1733 (MDCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1733rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 733rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 33rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1730s decade. As of the start of 1733, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2486|
|Balinese saka calendar||1654–1655|
|British Regnal year||6 Geo. 2 – 7 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||壬子年 (Water Rat)|
4429 or 4369
— to —
癸丑年 (Water Ox)
4430 or 4370
|- Vikram Samvat||1789–1790|
|- Shaka Samvat||1654–1655|
|- Kali Yuga||4833–4834|
|Japanese calendar||Kyōhō 18|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||179 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2275–2276|
1859 or 1478 or 706
— to —
1860 or 1479 or 707
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1733.|
- February 12 – British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia.
- March – The Molasses Act is passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, which reinforces the negative opinions of the British by American colonists.
- April – Royal Colony of North Carolina Commissioners John Watson, Joshua Grainger, Michael Higgins and James Wimble plan the town of New Carthage (which will eventually become Wilmington, North Carolina, on the east side of the Cape Fear River).
- May 1 – The canton system is first introduced in Prussia.
- May 29 – The right of Canadians to keep Indian slaves is upheld at Quebec.
- July 30 – The first Freemasons lodge opens in what will become the United States of America.
- October 5 – The election of Augustus III, to succeed his father as King of Poland, sparks the War of the Polish Succession.
- October 24 – The Battle of Kirkuk starts which will lead to the defeat of the Ottoman army under general Topal Osman Pasha.
- November 23 – The 1733 slave insurrection on St. John begins: Slaves from Akwamu rebel against their owners in the Danish West Indies.
- January 22 – Philip Carteret, British Naval Officer (d. 1796)
- January 24 – Benjamin Lincoln, major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and politician (d. 1810)
- March 13 – Joseph Priestley, English scientist and minister (d. 1804)
- May 4 – Jean-Charles de Borda, French mathematician, physicist, political scientist, and sailor (d. 1799)
- July 27 – Jeremiah Dixon, English surveyor and astronomer (d. 1779)
- September 5 – Christoph Martin Wieland, German poet and writer (d. 1813)
- September 18 – George Read, American lawyer and signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1798)
- October 14 – François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt, Austrian field marshal (d. 1798)
- October 15 – Lisa Eriksdotter, Finnish visionary
- November 16 – Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent ruler of Bengal of undivided India (d. 1757)
- November 20 – Philip Schuyler, general in the American Revolution, United States Senator from New York, father of Angelica Schuyler Church and Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (d. 1804)
- undated - Johanna Löfblad, Swedish actor and singer (d. 1811)
- January 17 – George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington, English Royal Navy admiral (b. 1663)
- January 21 – Bernard Mandeville, Dutch-born English economic philosopher (b. 1670)
- January 22 – Lovisa von Burghausen, Swedish memoirist (b. 1698)
- January 25 – Gilbert Heathcote, Mayor of London (b. 1652)
- January 27 – Thomas Woolston, English theologian (b. 1668)
- February 1 – King Augustus II the Strong of Poland (b. 1670)
- February 2 – Robert Price (judge), British judge and politician (b. 1653)
- February 16 – Ulrika Eleonora Stålhammar, Swedish officer (b. 1683)
- March 4 – Claude de Forbin, French naval commander (b. 1656)
- April 14 – Ippolito Desideri, Italian tibetologist (b. 1684)
- April 19 – Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of Orkney, mistress of William III of England (b. 1657)
- May 1 – Nicolas Coustou, French artist (b. 1658)
- May 3 – Sir Richard Cox, 1st Baronet, England (b. 1650)
- May 10 – Barton Booth, English actor (b. 1681)
- May 18 – Georg Böhm, German organist (b. 1661)
- June 23 – Johann Jakob Scheuchzer, Swiss scholar (b. 1672)
- July 12 – Anne-Thérèse de Marguenat de Courcelles, French salon holder (b. 1647)
- August 16 – Matthew Tindal, English deist (b. 1657)
- August 24 – Pierre-Étienne Monnot, French artist (b. 1657)
- September 12 – François Couperin, French composer (b. 1668)
- October 19 – Sir Thomas Molyneux, 1st Baronet, Irish politician (b. 1661)
- October 25 – Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri, Italian mathematician (b. 1667)
- October 31 – Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg, (b. 1676)
- November 11 – Willem Adriaan van der Stel, Dutch colonial administrator (b. 1664)
- December 2 – Gerard Hoet, Dutch painter (b. 1648)