1609 (MDCIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1609th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 609th year of the 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1609, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2362|
|Balinese saka calendar||1530–1531|
|English Regnal year||6 Ja. 1 – 7 Ja. 1|
|Chinese calendar||戊申年 (Earth Monkey)|
4305 or 4245
— to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4306 or 4246
|- Vikram Samvat||1665–1666|
|- Shaka Samvat||1530–1531|
|- Kali Yuga||4709–4710|
|Japanese calendar||Keichō 14|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||303 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2151–2152|
1735 or 1354 or 582
— to —
1736 or 1355 or 583
- January – The Basque witch trials begin.
- January 15 – One of the world's first newspapers, Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, begins publication in Wolfenbüttel (Holy Roman Empire).
- January 31 – The Bank of Amsterdam is established.
- February 4 – The last day of Keichō 慶長 13 (according to the Japanese lunar calendar).
- March – Hugo Grotius publishes Mare Liberum, his legal text on freedom of the seas, in Leiden.
- April 4
- April 5 – Invasion of Ryukyu in Japan: Soldiers of the Shimazu clan capture the castle on Ryukyu Island, beginning to make the Ryukyu Kingdom a vassal of Satsuma Han. But Ryukyu was still allowed to keep itself a tribute state of Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty.
- April 9 – Treaty of Antwerp: The Netherlands and Spain agree to the Twelve Years' Truce (1609–1621) in the Eighty Years' War, allowing the Dutch East India Company to trade within the Spanish Empire.
- May 20 – London publisher Thomas Thorpe issues Shake-speares Sonnets, with a dedication to "Mr. W.H.", and the poem A Lover's Complaint appended; it is uncertain whether this publication has Shakespeare's authority.
- May 23 – The Second Virginia Charter is officially ratified; it is intended to replace the council with a governor, who has absolute control in the colony.
- July – Samuel de Champlain claims the Lake Champlain area of Vermont, for the Kingdom of France.
- July 9 – Bohemia is granted freedom of religion (Letter of Majesty).
- July 10 – The German Catholic League is formed to counteract the Protestant Union.
- July 23 – A hurricane at sea separates the nine London Company's ships (600 more settlers) en route to relieve the Jamestown settlement; one ship sinks, and the Sea Venture is driven ashore at Bermuda on July 25, thus effectively first settling the colony.
- July 30 – At what is now Crown Point, New York, Samuel de Champlain participates in a battle between the Huron and Iroquois, shooting and killing two Iroquois chiefs; this helps set the tone for French–Iroquois relations for the next 100 years.
- August 25 – Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian officials.
- August 28 – Henry Hudson is the first European to see Delaware Bay.
- August – Seven ships arrive at the colony of Jamestown, Virginia, with 200–300 men, women, and children, reporting the Sea Venture wrecked near Bermuda.
- September 2 – Henry Hudson enters New York Bay, aboard the Halve Maen.
- September 10 – Jamestown: Capt. George Percy replaces Captain John Smith as president of the Council, and Smith returns to England.
- September 11 – Valencia expels all the Moriscos (see April 4).
- September 11–12 – Henry Hudson in the Halve Maen sails into Upper New York Bay, and begins a journey up the Hudson River.
- October 12 – A version of the rhyme Three Blind Mice is published in London. The editor, and possible author of the verse, is the teenage Thomas Ravenscroft.
- The Dutch East India Company imports tea to Europe.
- The Dutch East India Company establishes a trading post in Hirado, Japan.
- The Scrooby Congregation of Protestant English Separatists (predecessors of the Pilgrim Fathers) moves from Amsterdam to Leiden.
- Warsaw becomes the capital of Poland.
- The municipality of Buenavista in Marinduque, Philippines is founded.
- The Statutes of Iona are passed, marking the end of the bloody feuds between the clans in the Scottish Highlands.
- The Douay–Rheims Bible Old Testament translation from the Vulgate into English vol. 1 is published in Reims.
- English-born Sister Mary Ward founds the Sisters of Loreto at Saint-Omer, at this time in the Spanish Netherlands.
- Johannes Kepler publishes his first two laws of planetary motion in Astronomia nova.
- Cornelis Drebbel invents the thermostat.
- "Egyptians" (i.e., Romany people) are expelled from the Kingdom of Scotland.
- January 18
- January 20 – Carlo Ceresa, Italian painter (d. 1679)
- January 30 – Václav Eusebius František, Prince of Lobkowicz, Austrian field marshal and prince (d. 1677)
- February 10
- February 14 – Bartram de Fouchier, Dutch painter (d. 1673)
- February 18 – Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, English statesman and historian (d. 1674)
- February 21 – Raimondo Montecuccoli, Italian general (d. 1680)
- March 16
- March 18 – King Frederick III of Denmark (d. 1670)
- March 22 – John II Casimir of Poland (d. 1672)
- March 23 – Johann Heinrich Schönfeld, German artist (d. 1684)
- March 25 – Paul Fréart de Chantelou, French collector and patron of the arts (d. 1694)
- April 6 – Walter Aston, 2nd Lord Aston of Forfar, second and eldest surviving son of Walter Aston (d. 1678)
- April 15 – Richard Winwood, English politician (d. 1688)
- May 6 – Antonie Waterloo, Flemish painter (d. 1690)
- May 10 – Mauritia Eleonora of Portugal, Princess of Portugal and through marriage countess of Nassau-Siegen (d. 1674)
- June 2 – Zsófia Bosnyák, Hungarian noblewoman (d. 1644)
- June 17 – John of Hesse-Braubach, German general (d. 1651)
- June 29 – Pierre-Paul Riquet, French engineer and canal builder (d. 1680)
- July 17 – Wilhelm Gumppenberg, German Jesuit theologian (d. 1675)
- July 28 – Judith Leyster, Dutch painter (d. 1660)
- July 29 – Maria Gonzaga, Duchess of Montferrat, Italian noble (d. 1660)
- August 6 – Richard Bennett, British Colonial Governor of Virginia (d. 1675)
- August 21 – Jean Rotrou, French poet and tragedian (d. 1650)
- August 25 – Giovanni Battista Salvi da Sassoferrato (d. 1685)
- August 30
- September 3 – Raymond Breton, French missionary (d. 1679)
- September 19 (or 1605) – Thomas Gouge, English minister (d. 1681)
- October 5 – Paul Fleming, German physician and poet (d. 1640)
- October 8 – John Clarke, English physician (d. 1676)
- October 9 – Thomas Weston, 4th Earl of Portland, younger son of the Richard Weston (d. 1688)
- October 14 – Ernest Günther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein of its Sonderborg line (d. 1689)
- October 16 – Thomas Minors, English politician and merchant (d. 1677)
- October 18 – Josias von Rantzau, Marshal of France (d. 1650)
- October 19 – Gerrard Winstanley, English Protestant religious reformer (d. 1676)
- October 26 – William Sprague, English co-founder of Charlestown, Massachusetts (d. 1675)
- October 29 – Wadham Wyndham, English judge (d. 1668)
- November 1 – Matthew Hale, Lord Chief Justice of England (d. 1676)
- November 23 – Sophia Eleonore of Saxony, German duchess (d. 1671)
- November 25 – Henrietta Maria of France, queen of Charles I of England (d. 1669)
- November 26 – Henry Dunster, first President of Harvard College (d. 1659)
- December 6 – Nicholas Francis, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1670)
- December 11 – Alexander Cooper, English Baroque miniature painter (d. 1660)
- December 13 – Isbrand van Diemerbroeck, Dutch physician (d. 1674)
- December 24 – Philip Warwick, English writer and politician (d. 1683)
- December 30 – Anna Maria von Eggenberg, née Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Austrian noble (d. 1680)
- Luc d'Achery, French Benedictine (d. 1685)
- Samuel Cooper, English miniature painter (d. 1672)
- Alberich Mazak, Austrian composer (d. 1661)
- Elizabeth Isham, English diarist (d. 1654)
- Hannibal Sehested, Danish statesman (d. 1666)
- Thomas Greene, Colonial governor of Maryland (d. 1651)
- January – Thomas East, English printer (born c. 1540)
- January 9 – Joannes Bochius, civic officeholder and neo-Latin poet in the city of Antwerp (b. 1555)
- January 21 – Joseph Justus Scaliger, French Protestant scholar (b. 1540)
- February 17 – Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1549)
- February 28 – Paul Sartorius, German composer (b. 1569)
- March – James Hamilton, 3rd Earl of Arran (b. c. 1537)
- March 9 – William Warner, English poet (b. c. 1558)
- March 17 – Olaus Martini, Swedish Archbishop of Uppsala (b. 1557)
- March 22 – Al-Jilani, Persian physician
- March 25
- April 4 – Charles de L'Ecluse, Flemish botanist (b. 1526)
- April 6 – Merkelis Giedraitis, Lithuanian bishop (b. 1536)
- April 8 – Mark Kerr, 1st Earl of Lothian, Scottish statesman (b. 1553)
- April 9 – William Overton, English bishop (b. 1525)
- April 11 – John Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley, English Baron (b. 1533)
- April 14 – Gasparo da Salò (Gasparo Bertolotti), Italian violin maker(b. 1540)
- May 15 – Giovanni Croce, Italian composer (b. 1557)
- May 19
- June 15 – Yamada Arinobu, Japanese nobleman (b. 1544)
- July 15 – Annibale Carracci, Italian Baroque painter (b. 1560)
- July 20 – Federico Zuccari, Italian painter (b. 1543)
- August 4 – Cecily Bulstrode, English courtier (b. 1584)
- August 7 – Eustache Du Caurroy, French composer (b. 1549)
- August 6 – André du Laurens, French physician (b. 1558)
- August 28 – Francis Vere, English soldier (b. c. 1560)
- September 2 – Thomas Scrope, 10th Baron Scrope of Bolton, English general (b. 1567)
- September 3 – Jean Richardot, Belgian diplomat (b. 1540)
- September 17 – Maharal of Prague, Jewish mystic and philosopher (b. 1525)
- September 29 – Ebba Lilliehöök, Swedish countess (b. 1529)
- October 1 – Giammateo Asola, Italian composer (b. c. 1532)
- October 9 – John Leonardi, Italian founder of the Clerks Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca (b. 1541)
- October 16 – Dorothea Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst (b. 1587)
- October 19 – Jacobus Arminius, Dutch Reformed theologian (b. 1560)
- December – Barnabe Barnes, English poet (b. c. 1571)
- December 4 – Alexander Hume, Scottish poet (b. 1560)
- December 16 – Arild Huitfeldt, Danish historian (b. 1546)
- Muhammad Riaz (1992). Serials Management in Libraries. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 5. ISBN 978-81-7156-332-6.
- Hunter, Douglas (2009). Half Moon: Henry Hudson and the voyage that redrew the map of the New World. London: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 1-59691-680-X.
- Kenneth R. Lang (March 3, 2011). The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System. Cambridge University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-139-49417-5.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 238–243. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Nevius, Michelle; James (September 8, 2008). "New York's many 9/11 anniversaries: the Staten Island Peace Conference". Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Juet, Robert (1625). "Juet's Journal of Hudson's 1609 Voyage". In Purchas, Samuel (ed.). Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes. 4.
- In Deuteromelia or The Seconde part of Musicks melodie.
- Opie, Iona; Peter (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 306. ISBN 0-19-860088-7.
- Jerzy Jan Lerski; George J. Lerski; Halina T. Lerski (1996). Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-313-26007-0.
- Alexandre Koyré (January 1, 1992). The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus, Kepler, Borelli. Courier Corporation. p. 438. ISBN 978-0-486-27095-1.
- University of Nebraska (Lincoln campus). Graduate College (1953). Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations. University of Nebraska. p. 136.
- Richard Lawrence Ollard (1988). Clarendon and His Friends. Atheneum. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-689-11731-2.
- Encyclopedia Americana: Franco to Goethals. Scholastic Library Pub. 2006. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6.
- Frima Fox Hofrichter (1989). Judith Leyster: A Woman Painter in Holland's Golden Age. Davaco. p. 13. ISBN 978-90-70288-62-4.
- The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review. AMS Press. 1968. p. 594.
- Robert Chase (September 8, 2004). Dies Irae: A Guide to Requiem Music. Scarecrow Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-585-47162-4.
- Hugo Grotius (1995). Hugo Grotius, Ordinum Hollandiae AC Westfrisiae Pietas (1613): Critical Edition with English Translation and Commentary. BRILL. p. 16. ISBN 90-04-10385-6.
- D. L. Kirkpatrick (1991). Reference Guide to English Literature: Introductions ; Writers A-G. St. James Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-55862-078-0.