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1728 (MDCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1728th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 728th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1728, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2481|
|Balinese saka calendar||1649–1650|
|British Regnal year||1 Geo. 2 – 2 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||丁未年 (Fire Goat)|
4424 or 4364
— to —
戊申年 (Earth Monkey)
4425 or 4365
|- Vikram Samvat||1784–1785|
|- Shaka Samvat||1649–1650|
|- Kali Yuga||4828–4829|
|Japanese calendar||Kyōhō 13|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||184 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2270–2271|
1854 or 1473 or 701
— to —
1855 or 1474 or 702
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1728.|
- February 28 – Battle of Palkhed: Maratha Peshwa Bajirao I defeats the Mughal Governor of Deccan, Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asif Jah I, Nizam-ul-Mulk.
- March 14 – Jean-Jacques Rousseau leaves Geneva for the first time.
- May 31 – The Royal Bank of Scotland extends the first overdraft (to Edinburgh merchant William Hogg for £1,000).
- July 14–August 14 – Vitus Bering sails northward from the Kamchatka Peninsula, through the Bering Strait, and round Cape Dezhnev.
- Late Summer – Voltaire ends his exile in England.
- August 29 – The City of Nuuk is founded in Greenland, as Fort Godt-Haab, by royal governor Claus Paarss.
- October 20–23 – The Copenhagen Fire of 1728 (the largest in the Danish city's history) burns.
- English astronomer James Bradley uses stellar aberration (first observed in 1725) to calculate the speed of light, and observes nutation of the Earth's axis.
- The Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Gerónimo de la Habana, the oldest university in Cuba, is founded in Havana.
- Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of King George II of Great Britain, arrives in Britain for the first time, aged 21.
- January 9 – Thomas Warton, English poet (d. 1790)
- February 3 – Charles Rainsford, British general (d. 1809)
- February 21 – Emperor Peter III of Russia, husband of Catherine the Great (d. 1762)
- February 25 – John Wood, the Younger, English architect (d. 1782)
- March 28 – Anton Raphael Mengs, German-Bohemian painter (d. 1779)
- April 16 – Joseph Black, Scottish physicist and chemist (d. 1799)
- June 22 – Anna Jabłonowska, Polish magnate and politician (d. 1800)
- August 26 – Johann Heinrich Lambert, Swiss mathematician, physicist and astronomer (d. 1777)
- August 28 – John Stark, American Revolutionary War general (d. 1822)
- September 3 – Matthew Boulton, English manufacturer, lifelong key partner of James Watt (d. 1809)
- September 14 – Mercy Otis Warren, American playwright (d. 1814)
- October 5 – Chevalier d'Eon, French diplomat, spy, soldier and transvestite (d. 1810)
- October 7 – Caesar Rodney, American lawyer and signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1784)
- October 27 – James Cook, British naval commander and explorer (d. 1779)
- November 10 – Oliver Goldsmith, Irish writer (d. 1774)
- December 28 – Justus Claproth, German jurist, inventor of the de-inking process of recycled paper (d. 1805)
- date unknown
- January 26 – Paolo de Matteis, Italian painter (b. 1662)
- February 12 – Agostino Steffani, Italian diplomat, composer (b. 1654)
- February 13 – Cotton Mather, New England Puritan minister (b. 1663)
- February 16
- February 25 – Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten, German general (b. 1661)
- March 4 – Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, eldest daughter of Peter the Great (b. 1708)
- March 7 – Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (b. 1653)
- March 18 – George Stanhope, Dean of Canterbury (b. 1660)
- March 20 – Camille d'Hostun, duc de Tallard, Marshal of France (b. 1652)
- May 26 – William Cheyne, 2nd Viscount Newhaven, English politician (b. 1657)
- April 3 – James Anderson, Scottish historian (b. 1662)
- April 10 – Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, Swedish architect (b. 1654)
- April 21 – Filippo Antonio Gualterio, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1660)
- April 23 – Tomás de Torrejón y Velasco, Spanish composer, musician and organist (b. 1644)
- May 7 – Rose Venerini, Italian saint, educational pioneer (b. 1656)
- May 14 – Louise Marie d'Orléans, Mademoiselle, French princess (b. 1726)
- May 23 – William Delaune, English academic administrator and clergyman (b. 1659)
- June 6 – David Leslie, 3rd Earl of Leven, British politician (b. 1660)
- June 17 – Matthieu Petit-Didier, French Benedictine theologian (b. 1659)
- June 30 – Otto Friedrich von der Groeben, Prussian traveller, soldier and author (b. 1657)
- July 21 – Nathaniel Gould, English politician (b. 1661)
- August 3 – Abraham de Peyster, United States politician (b. 1657)
- August 7 – Jacques L'enfant, French Protestant pastor (b. 1661)
- August 11 – William Sherard, English botanist (b. 1659)
- August 15 – Marin Marais, French viol player and composer (b. 1656)
- August 26
- September 23 – Christian Thomasius, German jurist (b. 1655)
- September 24 – Frederik Krag, Danish nobleman and senior civil servant (b. 1655)
- October 1 – Robert Livingston the Elder, New York colonial official (b. 1654)
- October 15 – Bernard de la Monnoye, French lawyer (b. 1641)
- November 10 – Fyodor Apraksin, Russian admiral (b. 1661)
- November 15 – Élie Benoist, French Protestant minister (b. 1640)
- November 19 – Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, German prince (b. 1694)
- November 22
- Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia (1714–1728), Russian grand duchess (b. 1714)
- Joseph Boyse, Presbyterian minister (b. 1660)
- December 8 – Camillo Rusconi, Italian artist (b. 1658)
- December 28 – Thomas Johnson, English politician (b. 1664)
- date unknown