crew are hanged at Charleston.
- November 11 – Lightning strikes the powder magazine at the Old Fortress, Corfu, causing a major catastrophe on the island.
- November 18 – Voltaire's first play, Oedipus, premières at the Comédie-Française in Paris. This is his first use of the pseudonym.
- November 22 – Citing violations of the amnesty agreement with Blackbeard, Virginia Governor Alexander Spotswood sends a Royal Navy contingent to North Carolina, where they battle Blackbeard and his crew in Ocracoke Inlet. Blackbeard is killed in action, after receiving five musketball wounds and twenty sword lacerations.
- December 5 – Following the death of Charles XII on November 30, his sister Ulrika Eleonora proclaims herself Queen regnant of Sweden, as the news of her brother's death reaches Stockholm.
- December 10 – Stede Bonnet is hanged at Charleston, after being recaptured.
- December 17 – The Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Great Britain and Dutch Republic join the Kingdom of France in formally declaring war on Spain, launching the War of the Quadruple Alliance.
- Islamization of Sudan: The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar.
- The white potato reaches New England from England.
- Coffee is grown in Surinam (Dutch colony).
- January 23 – The Principality of Liechtenstein is created, within the Holy Roman Empire.
- February 3 (January 23 Old Style) – The Riksdag of the Estates recognizes Ulrika Eleonora's claim to the Swedish throne, after she has agreed to sign a new Swedish constitution. Thus, she is recognized as queen regnant of Sweden.
- February 20 – The first Treaty of Stockholm is signed.
- February 28 – , the Mughal Emperor of India since 1713, is deposed by the Sayyid brothers, who install Rafi ud-Darajat in his place. In prison, Farrukhsiyar is strangled by assassins on April 19.
- March 17 – The coronation of Ulrika Eleonora as Queen of Sweden takes place in Stockholm
- April 4 – The French army under James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick invades the Basque provinces of Spain, with 20,000 troops crossing into Navarre. 
- April 19 – In Louisiana (New France), Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville's brother Serigny arrives on a French man-of-war, bringing news that war had been declared between France and Spain (from December 1718).
- April 25 – Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe.
- April 26 – King Philip V of Spain departs Madrid and leads 15,000 men of the Spanish Army into Navare to fight the French under Berwick. 
- May 14 – In Louisiana (New France), Bienville, from Mobile, captures Pensacola, but Pensacola is later recaptured by the Spanish, and again re-taken by Bienville.
- June 4 – Battle of Ösel Island: A Russian naval force defeats the Swedish fleet.
- June 10 – Battle of Glen Shiel: British forces defeat the Jacobites and their Spanish allies.
- June 20 – Battle of Francavilla: The Austrians are defeated by the Spanish.
- July 11 – Russia's Baltic Sea fleet is first spotted from the Swedish coast, starting the Russian Pillage of 1719–21 as part of the Great Northern War.
- July 16 – The Carlsten fortress in Sweden surrenders to a Danish and Norwegian force after a siege of seven days. Colonel Henrich Danckwardt, who surrendered the fortress to Peter Tordenskjold after being away from it while it was still defensible, is beheaded on September 16.
- August 13 – In the Battle of Stäket, Crown Prince Frederick I of Sweden leads the successful defense of Stockholm from Russian Admiral Fyodor Apraksin's Baltic Fleet during the Russian Pillage.
- August 20 – Princess Maria Josepha of Austria, at one time the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria's Habsburg Empire, marries Frederick Augustus, Elector of Saxony ten days of renouncing any claim to the Austrian throne.
- December 22 – Andrew Bradford publishes the American Weekly Mercury, Pennsylvania's first newspaper.
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