1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1661st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 661st year of the 2nd millennium, the 61st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1661, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
April 7: The Siege of Fort Zeelandia, the Dutch East India Company's capital of what is now Taiwan, is started by thousands of troops from Mainland China commanded by General Koxinga.
1661 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1661
Ab urbe condita2414
Armenian calendar1110
Assyrian calendar6411
Balinese saka calendar1582–1583
Bengali calendar1068
Berber calendar2611
English Regnal year12 Cha. 2 – 13 Cha. 2
Buddhist calendar2205
Burmese calendar1023
Byzantine calendar7169–7170
Chinese calendar庚子年 (Metal Rat)
4358 or 4151
    — to —
辛丑年 (Metal Ox)
4359 or 4152
Coptic calendar1377–1378
Discordian calendar2827
Ethiopian calendar1653–1654
Hebrew calendar5421–5422
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1717–1718
 - Shaka Samvat1582–1583
 - Kali Yuga4761–4762
Holocene calendar11661
Igbo calendar661–662
Iranian calendar1039–1040
Islamic calendar1071–1072
Japanese calendarManji 4 / Kanbun 1
Javanese calendar1583–1584
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3994
Minguo calendar251 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar193
Thai solar calendar2203–2204
Tibetan calendar阳金鼠年
(male Iron-Rat)
1787 or 1406 or 634
    — to —
(female Iron-Ox)
1788 or 1407 or 635
March 9: The death of Cardinal Mazarin clears the way for the rule of King Louis XIV in France.
January 30: The posthumous execution of Oliver Cromwell is carried out more than two years after his death.

Events edit

January–March edit

April–June edit

  • April 7 – The siege of Fort Zeelandia, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) headquarters on the Chinese island of Taiwan (near modern Taoyuan City) is started by Koxinga and his invading force from China.[3]
  • April 23 (May 3 N.S.) – King Charles II of England, Scotland, and Ireland is crowned in Westminster Abbey.[4]
  • May 8 – The "Cavalier Parliament", the longest serving Parliament in British history, is opened following the first parliamentary elections since the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. The first session of the House of Commons and the House of Lords lasts until June 30 and then reopens on November 20. The Cavalier Parliament continues meeting, without new elections, until being dissolved on January 24, 1679.
  • May 11 – The Indian city and territory of Bombay is ceded by Portugal to England in accordance with the dowry of King Joao IV of Portugal for the marriage of his daughter Catherine to King Charles II of England.
  • May 17 – Leaders of the indigenous Taiwanese villages in the plains and mountains of the Dutch-ruled island begin surrendering to the Chinese forces led by Koxinga and agreeing to hunt down and execute Dutch people on the island.[5]
  • May 27 – The Marquess of Argyll, one of the first of the Scottish-born people sentenced to death as a regicide for his role in the conviction and execution of King Charles I of England and Scotland in 1649, is beheaded at the Tolbooth Prison in Edinburgh using the "Scottish Maiden," almost immediately after his conviction of collaboration with the government of Oliver Cromwell. His head is then placed on a spike outside the prison.
  • June 1 – At Edinburgh, the public execution of Presbyterian minister James Guthrie, followed by Captain William Govan, takes place at the Mercat Cross at Parliament Square, days after both have been convicted of treason for their roles in the execution of King Charles I. The heads are severed from the corpses and displayed on spikes in the square.
  • June 3Pye Min, younger brother of King Pindale Min of Burma, leads a bloody coup d'etat and ascends the throne. Pindale Min and his family (including his primary wife, a son and a grandson) are drowned in the Chindwin River.[6] Pye Min reigns until 1672.
  • June 14 – General Zheng Chenggong of China takes control of most of the island of Taiwan from the Dutch East India Company and proclaims the Kingdom of Tungning, with himself as the ruler.
  • June 23 – The "Marriage Treaty" is signed between representatives of King Charles II of England and King João IV of Portugal, providing a military alliance between the two kingdoms and a marriage between Charles of the House of Stuart and João's daughter Catherine of the House of Braganza on May 21, 1662. The treaty also sets the transfer of Portuguese territory in India (at Bombay) and in North Africa (Tangier) to England as well as military aid from England to Portugal.
  • June 28 – The innovative Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre opens in London with the first system for interchangeable scenery on a stage in the British Isles, and a production of William Davenant's opera The Siege of Rhodes.

July–September edit

October–December edit

Date unknown edit

Births edit

Charles II of Spain
Christopher Polhem

Deaths edit

Martino Martini
Köprülü Mehmed Pasha

References edit

  1. ^ "Leigh Rayment's list of baronets". Archived from the original on October 21, 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  2. ^ D. G. E. Hall, History of South East Asia (The Macmillan Press, 1955) p. 422
  3. ^ Andrade, Tonio (2008), "Chapter 11: The Fall of Dutch Taiwan", How Taiwan Became Chinese : Dutch, Spanish and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 9780231128551
  4. ^ Price, Curtis (1995). Purcell studies. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 245. ISBN 9780521441742.
  5. ^ Hsin-hui Chiu, The Colonial 'civilizing Process' in Dutch Formosa, 1624-1662 (BRILL, 2008) p. 222
  6. ^ Damrong Rajanubhab, Our Wars With the Burmese: Thai-Burmese Conflict 1539–1767 (1914, reprinted White Lotus Co. Ltd., 2001)
  7. ^ Mohindar Pal Kohli (1992). Guru Tegh Bahadur: Testimony of Conscience. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-81-7201-234-2.
  8. ^ Wang, Rigen (2000). "元明清政府海洋政策与东南沿海港市的兴衰嬗变片论" (PDF). The Journal of Chinese Social and Economic History (in Chinese (China)) (2): 1–7.
  9. ^ Burke's Royal Families of the World. Burke's Peerage. 1977. p. 467.
  10. ^ Fuhring, Peter; Marchesano, Louis; Mathis, Remi; Selbach, Vanessa (June 18, 2015). A Kingdom of Images: French Prints in the Age of Louis XIV, 1660–1715. Getty Publications. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-60606-450-4.
  11. ^ Brown, Jonathan (1998). Painting in Spain : 1500-1700. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 233. ISBN 9780300064742.
  12. ^ "Thomas Venner". www.britishmuseum.org. Retrieved November 20, 2022.