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1593 (MDXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1593rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 593rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 16th century, and the 4th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1593, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2346|
|Balinese saka calendar||1514–1515|
|English Regnal year||35 Eliz. 1 – 36 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||壬辰年 (Water Dragon)|
4289 or 4229
— to —
癸巳年 (Water Snake)
4290 or 4230
|- Vikram Samvat||1649–1650|
|- Shaka Samvat||1514–1515|
|- Kali Yuga||4693–4694|
|Japanese calendar||Bunroku 2|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||319 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2135–2136|
1719 or 1338 or 566
— to —
1720 or 1339 or 567
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1593.|
- January – Siege of Pyongyang (1593): A Japanese invasion is defeated in Pyongyang, by a combined force of Korean and Ming troops.
- January 18 – Siamese King Naresuan, in combat on elephant back, kills Burmese Crown Prince Mingyi Swa on Monday, Moon 2 Waning day 2, Year of the Dragon, Chulasakarat 954, reckoned as corresponding to January 25, 1593, of the Gregorian calendar, and commemorated as Royal Thai Armed Forces Day.
- January 27 – The Roman Inquisition opens the seven-year trial of scholar Giordano Bruno.
- February 2 – Battle of Piątek: Polish forces led by Janusz Ostrogski are victorious.
- February 12 – Battle of Haengju: Korea defeats Japan.
- March 7 (February 25 Old Style) – The Uppsala Synod discontinues; the Liturgical Struggle between the Swedish Reformation and Counter-Reformation ends in Sweden.
- March 14 – The Pi Day, giving the most digits of Pi when written in mm/dd/yyyy format (Flemish mathematician Adriaan van Roomen arrived at 15 decimal places of Pi in 1593, using the polygon approximation method).
- May 18 – Playwright Thomas Kyd's accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe.
- June 22 – Battle of Sisak in Croatia: The Habsburgs defeat the Ottoman Empire.
- July 29 – The Long War breaks out in Hungary, between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.
- Mihai Viteazul becomes prince of Walachia.
- Henry Constable's Spiritual Sonnetts are written.
- The book Controversiae is written by Robert Bellarmine.
- c. 1593-1604 – According to John Warwick Montgomery, the Rosicrucian manifestos are initially composed by Tobias Hess, in anticipation of the opening of the vault in 1604, according to Simon Studion's apocalyptic timetable.
- Khwaja Usman takes shelter in Goyghor Mosque after the Afghan rebellion against the Subahdar of Mughal Bengal, Man Singh I.
- January 1 – Sun Chuanting, Ming Dynasty general (d. 1643)
- January 10 – Prince Maurice of Savoy, Catholic cardinal and Prince of Savoy (d. 1657)
- February 8 – Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, French Catholic Cardinal (d. 1639)
- February 24 – Henry de Vere, 18th Earl of Oxford, English noble (d. 1625)
- March 1 – Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg, German Catholic cardinal (d. 1661)
- March 13 – Georges de La Tour, French Baroque painter (d. 1652)
- March 20 – Jean de La Haye, French preacher and biblical scholar (d. 1661)
- March 22 – Johann Ulrich Steigleder, German composer (d. 1635)
- March 25 – Jean de Brébeuf, French Jesuit missionary who travelled to Canada in 1625 (d. 1649)
- April – Mumtaz Mahal, Queen of India (d. 1631)
- April 3 – George Herbert, Welsh-born English poet (d. 1633)
- April 4 – Edward Nicholas, English statesman (d. 1669)
- April 12 – Nicholas Martyn, English politician (d. 1653)
- April 13 – Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, English statesman (d. 1641)
- April 19 – Sir John Hobart, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1647)
- April 27 – Jérôme Lalemant, French Jesuit priest and missionary to Canada (d. 1673)
- May 2
- May 5 – Cesare Monti, Italian cardinal, Archbishop of Milan (d. 1650)
- May 19
- June 3 – Richard Knightley, English politician (d. 1639)
- June 8 – George I Rákóczi, Hungarian prince of Transylvania (d. 1648)
- June 22 – Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, Parliamentarian politician and military figure in the English Civil War (d. 1671)
- June 23 – Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (d. 1650)
- June 24 – Abraham von Franckenberg, German writer (d. 1652)
- July 5 – Achille d'Étampes de Valençay, Knight of Malta (d. 1646)
- July 8
- July 20 – Henry Ernest, Count of Stolberg, then count of Stolberg-Ilsenburg (d. 1672)
- July 30 – William, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1596–1677) (d. 1677)
- August 9 – Izaak Walton, English writer (d. 1683)
- August 12 – Jonathan Brewster, American settler (d. 1659)
- August 30 – Noël Juchereau, Quebec pioneer (d. 1648)
- September 5 – Orazio Riminaldi, Italian painter (d. 1630)
- September 8 – Toyotomi Hideyori, Japanese nobleman (d. 1615)
- September 20 – Gottfried Scheidt, German composer (d. 1661)
- September 22 – A. Matthäus Merian, Swiss cartographer (d. 1650)
- September 26 – Francis Osborne, English writer (d. 1659)
- October 6 – Jobst Herman, Count of Schaumburg (d. 1635)
- October 9 – Nicolaes Tulp, Dutch anatomist and politician (d. 1674)
- October 13 – Sixtinus Amama, Dutch Reformed theologian and orientalist (d. 1629)
- October 23 – Michael Warton, English politician (d. 1645)
- October 27 – Christoffer Urne, Governor General of Norway (d. 1663)
- November 1 – Abel Servien, French diplomat (d. 1659)
- November 25 – Alain de Solminihac, French bishop and beatified person (d. 1659)
- December 5 – Liborius Wagner, German Roman Catholic priest (d. 1631)
- December 11 – Sir William Airmine, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1651)
- December 12
- Leonardo Agostini, Italian antiquary (d. 1685)
- Louis Barbier, French bishop (d. 1670)
- William Fitz-Shakespeare, William Shakespeare's son (d. 1630?)
- Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford (d. 1641)
- Miguel de Ayatumo, Filipino Jesuit seminarian (d. 1609)
- Claudia Rusca, Italian composer, singer, and organist (d. 1676)
- Mervyn Tuchet, 2nd Earl of Castlehaven (d. 1631)
- Anthony van Diemen, Dutch merchant (d. 1645)
- Jerónimo Lobo, Portuguese Jesuit missionary (d. 1678)
- Mikołaj Ostroróg, Polish nobleman (d. 1651)
- Sir George Radcliffe, English politician (d. 1657)
- Kimura Shigenari, Japanese samurai (d. 1615)
- Giovanni Battista Pacetti, Italian painter (d. 1630)
- January 11 – Scipione Gonzaga, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1542)
- February 6
- March 8 – Paul Luther, German scientist (b. 1533)
- March 23 – Henry Barrowe, English Puritan and separatist (b. 1550)
- April 6 – John Greenwood, English Puritan and separatist (hanged)
- May 29 – John Penry, Welsh Protestant martyr (b. 1559)
- May 30 – Christopher Marlowe, English poet and playwright (b. 1564)
- June 3 – Katarina Bengtsdotter Gylta, Swedish abbess (b. 1520)
- June 25 – Michele Mercati, Italian physician and botanist (b. 1541)
- July 4 – Min Phalaung, Burmese monarch (b. 1535)
- July 11 – Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Italian painter (b. 1527)
- September 5 – Andreas von Auersperg, Carniolan noble and military commander in the battle of Sisak (b. 1556)
- September 25 – Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby (b. 1531)
- October 25 – Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas, Spanish colonial administrator (b. 1519)
- November 11 – Albert, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (b. 1537)
- November 20 – Hans Bol, Flemish artist (b. 1534)
- date unknown