1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1750th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 750th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1750, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2503|
|Balinese saka calendar||1671–1672|
|British Regnal year||23 Geo. 2 – 24 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||己巳年 (Earth Snake)|
4446 or 4386
— to —
庚午年 (Metal Horse)
4447 or 4387
|- Vikram Samvat||1806–1807|
|- Shaka Samvat||1671–1672|
|- Kali Yuga||4850–4851|
|Japanese calendar||Kan'en 3|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||162 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2292–2293|
1876 or 1495 or 723
— to —
1877 or 1496 or 724
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1750.|
- January 13 – The Treaty of Madrid between Spain and Portugal authorizes a larger Brazil than had the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, which originally established the boundaries of the Portuguese and Spanish territories in South America.
- January 24 – A fire in Istanbul destroys 10,000 homes.
- February 15 – After Spain and Portugal agree that the Uruguay River will be the boundary line between the two kingdoms' territory in South America, the Spanish Governor orders the Jesuits to vacate seven Indian missions along the river (San Angel, San Nicolas, San Luis, San Lorenzo, San Miguel, San Juan and San Borja).
- March 5 – The Murray-Kean Company, a troupe of actors from Philadelphia, gives the first performance of a play announced in advance in a newspaper, presenting Richard III at New York City's Nassau Street Theatre.
- March 20 – The first number of Samuel Johnson's The Rambler appears.
- April 13 – Dr. Thomas Walker and five other men (Ambrose Powell, Colby Chew, William Tomlinson, Henry Lawless and John Hughes) cross through the Cumberland Gap, a mountain pass through the Appalachian Mountains, to become the first white people to venture into territories that had been inhabited exclusively by various Indian tribes. On April 17, Walker's party continues through what is now Kentucky and locates the Cumberland River, which Walker names in honor of Prince William, Duke of Cumberland.
- April 14
- A group of West African slaves, bound for America, successfully overpowers the British crew of the slave ship Snow Ann, imprisons the survivors, and then navigates the ship back to Cape Lopez in Gabon. Upon regaining their freedom, the rebels leave the survivors on the Gabonese coast.
- The Viceroy of New Spain, Juan Francisco de Güemes, issues a notice to the missionaries in Nuevo Santander (which includes parts of what are now the U.S. state of Texas, including San Antonio, and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas) to work peacefully to convert the indigenous Karankawa people to Roman Catholicism.
- April 25 – The Acadian settlement in Beaubassin, Nova Scotia, is destroyed by French-backed armies, and the population is forcibly relocated, after France and Great Britain agree that the Missaguash River should be the new boundary between French Nova Scotia and British New Brunswick 
- May 16 – Two weeks after police in Paris arrest six teenagers for gambling in the suburb of Saint-Laurent, rioting breaks out when a rumor spreads that plainclothes policemen are hauling off small children between the ages of five to ten years old, in order to provide blood to an ailing aristocrat. Over the next two weeks, rioting breaks out in other sections of Paris. Police are attacked, including one who is beaten to death by the mob, until order is restored and police reforms are announced.
- June 19 – At a time when mountain climbing is still relatively uncommon, Eggert Ólafsson and Bjarni Pálsson scale their first peak, the 4,892 feet (1,491 m) high Icelandic volcano, Hekla.
- June 24 – Parliament passes Britain's Iron Act, designed to restrict American manufactured goods by prohibiting additional ironworking businesses from producing finished goods. At the same time, import taxes on raw iron from America are lifted in order to give British manufacturers additional material for production. By 1775, the North American colonies have surpassed England and Wales in iron production and have become the world's third largest producer of iron.
- June 29 – An attempt in Lima, to begin a native uprising against Spanish colonial authorities in the Viceroyalty of Peru, is discovered and thwarted. One of the conspirators, Francisco Garcia Jimenez, escapes to Huarochirí and kills dozens of Spaniards on July 25.
- July 9 – Traveller Jonas Hanway leaves St. Petersburg to return home, via Germany and the Netherlands. Later the same year, Hanway reputedly becomes the first Englishman to use an umbrella (a French fashion).
- July 11 – Halifax, Nova Scotia is almost completely destroyed by fire.
- July 31 – José I takes over the throne of Portugal from his deceased father, João V. King José Manuel appoints the Marquis of Pombal as his Chief Minister, who then strips the Inquisition of its power.
- August 8 – In advance of the Province of Georgia changing in status from a corporate-owned American settlement to a British colony, Royal Assent is given to an act that lifts the province's ban on slavery; effective January 1, "it shall and may be lawful to import or bring Black Slaves or Negroes in to the Province of Georgia of America and to keep and to use the same therein".
- August 20 – French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille, by way of the Foreign Minister, the Marquis de Puisieulx and Netherlands ambassador to Paris Mattheus Lestevenon, sends a letter that ultimately persuades the States-General of the Dutch Republic to allow and partially finance Lacaille's stellar trigonometry mission to the Cape of Good Hope. The expedition departs Lorient on October 21 
- September 30 – Crispus Attucks, an African-American slave who will later become the first person killed in the Boston Massacre of 1770, escapes from the Framingham, Massachusetts estate of slaveowner William Brown. In an unsuccessful attempt to recapture the fugitive, Brown runs an advertisement on October 2 in the Boston Gazette, but Attucks eludes recapture.
- October 5 – Treaty of Madrid: Spain and Great Britain sign a treaty temporarily eliminating their hostility over their colonies in the North and South America. In addition to both sides dropping their claims for damages against each other, Spain agrees to pay the South Sea Company £100,000 for damage claims.
- October 14 – The Louvre Museum is created in Paris four years after art critic Lafond de Saint-Yenne calls on the King to allow the display of the royal art collection to the general public. Abel-François Poisson, the Marquis de Marigny, arranges for the display of 110 of the Crown's paintings at the Palais du Luxembourg.
- November 11 – A riot breaks out in Lhasa after the murder of the regent of Tibet.
- November 18 – Westminster Bridge is officially opened in London.
- December 3 – What is described later as "The first documented presentation of a musical in New York" takes place one block east of Broadway, at the Nassau Street Theatre, when a resident company of actors stages The Beggar's Opera.
- December 25 – Prussia and Russia break off diplomatic relations after the Russians refuse to stop assisting the Electorate of Saxony. Five years later, the two Empires fight the Seven Years' War.
- December 29 – Two physicians in Jamaica, Dr. John Williams and Dr. Parker Bennet, fight a duel "with swords and pistols" after having had an argument the day before about the treatment of bilious fever. Both are mortally wounded during the fight.
- Hannah Snell reveals her sex to her Royal Marines compatriots.
- The King of Dahomey has income of 250,000 pounds from the overseas export of slaves.
- Maruyama Okyo paints The Ghost of Oyuki.
- Britain produces c. 2% of the entire world's output of industrial goods, before the Industrial Revolution begins.
- Galley slavery is abolished in Europe.
- World population: 791,000,000
- January 1 – Frederick Muhlenberg, first speaker of the United States House of Representatives (d. 1801)
- January 24 – Nicolas Bergasse, French lawyer (d. 1832)
- January 24 – Helen Gloag, Scottish-born slave Empress of Morocco (d. 1790)
- March 16 – Caroline Herschel, German astronomer (d. 1848)
- April – Joanna Southcott, British religious fanatic (d. 1814)
- April 17 – François de Neufchâteau, French statesman, intellectual figure (d. 1828)
- May 2 – John André, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War (d. 1780)
- May 20 – Stephen Girard, French-American banker, fourth richest American of all time (d. 1831)
- May 28 – Diogo de Carvalho e Sampayo, Portuguese diplomat, scientist (d. 1807)
- May 31 – Karl August von Hardenberg, Prussian politician (d. 1822)
- June 6 – William Morgan, British statistician (d. 1833)
- July 5 – Aimé Argand, Swiss physicist, inventor (d. 1803)
- July 9 – Louise Marie Thérèse Bathilde d'Orléans, last princess of Condé (d.1822)
- July 25 – Henry Knox, military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, 1st United States Secretary of War (b. 1806)
- August 18 – Antonio Salieri, Italian composer (d. 1825)
- August 26 – Princess Marie Zéphyrine of France, infant sister of Louis XVI (d. 1755)
- September 26 – Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, British admiral (d. 1810)
- October 7 – Abraham Woodhull, Patriot spy during the American Revolutionary War (d. 1826)
- October 25 – Marie Le Masson Le Golft, French naturalist (b. 1826)
- October 31 – Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna, Portuguese painter and poet (d. 1839)
- November 7 – Friedrich Leopold zu Stolberg-Stolberg, German poet (d. 1819)
- November 10 – Tipu Sultan, Sultan of Mysore (d. 1799)
- December 23 – Frederick Augustus I of Saxony (d. 1827)
- date unknown
- January 16 – Ivan Trubetskoy, Russian field marshal (b. 1667)
- January 22 – Franz Xaver Josef von Unertl, Bavarian politician (b. 1675)
- January 23 – Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Italian historian and scholar (b. 1672)
- January 26 – Albert Schultens, Dutch philologist (b. 1686)
- January 29 – Sophia Schröder, Swedish soprano (b. 1712)
- February 7 – Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset (b. 1684)
- February 8 – Aaron Hill, English writer (b. 1685)
- February 19 – Jan Frans van Bredael, Flemish painter (b. 1686)
- March 6 – Domenico Montagnana, Italian luthier (b. 1686)
- March 29 – James Jurin, British mathematician, doctor (b. 1684)
- April 7 – George Byng, 3rd Viscount Torrington, British Army general (b. 1701)
- May 3 – John Willison, Scottish minister, writer (b. 1680)
- May 17 – Georg Engelhard Schröder, Swedish artist (b. 1684)
- May 28 – Emperor Sakuramachi of Japan (b. 1720)
- June 15 – Marguerite de Launay, baronne de Staal, French author (b. 1684)
- July 15 – Vasily Tatishchev, Russian statesman, ethnographer (b. 1686)
- July 28
- July 31 – King John V of Portugal (b. 1689)
- August 8 – Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, English aristocrat, philanthropist and cricket patron (b. 1701)
- August 12 – Rachel Ruysch, Dutch painter (b. 1664)
- September 15 – Charles Theodore Pachelbel, German composer (b. 1690)
- October 3
- October 16 – Sylvius Leopold Weiss, German composer, lutenist (b. 1687)
- November 1 – Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff, Dutch Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (b. 1705)
- December 1 – Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer (b. 1671)
- December 13 – Philemon Ewer, English shipbuilder (b. 1702)
- December 16
- Butler, James H. (Summer 2012). "The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
IPCC takes the pre-industrial era (arbitrarily chosen as the year 1750) as the baseline.
- Holderness, B. A. (1976). Pre-industrial England : Economy and Society, 1500-1750. London: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0874719100.
- Newby, Elisa (2009). "Lecture II — Before the Industrial Revolution" (PDF). Cambridge: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 15, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- "Fires", in The New International Encyclopedia (Volume 8) (Dodd, Mead and Company, 1915 p604
- R. B. Cunninghame Graham, A Vanished Arcadia, being Some Account of the Jesuits in Paraguay (Haskell House Publishers, 1901, 1968) pp237-238
- Heather S. Nathans, Early American Theatre from the Revolution to Thomas Jefferson: Into the Hands of the People (Cambridge University Press, 2003) p30
- Henry P. Scalf, Kentucky's Last Frontier (The Overmountain Press, 2000) pp33-34
- "Antislavery Movements", by Marie-Annick Gournet, in France and the Americas, ed. by Bill Marshall (ABC-CLIO, 2005) p77
- Herbert Eugene Bolton, Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century— Studies in Spanish Colonial History and Administration (University of California Press, 1915) p303
- A. J. B. Johnston, Endgame 1758: The Promise, the Glory, and the Despair of Louisbourg's Last Decade (University of Nebraska Press, 2007) p60
- "Child Abduction Panic", in Outbreak!: The Encyclopedia of Extraordinary Social Behavior, ed. by Hilary Evans and Robert E. Bartholomew (Anomalist Books, LLC, 2009) pp83-84
- Henri Martin, The Decline of the French Monarchy (Walker, Fuller and Company, 1866) p395
- Halldór Hermannsson, Islandica: An Annual Relating to Iceland and the Fiske Icelandic Collection in Cornell University Library (Cornell University Library, 1922) p23
- Kevin Hillstrom and Laurie Collier Hillstrom, The Industrial Revolution in America (ABC-CLIO, 2005) pp4-5
- Alcira Duenas, Indians and Mestizos in the "Lettered City" (University Press of Colorado, 2011)
- Cornelius Walford, ed., The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p52
- Christopher C. Meyers, The Empire State of the South: Georgia History in Documents and Essays (Mercer University Press, 2008) p113
- Ian S. Glass, Nicolas-Louis De La Caille, Astronomer and Geodesist (Oxford University Press, 2013) pp30-33
- Thomas Maclear, Verification and Extension of La Caille's Arc of Meridian at the Cape of Good Hope (Mowry and Barclay, 1838) p58
- "Crispus Attucks— First martyr of the American Revolution", by Lerone Bennett, Jr., Ebony magazine (July 1968) p87
- KaaVonia Hinton, The Story of the Underground Railroad (Mitchell Lane Publishers, 2010) p24
- Max Savelle, Empires to Nations: Expansion in America, 1713-1824 (University of Minnesota Press, 1974) p131
- "The First Transfer at the Louvre in 1750: Andrea del Sarto's La Charite", by Gilberte Emile-Male, in Issues in the Conservation of Paintings (Getty Publications, 2004) p278
- Weinreb, Ben; Hibbert, Christopher (1995). The London Encyclopaedia. Macmillan. p. 976. ISBN 0-333-57688-8.
- John Kenrick, Musical Theatre: A History (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017) p36
- "In a Porcelain Mirror: Reflections of Russia from Peter I to Empress Elizabeth", by Lydia Liackhova, in Fragile Diplomacy: Moisson Porcelain for European courts ca. 1710-63 (Yale University Press, 2007) p74
- Fielding H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine: With Medical Chronology, Suggestions for Study and Bibliographic Data (W.B. Saunders Company, 1913) p394
- Clear, Todd R.; Cole, George F.; Resig, Michael D. (2006). American Corrections (7th ed.). Thompson.