The 1660s decade ran from January 1, 1660, to December 31, 1669.
- January 1
- February 3 – George Monck and his regiment arrive in London.
- February 13 – Charles XI becomes king of Sweden at the age of five, upon the death of his father, Charles X Gustavus.
- February 27 – John Thurloe is reinstated as England's Secretary of State, having been deprived of his offices late in the previous year.
- March 16 – The Long Parliament disbands.
- April 4 – The Declaration of Breda promises amnesty, freedom of conscience, and army back pay, in return for support for the English Restoration.
- May 3 – Treaty of Oliva: Peace is made between Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Habsburgs and Brandenburg-Prussia.
- May 8 – The Parliament of England declares Prince Charles Stuart, King Charles II of England.
- May 15 – John Thurloe is arrested for high treason, for his support of Oliver Cromwell's regime.
- May 25 – Charles II of England lands at Dover.
- May 27 – The Treaty of Copenhagen is signed, marking the conclusion of the Second Northern War. Sweden returns Trøndelag to Norway, and Bornholm to Denmark.
- May 29 – King Charles II of England arrives in London and assumes the throne, marking the beginning of the English Restoration.
- June 1 – Mary Dyer is hanged for defying a law banning Quakers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
- June 29 – John Thurloe is released from custody.
- August 19 – Dr Edward Stanley preaches a sermon in the nave of Winchester Cathedral, to commemorate the return of the Chapter, following the English Restoration.
- September 25 – Samuel Pepys has his first cup of tea (an event recorded in his diary).
- October 17 – The ten regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles I of England are hanged, drawn and quartered, a process which includes their being disemboweled and their bowels burned before their eyes.
- November 28 – At Gresham College in London, twelve men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray meet after a lecture by Wren, and decide to found "a College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematicall Experimentall Learning" (later known as the Royal Society).
- December – Andres Malong, a native chieftain of Pangasinan, Philippines, leads a revolt against the Spanish regime.
- December 8 – The first actress appears on the professional stage in England in a non-singing rôle, as Desdemona in Othello, following reopening of the theatres (variously considered to be Margaret Hughes, Anne Marshall or Katherine Corey).
- The Royal African Company is founded by James II of England, to trade slaves along the coast of West Africa.
- Blaise Pascal's Lettres provinciales, a defense of the Jansenist Antoine Arnauld, is ordered to be shredded and burned by King Louis XIV of France.
- The expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique is carried out, by French occupying forces.
- Hopkins School is founded.
- The Rigsraad (High Council) of Denmark is abolished and Denmark–Norway becomes an absolute monarchy with the Kingdom of Denmark as a hereditary monarchy by Frederik III.
- A permanent standing army is established in Prussia.
- January 6 – The Fifth Monarchists unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London; George Monck's regiment defeats them.
- January 30 – The body of Oliver Cromwell is exhumed and subjected to a posthumous execution, along with those of John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton.
- February 5 – The Shunzhi Emperor of the Chinese Qing Dynasty dies, and is succeeded by his son the Kangxi Emperor.
- February 14 – George Monck’s regiment becomes The Lord General's Regiment of Foot Guards (which later becomes Coldstream Guards).
- March – Following the death of his mentor, Cardinal Mazarin, King Louis XIV of France starts to rule independently.
- April 7 – The Siege of Fort Zeelandia by Chinese-Japanese warlord Koxinga begins.
- April 23 – King Charles II of England, Scotland, and Ireland is crowned in Westminster Abbey, for the second time.
- July 1 – Russo-Swedish War (1656–58) – Treaty of Cardis: Russia surrenders to Sweden all captured territories.
- August 6 – Portugal and the Dutch Republic sign the Treaty of The Hague, whereby New Holland is formally ceded to Portugal by the Dutch Republic.
- September 5 – Fall of Nicolas Fouquet: Louis XIV Superintendent of Finances is arrested in Nantes.
- November 4 – Battle of Kushliki: Polish–Lithuanian forces defeat the Russian army.
- The first modern bank notes are issued in Stockholm, Sweden.
- Köprülü Mehmed Pasha ends his rule as vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
- The Great Clearance spreads to Guangdong.
- January 23 – Battle of Nagyszőllős: János Kemény of Transylvania is killed.
- February 1 – Chinese general Koxinga seizes the Dutch Fort Zeelandia on the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege, then establishes the Kingdom of Tungning. In response, the Kangxi Emperor of the mainland Qing Dynasty migrates all residents along the southern coast, by 50 miles.
- March 18 – A short-lived experiment of the first public buses (holding eight passengers) begins in Paris.
- May 3 – John Winthrop the Younger, the son of the first governor of Massachusetts, is honoured by being made a fellow of the Royal Society, England's new scientific society. Winthrop uses his election to the Society to gain access to the king, who grants him a new charter, uniting the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven.
- May 9 – Samuel Pepys witnesses a Punch and Judy show in London (the first on record).
- May 16 – The Hearth tax is introduced in England, Wales and Scotland.
- May 30 – Catherine of Braganza marries Charles II of England; as part of the dowry, Portugal cedes Bombay and Tangier to England.
- July 15 – The Royal Society receives an official charter in London.
- August 24 – The Act of Uniformity is introduced, making mandatory in the Church of England the forms of worship prescribed in the new edition of the Book of Common Prayer. This is followed by the Great Ejection of over 2,000 clergy, who refuse to take the required oath of conformity to the established church.
- October 27 – Charles II of England sells Dunkirk to France, for £400,000 (2.5 million French livres).
- November – Zheng Jing claims the Kingdom of Tungning.
- November 28 – The English Royal Society holds its first meeting.
- December 20 – Nicolas Fouquet is banished from France.
- December 26 – Molière's play, The School for Wives, premières in Paris.
- Robert Boyle publishes Nova experimenta physico-mechanica in Oxford (2nd edition), setting forth the law bearing his name.
- Joan Blaeu publishes Atlas Maior, sive cosmographia Blaviana in Amsterdam (first complete edition, 11 volumes in Latin).
- Milton, Massachusetts is incorporated as a town.
- John Graunt, in one of the earliest uses of statistics, publishes statistical information about births and deaths in London.
- The Akademie der Bildenden Künste Nürnberg is founded in Germany.
- The dodo bird was seen for the
- January 10 – The Royal African Company is granted a Royal Charter, by Charles II of England.
- February – English pirates carry out The Sack of Campeche.
- March 4 – The Prince Edward Islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean are discovered by Barent Barentszoon Lam, of the Dutch ship Maerseveen, and named Dina (Prince Edward) and Maerseveen (Marion).
- March 5 – Emperor Go-Sai's reign ends, and Emperor Reigen ascends to the throne of Japan.
- March 24 – King Charles II of England issues the Charter of Carolina, establishing the Province of Carolina, and dividing it between eight Lords Proprietors.
- April 17 – The Turks declare war against Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
- May 7 – The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, opens in London.
- June 8 – Battle of Ameixial: The Portuguese and some English auxiliaries defeat the Spanish.
- July 8 – King Charles II of England grants John Clarke a Royal Charter, for the American Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
- July 27 – The English Parliament passes the second Navigation Act, requiring that all goods bound for the American colonies have to be sent in English ships from English ports.
- August 21 – Concerned about the wintry weather, the Parliament of England holds an intercessory fast.
- August 28 – Severe frost hits England.
- July–Sept – The Esopus Wars in and around Kingston, New York, against the Esopus tribe of the Delaware Indians, are ended after four years, by a coalition of Dutch settlers, Wappinger and Mohawk tribes.
- The Prix de Rome Scholarship is established, for students of the arts.
- The first Maroon community arises in Suriname.
- Robert Hooke discovers that cork is made of "tiny little rooms", which he first calls "Cells".
- Publication at Cambridge in the Massachusetts Bay Colony of the "Eliot Indian Bible" (Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God) becomes the first complete Bible published in the Americas, a translation by English-born Puritan missionary John Eliot of the Geneva Bible, from English into the Massachusett language (Natic or Wômpanâak) variety of the Algonquian languages.
- January 5 – Battle of Surat: Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji defeats Mughal Emperor Inayat Khan, and sacks Surat.
- May 9 – Robert Hooke discovers Jupiter's Great Red Spot.
- June – Gazzetta di Mantova is first published in Mantua, Italy. By 2018 it will be the world's oldest private newspaper still published, and the oldest continuously published in print.
- January 5 – The Journal des sçavans begins publication in France, the first scientific journal.
- March 4 – The Second Anglo-Dutch War begins.
- March 6 – The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication, the first scientific journal in English.
- March 11 – A new legal code is approved for the Dutch and English towns of New York, guaranteeing all Protestants the right to continue their religious observances unhindered.
- March 16 – Bucharest allows Jews to settle in the city, in exchange for an annual tax of 16 guilders.
- April 12 – Margaret Porteous is the first person recorded to die in the Great Plague of London. This last major outbreak of Bubonic plague in the British Isles has possibly been introduced by Dutch prisoners of war since 1331 in China. Two-thirds of Londoners leave the city, but over 68,000 die. The plague spreads to Derbyshire.
- May 19 – Great fire of Newport, Shropshire, England.
- June 12 – England installs a municipal government in New York City (the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam).
- June 13 (June 3 O.S.) – Second Anglo-Dutch War: The English naval victory at the Battle of Lowestoft under James Stuart, Duke of York.
- June 30 – King Charles II of England issues a second charter for the Province of Carolina, which clarifies and expands the borders of the Lords Proprietors' tracts.
- July 3 – The first documented case of cyclopia is found in a horse.
- July 7 – King Charles II of England leaves London with his entourage, fleeing the Great Plague. He moves his court to Salisbury, then Exeter.
- August – The Great Plague forces the closure of the University of Cambridge, where Isaac Newton is a student. Newton retires to his home in Lincolnshire for safety, and stays there for two years. During that time alone, Newton will make groundbreaking discoveries in mathematics, calculus, mechanics, and optics, and lay the foundations for his books Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica and Optiks.
- August 2 – Second Anglo-Dutch War: The Dutch fleet defeats the English in the Battle of Vågen.
- August 27 – Ye Bare & Ye Cubbe, the first play in English in the American colonies, is performed in Pungoteague, Virginia.
- September – Robert Hooke's Micrographia is published in London, first applying the term 'cell' to plant tissue, which he discovered first in cork, then in living organisms, using a microscope.
- September 17 – Charles II of Spain becomes king, while not yet four years old.
- September 22 – Molière's L'Amour médecin is first presented, before Louis XIV of France, at the Palace of Versailles, with music by Jean-Baptiste Lully.
- October 5 – The University of Kiel is founded.
- October 21 – Louis XIV of France and Jean-Baptiste Colbert found the Manufacture royale des glaces of Saint Gobain, which is the oldest French company of the CAC 40, with 350 years in 2015.
- October 29 – Battle of Mbwila: Portuguese forces defeat and kill King António I of Kongo.
- November 7 – The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published as The Oxford Gazette.
- December 10 – The Royal Netherlands Marine Corps is founded by Michiel de Ruyter.
- The Colonisation of Réunion begins, with the French East India Company sending twenty settlers.
- Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga is invested as Duke of Mantua.
- Joan Blaeu completes publication of his Atlas Maior (Theatrum Orbis Terrarum) in Amsterdam.
- John Bunyan publishes The End of the World, The Resurrection of the Dead and Eternal Judgment and The Holy City or the New Jerusalem.
- English poet John Milton popularizes the Chinese sailing carriage in a famous poem; this peculiar Chinese invention was first written of in the West by Abraham Ortelius, in his atlas of 1584.
- January 13 – French traveller Jean-Baptiste Tavernier arrives in Dhaka, and meets Shaista Khan.
- January 17 – The Chair of Saint Peter (Cathedra Petri, designed by Bernini) is set above the altar, in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
- February 1 – The English royal court returns to London, as the Great Plague of London subsides.
- March 11 – The tower of St. Peter's Church, Riga, collapses, burying eight people in the rubble.
- May 3 – According to manuscripts, Isaac Newton witnesses the falling of an apple on this day, which leads him to discover gravity.
- June 4 – Molière's comedy The Misanthrope is premièred at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal in Paris, by the King's Players.
- June 11–14 (June 1–4 Julian calendar) – Second Anglo-Dutch War – Four Days' Battle: The Dutch Republic fleet under Michiel de Ruyter defeats that of the Kingdom of England in the North Sea, in one of the longest naval engagements in history.
- July – The town of Piteå, Sweden is completely burned by a large fire.
- August 4 (July 25 Julian calendar) – Second Anglo-Dutch War – St. James's Day Battle: The English fleet, under Prince Rupert of the Rhine and George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, defeats the Dutch off the North Foreland of England.
- August 19–20 (August 9–10 Julian calendar) – Holmes's Bonfire: Rear Admiral Robert Holmes leads an English raid on the Dutch island of Terschelling, destroying 150 merchant ships in the Vlie estuary, and pillaging the town of West-Terschelling.
- September 2–5 – Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in the City of London, in the house of a baker on Pudding Lane, near London Bridge. The fire destroys more than 13,000 buildings (including Old St Paul's Cathedral), but only six people are known to have died, whilst at least 80,000 were left destitute and homeless. The re-surveying of property is credited with giving both cartography and the practices of surveying a leg up, as well as resulting in the modern definition by John Ogilby of the statute mile, as 1760 yards.
- September 6 – The Cestui que Vie Act 1666 is passed by the Parliament of England, to provide for disposal of the property of missing persons.
- September 7 – Samuel Pepys describes the aftermath (two days prior) of the Great Fire of London in his diary, and details the city in ruins.
- September 16 – Apostasy of Sabbatai Zevi in Istanbul.
- November 28 – Pentland Rising Pentland Hills in Scotland. The Battle of Rullion Green in the Pentland Hills, in Lothian, Scotland on 28 November 1666 was the culmination of the brief Pentland Rising (15–28 November 1666). At least 3000 men of the Scottish Royal Army led by Tam Dalyell of the Binns opposed about 900 Covenanter rebels.
- December 12 – A sobor (church council) of the Russian Orthodox Church deposes Patriarch Nikon of Moscow, but accepts his liturgical reforms. Dissenters from his reforms, known as Old Believers, continue to this day.
- December 22 – The French Academy of Sciences, founded by Louis XIV, first meets.
- Mughal forces of Emperor Aurangzeb, in alliance with the Portuguese, under Shaista Khan and his son Buzurg Umed Khan, expel the Arakans from the Bengal port city of Chittagong, renaming the city as Islamabad.
- Moulai al-Rashid conquers Fes, marking the beginning of Morocco's Alaouite Dynasty, which will continue in power into the 21st century.
- Isaac Newton uses a prism to split sunlight (Deus phos) into the component colours of the optical spectrum, assisting understanding of the scientific nature of light. He also develops differential calculus. His discoveries this year lead to it being referred to as his Annus mirabilis or Newton's Year of the Morning Star.
- Lund University is founded in Lund, Sweden.
- Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer paints The Art of Painting, his largest and most complex work.
- The first completed printed Bible translation into Armenian, Astuacašunč hnoc' ew noroc' ktakaranac (Oskanean Bible), is published in Amsterdam, edited by Bishop Oskan Yerevantsi.
- Jean Talon completes a census of New France, the first census in North America.
- January 20 – Russo-Polish War (1654–67): Poland cedes Kiev, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo, which puts a final end to Poland's status as a major Central European power.
- February – The first theatre in Scandinavia opens, in Lejonkulan and Bollhuset in Stockholm, Sweden.
- March – Louis XIV of France abolishes the livre parisis (Paris pound), in favor of the much more widely used livre tournois (Tours pound). He also designates Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie as the first chief of "police" of Paris.
- March 27 – In North America (Canada), explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle is released from the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
- April 6 – Dubrovnik earthquake: An earthquake in the Republic of Ragusa kills one fifth of the population.
- April 27 – The blind, impoverished, 58-year-old John Milton seals a contract for publication of Paradise Lost with London printer Samuel Simmons, for an initial payment of £5. The first edition is published in October and sells out in eighteen months.
- May 24 – The War of Devolution begins: France invades Flanders and Franche-Comté.
- June 9–14 – Raid on the Medway: A Dutch fleet under Admiral Michiel de Ruyter burns Sheerness, sails up the River Medway in England, raids Chatham Dockyard, and tows away the royal flagship The Royal Charles.
- June 15 – The first human blood transfusion is administered by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys. He transfuses the blood of a sheep to a 15-year-old boy (though this operation is a success, a later patient dies from the procedure and Denys is accused of murder).
- June 20 – Pope Clement IX succeeds Pope Alexander VII, becoming the 238th pope.
- June 26 – Louis XIV of France conquers Tournai.
- July 31 – Second Anglo-Dutch War – The Treaty of Breda ends the war, and recognizes Acadia as a French possession.
- September 6 – The "Dreadful Hurricane of 1667" ravages southeast Virginia, bringing 12 days of rain, blowing down plantation homes and stripping fields of crops.
- October 18
- November 25 – A devastating earthquake rocks Caucasia, killing 80,000 people.
- Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb buys off the warrior Shivaji, by making him a Rajah, and allowing him to collect taxes.
- Robert Hooke demonstrates that the alteration of the blood in the lungs is essential for respiration.
- The French army uses grenadiers.
- The first military campaign of Stenka Razin is conducted in Russia.
- Isaac Newton has investigated and written his works in subjects of optics, acoustics, the infinitesimal calculus, mechanism and thermodynamics. The researches themselves will be published only years later.
- January – The Triple Alliance of 1668 is formed between England, Sweden and the United Provinces.
- February 13 – In Lisbon, a peace treaty is established between Afonso VI of Portugal and Carlos II of Spain, by mediation of Charles II of England, in which the legitimacy of the Portuguese monarch is recognized. Portugal yields Ceuta to Spain.
- May 2 – The first Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of Devolution.
- July 7 – Bishop Isaac Barrow founds the Bishop Barrow Trust with the intention of establishing a university on the Isle of Man; this becomes King William's College.
- July – Welsh privateer Henry Morgan sacks Portobello and Panama City; the lack of booty from the latter attack leads to the city being burned.
- September 9 – Molière's comedy The Miser (L'Avare) is first performed, in Paris.
- September 21 – The British East India Company takes over Bombay under a Royal Charter of March 27.
- One of the world's earliest central banks, the Sveriges Riksbank, is founded in Stockholm, Sweden.
- Emperor Yohannes I of Ethiopia convenes a church council in Gondar, which decides to expel all Roman Catholics from the country.
- English scientist Isaac Newton builds the first reflecting telescope (Newton's reflector).
- March 11 – Mount Etna erupts, destroying the town of Nicolosi
- May 31 – Samuel Pepys stops writing his diary.
- June 22 – Roux de Marsilly, accused of plotting the assassination of King Louis XIV of France, is publicly tortured in Paris, France.
- June 25 – François de Vendôme, Duke of Beaufort, disappears in battle, during the Siege of Candia in Crete.
- July – The Hanseatic League, after 400 years of operation, holds its last official meeting in Lübeck.
- September 6 – Francesco Morosini, capitano generale of the Venetian forces in the Siege of Candia, surrenders to the Ottomans.
- September 23 – Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor grants the status and privileges of a university to the Jesuit Academy in Zagreb, the precursor to the modern University of Zagreb.
- Shakushain's Revolt breaks out in Hokkaido, Japan.
- The Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb destroys several Hindu temples (e.g. Kashi Vishwanath and Kesava Deo), and prohibits the whole religion, leading to Hindu rebellion.
- Ottoman units burn the eastern part of Kolárovo.
- The Chinese Kangxi Emperor allows coastal residents deported in 1662 to return home.
- Famine in Bengal kills 3 million people.
- Phosphorus is discovered by Hennig Brand.
- Antonio Stradivari makes his first violin.
- Okaya & Co., Ltd., is founded in Nagoya, Japan.
- The Chinese herbal medicine company Tongrentang, or 同仁堂 in Chinese, is established.
- Blaise Pascal's Pensées is posthumously published in Paris.
- Jan Swammerdam publishes his Algemeene Verhandeling van de bloedeloose dierkens, a groundbreaking work in microscopy, as well as entomology.
- The Orange College of Breda was wound up.
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The sums involved are modest but quite normal.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
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