1743 (MDCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1743rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 743rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1743, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2496|
|Balinese saka calendar||1664–1665|
|British Regnal year||16 Geo. 2 – 17 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||壬戌年 (Water Dog)|
4439 or 4379
— to —
癸亥年 (Water Pig)
4440 or 4380
|- Vikram Samvat||1799–1800|
|- Shaka Samvat||1664–1665|
|- Kali Yuga||4843–4844|
|Japanese calendar||Kanpō 3|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||169 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2285–2286|
1869 or 1488 or 716
— to —
1870 or 1489 or 717
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1743.|
- February 21 – George Frideric Handel's oratorio, Samson, premieres in London.
- March 2 – A British expeditionary fleet under Sir Charles Knowles is defeated by the Spanish in the Battle of La Guaira.
- May 10 – In New France, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville ends his final term (multiple times over 43 years) as Governor of colonial French Louisiana, which he helped colonize; he is succeeded by the Marquis de Vaudreuil (for the next 10 years) and returns to France.
- May 30 – The Dalecarlian rebellion (1743) breaks out in Sweden.
- June 27 (June 16 O.S.) – War of the Austrian Succession – Battle of Dettingen in Bavaria: British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Hesse, defeat a French army under the duc de Noailles; King George II of Great Britain (and Elector of Brunswick) leads his own troops, the last British king to do so.
- August 7 – Russia and Sweden sign the Treaty of Åbo.
- August 27 – Henry Pelham becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain.
- September 11 – Natalia Lopukhina is flogged in front of the Twelve Collegia building in Saint Petersburg.
- September 13 – The Treaty of Worms is signed between Great Britain, Austria and Sardinia.
- November 5 – Coordinated scientific observations of the transit of Mercury are organized by Joseph-Nicolas Delisle.
- January 1 – Sir William Parker, 1st Baronet, of Harburn, British admiral (d. 1802)
- January 18 – Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, French philosopher, "le philosophe inconnu" (d. 1803)
- January 25 – Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, German philosopher (d. 1819)
- February 13 – Sir Joseph Banks, British naturalist and botanist (d. 1820)
- February 19 – Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer (d. 1805)
- February 23 – Mayer Amschel Rothschild, German-born banker (d. 1812)
- February 28 – René Just Haüy, French "father of modern crystallography" (d. 1822)
- March – Joseph Brant, Mohawk leader (d. 1807)
- March 4 – Johann David Wyss, Swiss author (d. 1818)
- March 14 – Hannah Cowley, English dramatist and poet (d. 1809)
- March 28 (March 17 O.S.) – Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, Russian princess, courtier and patron of the arts and sciences (d. 1810)
- April – Etta Palm d'Aelders, Dutch-French feminist (d. 1799)
- April 1 – Richard Butler American general (d. 1793) April 13 – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States, author of the Declaration of American Independence (d. 1826)
- May 14 – Louis Lebègue Duportail French military leader in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War (d. 1802)
- May 17 – Seth Warner American revolutionary hero (d. 1784)
- May 20 – Toussaint Louverture, Haitian rebel (d. 1803)
- May 24 – Jean-Paul Marat, French revolutionary, doctor and scientist (d. 1793)
- June 2 – Alessandro Cagliostro, Italian Freemason (d. 1795)
- June 3
- August 26 – Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist (d. 1794)
- September 11 – Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard, Danish painter (d. 1809)
- September 17 – Marquis de Condorcet, French mathematician, philosopher and political scientist (d. 1794)
- October 20 – François Chopart, French surgeon (1795)
- November 11 – Carl Peter Thunberg, Swedish botanist (d. 1828)
- December 1 – Martin Heinrich Klaproth, German chemist, discoverer of uranium (1789), zirconium (1789) and cerium (1803) (d. 1817)
- December 23 – Ippolit Bogdanovich, Russian poet (d. 1803)
- date unknown
- January 3 – Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena, Italian architect/painter (b. 1657)
- January 29 – Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus, chief minister of France under Louis XV (b. 1653)
- January 29 – Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre, French writer (b. 1658)
- February 1 – Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni, Italian composer (b. 1657)
- February 7 – Lodovico Giustini, Italian composer (b. 1685)
- February 18 – Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, last of the Medicis (b. 1667)
- March 22 – Emerentia von Düben, Swedish royal favorite (b. 1669)
- March 28 – Karl Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, German noble (b. 1712)
- April 4 – Daniel Neal, English historian (b. 1678)
- April 20 – Alexandre-François Desportes, French painter (b. 1661)
- May 3 – Moritz Georg Weidmann, German bookseller (b. 1686)
- May 6 – Andrew Michael Ramsay, English Freemason (b. 1686)
- May 10 – Ehrengard Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal and Munster (b. 1667)
- March 14 – Jean-Paul Bignon, French priest and man of letters (b. 1662)
- March 23 – Lancelot Blackburne, Archbishop of York (b. 1658)
- April 15 – Eiler Hagerup, Norwegian Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1685)
- June 16 – Louise-Françoise de Bourbon, eldest daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan (b. 1673)
- July 2 – Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, British statesman, 2nd Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
- August 5 – John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey, English statesman and writer (b. 1696)
- August 30 – Henry Paget, 1st Earl of Uxbridge, British politician (b. 1663)
- September 14 – Nicolas Lancret, French painter (b. 1690)
- September 21 – Jai Singh II, King of Amber-Juiper, India (b. 1688)
- September 23 – Erik Benzelius the younger, Swedish priest (b. 1675)
- October 4 – John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, Scottish soldier (b. 1678)
- December 27 – Hyacinthe Rigaud, French painter (b. 1659)
- date unknown – Manuela Desvalls Vergós, Spanish nun, agent and political controversialist
- Giscombe, C. S. (Winter 2012). "Precarious Creatures". The Kenyon Review. Gambier, Ohio: Kenyon College. 34 (NS) (1): 157–175. JSTOR 41304743.
I looked it up later and found out that it's generally conceded that they were all dead by the 1680s. But a story persists that a fellow named MacQueen killed the last wolf in Scotland - and, implicitly, in all Britain - after that, in 1743. (Henry Shoemaker mentions the story in the section of Extinct Pennsylvania Animals that concerns wolves.)