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|Ab urbe condita||2243|
|Balinese saka calendar||1411–1412|
|English Regnal year||5 Hen. 7 – 6 Hen. 7|
|Chinese calendar||己酉年 (Earth Rooster)|
4186 or 4126
— to —
庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
4187 or 4127
|- Vikram Samvat||1546–1547|
|- Shaka Samvat||1411–1412|
|- Kali Yuga||4590–4591|
|Japanese calendar||Entoku 2|
|Minguo calendar||422 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2032–2033|
1616 or 1235 or 463
— to —
1617 or 1236 or 464
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1490.|
- January 4 – Anne of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the king of France, will be considered as guilty of the crime of Lèse-majesté.
- March 13 – Charles II becomes Duke of Savoy at age 1; his mother Blanche of Montferrato is regent.
- March or April – 1490 Ch'ing-yang event, a presumed meteor shower or air burst over Qingyang in Ming dynasty China, said to have caused casualties.
- July 13 – John of Kastav finishes a cycle of frescoes in the Holy Trinity Church, Hrastovlje (modern-day southwestern Slovenia).
- November 20 – First edition of the chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch by Joanot Martorell printed in Valencia.
- December 19 – Anne of Brittany is married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor by proxy.
- Ashikaga Yoshitane becomes shōgun of Japan.
- Perkin Warbeck claims to be the son of King Edward IV of England, at the court of Burgundy.
- Traditional date of the Battle of Glendale (Skye) between the Scottish clans MacDonald and MacLeod.
- Catholic missionaries arrive in the African Kingdom of Kongo.
- Pêro da Covilhã arrives in Ethiopia.
- Regular postal service connects the Habsburg residences of Mechelen and Innsbruck, the first in Germany.
- Leonardo da Vinci observes capillary action, in small-bore tubes.
- Leonardo da Vinci develops an oil lamp: the flame is enclosed in a glass tube, placed inside a water-filled glass globe.
- All Saints' Church, the Schlosskirche in Wittenberg, is begun.
- Chinese scholar and printer Hua Sui invents bronze-metal movable type printing in China, although the earlier Wang Zhen had experimented with tin movable type in 1298.
- Tirant lo Blanch, by Joanot Martorell and Martí Joan de Galba, is published.
- Aldus Manutius moves to Venice.
- John Colet receives his M.A. from Magdalen College, Oxford.
- Johann Reuchlin meets Giovanni Pico della Mirandola.
- Merchants carry coffee from Yemen to Mecca (approximate date).
- February 14 – Valentin Friedland, German scholar and educator of the Reformation (d. 1556)
- February 17 – Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, French military leader (d. 1527)
- March 6 – Fridolin Sicher, Swiss composer (d. 1546)
- March 22 – Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, Italian noble (d. 1538)
- March 24 – Giovanni Salviati, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1553)
- April – Vittoria Colonna, Italian poet (d. 1547)
- April 4 – Vojtěch I of Pernstein, Bohemian nobleman (d. 1534)
- May 17 – Albert, Duke of Prussia, last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (d. 1568)
- June 28 – Albert of Mainz, German elector and archbishop (d. 1545)
- July 25 – Amalie of the Palatinate, Duchess consort of Pomerania (d. 1524)
- August 5 – Andrey of Staritsa, son of Ivan III "the Great" of Russia (d. 1537)
- September 23 – Johann Heß, German theologian (d. 1547)
- October – Olaus Magnus, Swedish ecclesiastic and writer (d. 1557)
- October 12 – Bernardo Pisano, Italian composer (d. 1548)
- November 10 – John III, Duke of Cleves (d. 1539)
- December 25 – Francesco Marinoni, Italian Roman Catholic priest (d. 1562)
- December 26 – Friedrich Myconius, German Lutheran theologian (d. 1546)
- December 30 – Ebussuud Efendi, Ottoman Grand Mufti (d. 1574)
- approx. date – Properzia de' Rossi, Italian Renaissance sculptor (d. 1530)
- date unknown
- Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, Scottish noble (d. 1556)
- Luca Ghini, Italian physician and botanist (d. 1566)
- Bars Bolud Jinong, Mongol Khagan (d. 1531)
- Argula von Grumbach, German Protestant reformer (d. 1564)
- Jean Salmon Macrin, French poet (d. 1557)
- Caspar Schwenckfeld, German theologian (d. 1561)
- Anna Bielke, Swedish noble and commander (d. 1525)
- David Reubeni, Jewish political activist and mystic (d. 1541)
- Wijerd Jelckama, Frisian rebel and warlord (d. 1523)
- Adriaen Isenbrandt, Flemish painter (d. 1551)
- Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich, Lord Chancellor of England (d. 1567)
- María de Toledo, Vicereine and regent of the Spanish Colony of Santo Domingo (d. 1549)
- John Taverner, English composer and organist (d. 1545)
- María de Salinas, Lady Willoughby, Spanish lady-in-waiting and friend to Catherine of Aragon
- Quilago, queen regnant of the Cochasquí in Ecuador (d. 1515)
- January 27 – Ashikaga Yoshimasa, Japanese shōgun (b. 1435)
- March 6 – Ivan the Young, Ruler of Tver (b. 1458)
- March 13 – Charles I, Duke of Savoy (b. 1468)
- April 6 – King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (b. 1443)
- May 12 – Joanna, Portuguese Roman Catholic blessed and regent (b. 1452)
- May 22 – Edmund Grey, 1st Earl of Kent (b. 1416)
- August 11 – Frans van Brederode, Dutch rebel leader (b. 1465)
- date unknown