1706 (MDCCVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1706th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 706th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1706, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Monday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
|Ab urbe condita||2459|
|Balinese saka calendar||1627–1628|
|English Regnal year||4 Ann. 1 – 5 Ann. 1|
|Chinese calendar||乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)|
4402 or 4342
— to —
丙戌年 (Fire Dog)
4403 or 4343
|- Vikram Samvat||1762–1763|
|- Shaka Samvat||1627–1628|
|- Kali Yuga||4806–4807|
|Japanese calendar||Hōei 3|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||206 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2248–2249|
1832 or 1451 or 679
— to —
1833 or 1452 or 680
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1706.|
- March 27 – Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia has abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia.
- March 31 – The last Courts (parliament) of the Principality of Catalonia are finished; their dissolution is presided over by King Charles III of Spain.
- May 23 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Ramillies: English, Dutch, German, Swiss and Scottish troops led by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, defeat Franco-Bavarian forces in the Low Countries.
- July 22 – The Treaty of Union between Scotland and England is agreed upon in London, for ratification by the national legislatures.
- September 7 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Turin: Forces of Austria and Savoy defeat the French.
- October – Twinings founder, Thomas Twining, opens the first known tea room at 216 Strand, London, still open as of 2019[update].
- The English Parliament establishes the first turnpike trusts, which place a length of road under the control of trustees, drawn from local landowners and traders. The turnpike trusts borrow capital for road maintenance against the security of tolls, and this arrangement becomes the common method of road maintenance for the next 150 years.
- January 17 – Benjamin Franklin, American electriction, Founding Father and inventor (d. 1790)
- March 6 – Sir George Pocock, British admiral (d. 1792)
- January 17 – Johann Christoph Heilbronner, German mathematical historian (d. 1745 or 1747)
- April 24 – Giovanni Battista Martini, Italian musician (d. 1784)
- May 17 – Andreas Felix von Oefele, German historian and librarian (d. 1780)
- May 20 – Seth Pomeroy, American gunsmith and soldier (d. 1777)
- June 10 – John Dollond, English optician (d. 1761)
- October 18 – Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer (d. 1785)
- November 8 – Johann Ulrich von Cramer, German judge and philosopher (d. 1772)
- December 17 – Émilie du Châtelet, French mathematician and physicist (d. 1749)
- date unknown
- January 10 – Luisa Roldán, Spanish artist (b. 1652)
- January 17 – Sir John Lowther, 2nd Baronet, of Whitehaven, English politician (b. 1642)
- January 21 – Adrien Baillet, French scholar and critic (b. 1649)
- January 29 – Charles Sackville, 6th Earl of Dorset, English poet and courtier (b. 1638)
- February 5 – Pierre du Cambout de Coislin, French prelate (b. 1636)
- February 12 – Balthasar Kindermann, German poet (b. 1636)
- February 27 – John Evelyn, English writer, gardener and diarist (b. 1620)
- March 1 – Heino Heinrich Graf von Flemming, German field marshal and Governor of Berlin (b. 1632)
- March 3 – Johann Pachelbel, German composer (b. 1653)
- March 6 – García Felipe de Legazpi y Velasco Altamirano y Albornoz, Spanish Catholic prelate, Bishop of Tlaxcala (b. 1643)
- March 31 – Sultan Muhammad Akbar, Mughal prince (b. 1657)
- April 8 – Caspar Schamberger, German surgeon and merchant (b. 1623)
- April 10 – Arthur Chichester, 3rd Earl of Donegall, Irish soldier (b. 1666)
- April 12 – Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Berkshire, English earl and politician (b. 1619)
- April 25 – Thomas Hinckley, last colonial governor of Plymouth Colony (b. 1618)
- April 27 – Bernhard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1675–1706) (b. 1649)
- May 2 – Georg Joseph Kamel, Jesuit missionary and botanist (b. 1661)
- May 26 – Marcantonio Barbarigo, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and venerable (b. 1640)
- July 2 – Beatriz Kimpa Vita, Congolese prophet (b. 1684)
- July 9 – Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, French founder of the colony of Louisiana (b. 1661)
- August 6 – Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, French cleric and natural philosopher (b. 1624)
- August 23 – Edward Nott, British Colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1654)
- August 26 – Michael Willmann, German painter (b. 1630)
- September 1 – Cornelis de Man, Dutch painter (b. 1621)
- September 9 – Ferdinand de Marsin, Marshal of France (b. 1656)
- September 16 – Matthias Petersen, sea captain and whaler from the North Frisian island of Föhr (b. 1632)
- September 26 – Onofrio Gabrieli, Italian painter (b. 1619)
- October 13 – Iyasus I of Ethiopia (b. 1682)
- October 17 – William Jones, English lawyer, Deputy Governor of Connecticut (b. 1624)
- October 26 – Andreas Werckmeister, German organist, music theorist, and composer (b. 1645)
- November 9 – Peter Mews, English Royalist theologian and bishop (b. 1619)
- November 15 – Tsangyang Gyatso, 6th Dalai Lama (b. 1683)
- November 16 – Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest, Dutch admiral (b. 1642)
- November 20 – Sir Thomas Roberts, 4th Baronet, English politician (b. 1658)
- December 3 – Countess Emilie Juliane of Barby-Mühlingen, German noblewoman and hymn author (b. 1637)
- December 9 – King Peter II of Portugal (b. 1648)
- December 12 – Christian Louis, Count of Waldeck-Wildungen (1645–1692) and Count of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1692–1706) (b. 1635)
- December 28 – Pierre Bayle, French philosopher (b. 1647)
- Byerley Turk, thoroughbred stallion (b. c. 1684)
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 204–205. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "Icons, a portrait of England 1700-1750". Archived from the original on August 17, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
- Button, Henry G.; Lampert, Andrew P. (1976). The Guinness Book of the Business World. Enfield: Guinness Superlatives. ISBN 0-900424-32-X.
- "About Twinings - 216 Strand". Twinings. 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2015.