The 1590s decade ran from January 1, 1590, to December 31, 1599.

Events

1590

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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1591

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1592

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1593

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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  • July 25 – As he promised in January, Henry IV of France abjures Protestantism at the Basilica of Saint-Denis.[62] Legend attributes to him the saying Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a mass").[63]
  • July 29 – The Long War breaks out in Hungary between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.
  • August 3 – Poland's council of nobles, the Sejm, grants permission to King Sigismund III Vasa and his wife, Queen consort Anne, to travel to Sweden to claim the Swedish crown.
  • August 24 – After losing the Battle of Sisak two months earlier, the Ottoman Empire attacks the Austrian fortress guarding the city and breaks through its walls with cannon fire, forcing its surrender on August 30.
  • September 10 – With no fortress or troops to defend Croatia, Ottoman General Mehmed Pasha captures the city of Sisak. Selânikî Mustafa Efendi, Tarih-i Selânikî (Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1999)

October–December

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1594

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1595

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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  • October 26Battle of Giurgiu: Michael the Brave, led by Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory, again defeats the Turkish army led by Sinan Pasha, pushing them on the east side of the Danube.
  • October 30 – The surviving members of Spain's Mendaña expedition to Santa Cruz, including Mendaña's widow Isabel Barreto, decide to abandon the Santa Cruz colony in the South Pacific.
  • November 7 – Portuguese explorer Sebastião Rodrigues Soromenho, who had departed from the Philippines on the ship San Agustin on July 5 with cargo of Asian silk, porcelain, and almost 100 passengers and crew, drops anchor at Drakes Bay in what is now the U.S. state of California. [94] He and some of his crew come ashore, where they are greeted by Native Americans. A gale in a few weeks later sinks the San Agustin, killing at least 7 people and ruining the ship's cargo. The crew salvages a launch that they had brought with them.
  • November 8 – The Battle of Guadalupe Island is fought between nine English Navy warships (led by Sir Francis Drake) and eight Spanish frigates off in the North Atlantic Ocean. The Spanish force wins the battle, capturing one ship and killing 45 English sailors. Both sets of ships proceed toward Puerto Rico.
  • November 9 – In India, Prince Man Singh I, Maharaja of Amber within the Mughal Empire, becomes the Mughal Governor (subahdar) of Bengal in what is now Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. He lays the foundations of a new capital of Bengal, Akbarnagar (now Rajmahal, Jharkhand state). [95]
  • November 17 – In the remodeling of the Church of Saint Sylvester in Rome, the ashes of Pope Anterus are discovered almost 1,360 years after his death. Anterus had served as Pope for six weeks before dying on January 3, 236. [96]
  • November 18 – The settlers of the first attempt to create a European colony in the South Pacific depart from Santa Cruz Island on three surviving ships, the San Geronimo, the San Felipe and the Santa Catalina (which disappears during the attempt to return home). Despite the lack of navigation charts, navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós brings the San Geronimo and the San Felipe back to Manila Bay, arriving on February 11 after 12 weeks and the deaths of 50 passengers.
  • November 22 – The Battle of San Juan is fought off of the island of Puerto Rico as an English fleet of 27 ships and 2,500 men, led by Francis Drake, attempts to invade the Spanish colony. In a three-day battle, the English lose at least eight ships and 400 men, including Admiral John Hawkins. Drake's fleet withdraws and attempts to conquer Panama. [97]
  • December 8 – A group of 80 people from the sunken ship San Agustin, are able to leave California on the launch which they had brought along, which they name the San Buenaventura. The group sails past San Francisco Bay and arrives at Chacala in Mexico on January 17. [94]
  • December 9 – What is probably the first performance of William Shakespeare's play, Richard II, takes place in London.
  • December 14 – Sultan Murad, 4th son of Emperor Akbar of the Mughal Empire invades Ahmednagar Sultanate which is defended by Chand Bibi.

Date unknown

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1596

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1597

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1598

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1599

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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Births

1590

 
Emperor Ahmed I
 
Pope Clement X

1591

 
Guercino
 
Michael de Sanctis

1592

 
Emperor Shah Jahan born on January 15
 
Sir John Eliot born on April 11
 
Francis Quarles born on May 8
 
Emperor Hong Taiji born on November 28

1593

 
Saint Jean de Brebeuf
 
Catherine de' Medici, Governor of Siena
 
Cesare Monti
 
Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg
 
William, Margrave of Baden-Baden
 
Sixtinus Amama
 
Liborius Wagner

1594

 
Maria Tesselschade Visscher
 
King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

1595

 
Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
Jan Marek Marci
 
Guru Hargobind
 
Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł

1596

 
Jan van Goyen
 
René Descartes
 
Emperor Go-Mizunoo

1597

 
Henry Gage
 
Justus Sustermans

1598

 
Maarten Tromp
 
Gian Lorenzo Bernini

1599

 
Saint John Berchmans
 
Oliver Cromwell

Deaths

1590

 
Saint Catherine de Ricci
 
Pope Sixtus V
 
Pope Urban VII

Bernard Palissy, French potter (b. 1510)

1591

 
Pope Gregory XIV
 
John of the Cross
 
Pope Innocent IX

1592

 
Saint Paschal Baylon died on May 17, 1592
 
King John III of Sweden died on November 17, 1592

1593

 
Emperor Ogimachi
 
The Marlowe portrait, often claimed to be Christopher Marlowe, playwright

1594

 
Tintoretto
 
Martin Frobisher
 
Gerardus Mercator

1595

 
Murad III
 
Torquato Tasso
 
Saint Philip Neri
 
Magnus, Duke of Östergötland
 
Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople
 
Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira

1596

 
Sir Francis Drake
 
Hattori Hanzō

1597

 
Willem Barentsz
 
Edward Kelley
 
Saint Peter Canisius

1598

 
Tsar Feodor I of Russia
 
King Philip II of Spain
 
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
 
Yi Sun-sin

1599

 
Cornelis de Houtman
 
Andrew Báthory

References

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  132. ^ Samuel Hawley, The Imjin War (Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch/UC Berkeley Press, 2005) p.531
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