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|Ab urbe condita||2284|
|Balinese saka calendar||1452–1453|
|English Regnal year||22 Hen. 8 – 23 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)|
4227 or 4167
— to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
4228 or 4168
|- Vikram Samvat||1587–1588|
|- Shaka Samvat||1452–1453|
|- Kali Yuga||4631–4632|
|Japanese calendar||Kyōroku 4|
|Minguo calendar||381 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2073–2074|
1657 or 1276 or 504
— to —
1658 or 1277 or 505
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1531.|
- January 26 – Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake, in which thousands die.
- February 27 – Lutheran princes in the Holy Roman Empire form an alliance known as the Schmalkaldic League.
- February or March – Battle of Antukyah: Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi of the Adal Sultanate defeats the Ethiopian army.
- April – Battle of Puná: Francisco Pizarro defeats the island's native inhabitants.
- April 16 – The city of Puebla, Mexico, is founded.
- May – The third Dalecarlian rebellion in Sweden appears to be over, when the king accepts an offer made by the rebels, but violence flares up again the following year.
- June 24 – The city of San Juan del Río, Mexico, is founded.
- July 25 – The city of Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico is founded.
- August 26 – Comet Halley achieves its perihelion.
- September 22 – Battle of Obertyn: The Moldavians are defeated by Polish forces under Jan Tarnowski, allowing the Poles to recapture Pokucie.
- October 11 – Battle of Kappel: The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. Huldrych Zwingli, the Swiss religious reformer, is killed.
- October 28 – Battle of Amba Sel: Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi again defeats the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia. The southern part of Ethiopia thus falls under Imam Ahmad's control.
- December 9 – The Virgin of Guadalupe first appears to Juan Diego at Tepeyac, Mexico City.
- December 12 – Mary, mother of Jesus, in the guise of Our Lady of Guadalupe, appears imprinted on the tilmàtli of Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, an Aztec convert to Catholicism, in Tepeyac near Mexico City.
- Andrea Alciato publishes the first part of his Emblemata.
- Conquistador Francisco de Montejo claims Chichen Itza as capital of Spanish-ruled Yucatán.
- The University of Sarajevo is founded by Gazi Husrev-beg.
- Kõpu Lighthouse is completed.
- An enormous drought in Henan province, China, coupled with a gigantic swarm of locusts in the summer, forces many in destitute agricultural communities to turn to cannibalism instead of dying by starvation.
- Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor abolishes the worst abuses of the encomienda system, by pressure of Bartolomé de las Casas.
- A witch-hunt is conducted in the town of Schiltach, Germany.
- January 26 – Jens Bille, Danish son of Claus Bille and Lisbeth Ulfstand (d. 1575)
- April 6 – Wolfgang, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (d. 1595)
- May 15 – Maria of Austria, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I (d. 1581)
- May 20 – Viceroy Thado Minsaw of Ava (d. 1584)
- June 1 – János Zsámboky, Hungarian scholar (d. 1584)
- July 17 – Antoine de Créqui Canaples, French Catholic cardinal (d. 1574)
- July 22 – Leonhard Thurneysser, German scholar and quack at the court of John George, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1595)
- September 2 – Francesco Cattani da Diacceto, Bishop of Fiesole (d. 1595)
- September 4 – Hans Fugger, German businessman (d. 1598)
- September 14 – Philipp Apian, German mathematician and medic (d. 1589)
- Late September – Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby, English noble and diplomat (d. 1594)
- October 7 – Scipione Ammirato, Italian historian (d. 1601)
- October 12 – Jacques de Savoie, 2nd Duc de Nemours (d. 1585)
- October 25 – Matthew Wesenbeck, Belgian jurist (d. 1586)
- October 27 – Herbert Duifhuis, Dutch minister (d. 1581)
- November 14 – Richard Topcliffe, English torturer (d. 1604)
- November 16 – Anna d'Este, duchess consort of Nemours (d. 1607)
- November 18 – Roberto di Ridolfi, Italian conspirator against Elizabeth I of England (d. 1612)
- November 29 – Johannes Letzner, German Protestant priest and historian (d. 1613)
- December – Hendrick van Brederode, Dutch noble (d. 1568)
- December 6 – Vespasiano I Gonzaga, Italian noble and diplomat (d. 1591)
- December 9 – Şehzade Cihangir, Ottoman prince (d. 1553)
- December 10 – Henry IX, Count of Waldeck (d. 1577)
- date unknown
- January 14 – Walraven II van Brederode, Dutch noble (b. 1462)
- January 31 – Edward Sutton, 2nd Baron Dudley (b. 1460)
- February 16 – Johannes Stöffler, German mathematician (b. 1452)
- March 6 – Pedrarias Dávila, Spanish colonial administrator (b. c. 1440)
- May 19 – Jan Łaski, Polish statesman and diplomat (b. 1456)
- May 20 – Guy XVI, Count of Laval (b. 1476)
- May 10 – George I, Duke of Pomerania from the House of Griffins (b. 1493)
- July 7 – Tilman Riemenschneider, German sculptor (b. 1460)
- July 17 – Hosokawa Takakuni, Japanese military commander (b. 1484)
- July 23 – Louis de Brézé, seigneur d'Anet, Marshal of Normandy and husband of Diane de Poitiers
- August 30 – Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 3rd Duke of the Infantado, Spanish noble (b. 1461)
- September 16 – Lorenzo Pucci, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1458)
- September 22 – Louise of Savoy, French regent (b. 1476)
- October 11 – Huldrych Zwingli, Swiss reformer (in battle) (b. 1484)
- November 24 – Johannes Oecolampadius, German religious reformer (b. 1482)
- November 28 – Hedwig of Münsterberg-Oels, German noble (b. 1508)
- December 1 – Maud Green, English noble (b. 1492)
- date unknown
- probable – Fernan Perez de Oliva, Spanish man of letters (b. 1492)