1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1682nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 682nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1682, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2435|
|Balinese saka calendar||1603–1604|
|English Regnal year||33 Cha. 2 – 34 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)|
4378 or 4318
— to —
壬戌年 (Water Dog)
4379 or 4319
|- Vikram Samvat||1738–1739|
|- Shaka Samvat||1603–1604|
|- Kali Yuga||4782–4783|
|Japanese calendar||Tenna 2|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||230 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2224–2225|
1808 or 1427 or 655
— to —
1809 or 1428 or 656
- March 11 – Work begins on construction of the Royal Hospital Chelsea for old soldiers in London, England.
- March 22 – A fire breaks out in Newmarket, Suffolk, consuming half the town and spreading into sections of surrounding Cambridgeshire. Historian Laurence Echard describes it later as "A Providential Fire", noting that King Charles II "by the approach of the fury of the flames was immediately driven out of his own palace", and, after moving to safety in another section of town, was forced to flee again "when the wind, as conducted by an invisible power, suddenly changed about, and blew the smoke and cinders directly on his new lodgings, and in a moment made them as untenable as the other."
- April 7 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, exploring rivers in America, reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River.
- April 9 – At the mouth of the Mississippi River, near modern Venice, Louisiana, Robert de La Salle buries an engraved plate and a cross, claiming the territory as La Louisiane for France.
- May 6 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.
- May 7 – The reign of Peter the Great officially begins in Russia.
- May 11 – Moscow Uprising of 1682: A mob takes over the Kremlin and lynches the leading boyars and military commanders.
- July 19 – Iyasus succeeds his father Yohannes I as Emperor of Ethiopia.
- August 12 – Vesuvius begins a period of volcanic activity lasting for 10 days.
- August 25 – Following the Bideford witch trial, three women become the last known to be hanged for witchcraft in England, at Exeter.
- September 14 – Bishop Gore School is founded in Swansea, Wales.
- September – A comet is observed, which later becomes known as Comet Halley, after Edmond Halley successfully predicts that it will return in 1758.
- October 12 – Sultan Mehmed IV departs Istanbul for Adrianople.
- October 19 – Kara Mustafa departs with the Ottoman army to Adrianople.
- October 27 – The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded by William Penn.
- November 22 – Nearly 1,000 houses in Wapping, London are destroyed in a fire.
- Celia Fiennes, noblewoman and traveller, begins her journeys across Britain, in a venture that will prove to be her life's work. Her aim is to chronicle the towns, cities and great houses of the country. Her travels continue until at least 1712, and will take her to every county in England, though the main body of her journal is not written until the year 1702.
- The Richard Wall House, believed to be the longest continuously-inhabited residence in the US, is built in Pennsylvania.
- February 25 – Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Italian anatomist (d. 1771)
- April 16 – John Hadley, English inventor (d. 1744)
- May 17 – Bartholomew Roberts, a.k.a. Black Bart, Welsh pirate (d. 1722)
- June 17 – King Charles XII of Sweden (d. 1718)
- July 10 – Roger Cotes, English mathematician (d. 1716)
- August 16 – Louis, duc de Bourgogne, heir to the throne of France (d. 1712)
- October 29 – Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, French historian (d. 1761)
- date unknown – Margareta Capsia, Finnish artist (d. 1759)
- January 1 – Jacob Kettler, German noble (b. 1610)
- January 3 – Olaus Verelius, scholar of Old Norse and Scandinavian studies (b. 1618)
- February 2 – Jean Le Pautre, French designer and engraver (b. 1618)
- February 10 – Sir William Hickman, 2nd Baronet, Member of the House of Commons of England (b. 1629)
- February 15
- February 18 – Pierre Dupuis, French painter (b. 1610)
- February 19 – Frederick of Hesse-Darmstadt, German Catholic cardinal (b. 1616)
- February 25
- March 13 – Dorothea Augusta of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, German duchess (b. 1602)
- March 14 – Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael, Dutch painter (b. c. 1628)
- March 24 – Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt, German duke (b. 1615)
- March 31 – John Frescheville, 1st Baron Frescheville, English politician (b. 1607)
- April 1 – Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, German politician and Archbishop of Strasbourg (b. 1625)
- April 3 – Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Spanish painter (b. 1618)
- April 6 – Johann von Hoverbeck, Prussian diplomat (b. 1606)
- April 8 – François Perrochel, French cleric (b. 1602)
- April 27 – Heo Mok, Korean politician, poet and scholar (b. 1595)
- May 7 – Tsar Feodor III of Russia (b. 1661)
- May 28 – Henri, Duke of Verneuil, French bishop (b. 1601)
- July 12 – Jean Picard, French astronomer (b. 1620)
- July 19 – Yohannes I, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. c. 1640)
- August 12 – Jean-Louis Raduit de Souches, German Imperial field marshal (b. 1608)
- August 24
- August 26 – William Wirich, Count of Daun-Falkenstein, German nobleman (b. 1613)
- September 8 – Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Spanish writer (b. 1606)
- September 16 – Yamazaki Ansai, Japanese philosopher (b. 1619)
- October 19 – Sir Thomas Browne, English author, physician and philosopher (b. 1605)
- October 20 – António das Chagas, Portuguese Franciscan friar and ascetical writer (b. 1631)
- November 2 – Francis Browne, 3rd Viscount Montagu in the Peerage of England (b. 1610)
- November 4 – Dirck Rembrantsz van Nierop, Dutch astronomer and cartographer (b. 1610)
- November 14 – Rijcklof van Goens, Dutch colonial governor (b. 1619)
- November 23 – Claude Lorrain, Lorraine-born landscape painter (b. c. 1600)
- November 28 – Valentine Greatrakes, Irish faith healer (b. 1628)
- November 29 – Prince Rupert of the Rhine, German soldier, Royalist commander in the English Civil War (b. 1619)
- December 18
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Walford, Cornelius, ed. (1876). "Fires, Great". The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance. C. & E. Layton. p. 44.
- Gent, Frank J. (1982). The Trial of the Bideford Witches. Bideford.